Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10239

Search results for: rational design

10239 Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers and Its Effects on Pupils Achievement of Rational Numbers

Authors: Raliatu Mohammed Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigated primary school teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers to determine how it effects on pupil’s achievement on rational number. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual and procedural knowledge about rational number and its effects on their pupils understanding of rational number in primary school was explored. The study was carried out in Bauchi state of Nigeria, Using a multistage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test post-test only quasi experiment design. The population of the study comprises of six mathematics teachers holding the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and their two hundred and ten pupils in intact class. Two instrument namely Conceptual and Procedural knowledge Test (CPKT) and Rational number Achievement Test (RAT) were used for data collection. Data collected was analyzed using ANCOVA and Scheffe’s Test. The result revealed a significant differences between pupils taught by teachers with high conceptual and procedural knowledge and those target by teachers with low conceptual and procedural knowledge.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, rational numbers, multistage design

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10238 Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Number and Its Effects on Pupils’ Achievement in Rational Numbers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigated primary school teachers’ conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers and its effects on pupil’s achievement in rational numbers. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual knowledge about rational numbers, primary school teachers’ level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers, and the effects of teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge on their pupils understanding of rational numbers in primary schools is investigated. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in the Bauchi state of Nigeria. The design of the study was a multi-stage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test, post-test only quasi-experimental design. Two instruments were used for the data collection in the study. These were Conceptual and Procedural knowledge test (CPKT) and Rational number achievement test (RAT), the population of the study comprises of three (3) mathematics teachers’ holders of Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and 210 pupils in their intact classes were used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and t- test. The findings indicated that the pupils taught rational number by a teacher that has high conceptual and procedural knowledge understand and perform better than the pupil taught by a teacher who has low conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers in primary schools should be encouraged to enrich their conceptual knowledge of rational numbers. Also, the superiority performance of teachers in procedural knowledge in rational number should not become an obstruction of understanding. Teachers Conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers should be balanced so that primary school pupils will have a view of better teaching and learning of rational number in our contemporary schools.

Keywords: conceptual, procedural knowledge, rational number, pupils

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10237 A Note on Decidability Structure of Rational Numbers in Different Languages

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the theories of rational numbers in different languages, and we will review the rational number and their properties. A theory T is decidable if there exists an effective procedure to determine whether T ⊢ ϕ where ϕ is any sentence of the language. Quantifier elimination is a very powerful property, as it helps in the proof of decidability. To prove the decidability of the theory of rational numbers in different languages, we will show that these theories supports quantifier elimination.

Keywords: decidability, model theory, quantifier elimination, rational number

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10236 The Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers in Primary School Teachers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigates the conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number in primary school teachers, specifically, the primary school teachers level of conceptual knowledge about rational number and the primary school teachers level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in Bauchi state of Nigeria. A Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Test was used as the instrument for data collection, 54 mathematics teachers in Bauchi primary schools were involved in the study. The collections were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the primary school mathematics teachers in Bauchi metropolis posses a low level of conceptual knowledge of rational number and also possess a high level of Procedural knowledge of rational number. It is therefore recommended that to be effective, teachers teaching mathematics most posses a deep understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge. That way the most knowledgeable teachers in mathematics deliver highly effective rational number instructions. Teachers should not ignore the mathematical concept aspect of rational number teaching. This is because only the procedural aspect of Rational number is highlighted during instructions; this often leads to rote - learning of procedures without understanding the meanings. It is necessary for teachers to learn rational numbers teaching method that focus on both conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge teaching.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, primary school teachers, procedural knowledge, rational numbers

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10235 Monotone Rational Trigonometric Interpolation

Authors: Uzma Bashir, Jamaludin Md. Ali

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the visualization of monotone data using a piece-wise C1 rational trigonometric interpolating scheme. Four positive shape parameters are incorporated in the structure of rational trigonometric spline. Conditions on two of these parameters are derived to attain the monotonicity of monotone data and other two are left-free. Figures are used widely to exhibit that the proposed scheme produces graphically smooth monotone curves.

Keywords: trigonometric splines, monotone data, shape preserving, C1 monotone interpolant

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10234 Generating Arabic Fonts Using Rational Cubic Ball Functions

Authors: Fakharuddin Ibrahim, Jamaludin Md. Ali, Ahmad Ramli

Abstract:

In this paper, we will discuss about the data interpolation by using the rational cubic Ball curve. To generate a curve with a better and satisfactory smoothness, the curve segments must be connected with a certain amount of continuity. The continuity that we will consider is of type G1 continuity. The conditions considered are known as the G1 Hermite condition. A simple application of the proposed method is to generate an Arabic font satisfying the required continuity.

Keywords: data interpolation, rational ball curve, hermite condition, continuity

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10233 Energy Efficient Plant Design Approaches: Case Study of the Sample Building of the Energy Efficiency Training Facilities

Authors: Idil Kanter Otcu

Abstract:

Nowadays, due to the growing problems of energy supply and the drastic reduction of natural non-renewable resources, the development of new applications in the energy sector and steps towards greater efficiency in energy consumption are required. Since buildings account for a large share of energy consumption, increasing the structural density of buildings causes an increase in energy consumption. This increase in energy consumption means that energy efficiency approaches to building design and the integration of new systems using emerging technologies become necessary in order to curb this consumption. As new systems for productive usage of generated energy are developed, buildings that require less energy to operate, with rational use of resources, need to be developed. One solution for reducing the energy requirements of buildings is through landscape planning, design and application. Requirements such as heating, cooling and lighting can be met with lower energy consumption through planting design, which can help to achieve more efficient and rational use of resources. Within this context, rather than a planting design which considers only the ecological and aesthetic features of plants, these considerations should also extend to spatial organization whereby the relationship between the site and open spaces in the context of climatic elements and planting designs are taken into account. In this way, the planting design can serve an additional purpose. In this study, a landscape design which takes into consideration location, local climate morphology and solar angle will be illustrated on a sample building project.

Keywords: energy efficiency, landscape design, plant design, xeriscape landscape

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10232 Cryptography Over Sextic Extension with Cubic Subfield

Authors: A. Chillali, M. Sahmoudi

Abstract:

In this paper we will give a method for encoding the elements of the ring of integers of sextic extension, namely L = Q(a,b) which is a rational quadratic over cubic field K =Q(a ) where a^{2} is a rational square free integer and b is a root of irreducible polynomiale of degree 3.

Keywords: coding, integral bases, sextic, quadratic

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10231 Improvement of the Numerical Integration's Quality in Meshless Methods

Authors: Ahlem Mougaida, Hedi Bel Hadj Salah

Abstract:

Several methods are suggested to improve the numerical integration in Galerkin weak form for Meshless methods. In fact, integrating without taking into account the characteristics of the shape functions reproduced by Meshless methods (rational functions, with compact support etc.), causes a large integration error that influences the PDE’s approximate solution. Comparisons between different methods of numerical integration for rational functions are discussed and compared. The algorithms are implemented in Matlab. Finally, numerical results were presented to prove the efficiency of our algorithms in improving results.

Keywords: adaptive methods, meshless, numerical integration, rational quadrature

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10230 A Rational Intelligent Agent to Promote Metacognition a Situation of Text Comprehension

Authors: Anass Hsissi, Hakim Allali, Abdelmajid Hajami

Abstract:

This article presents the results of a doctoral research which aims to integrate metacognitive dimension in the design of human learning computing environments (ILE). We conducted a detailed study on the relationship between metacognitive processes and learning, specifically their positive impact on the performance of learners in the area of reading comprehension. Our contribution is to implement methods, using an intelligent agent based on BDI paradigm to ensure intelligent and reliable support for low readers, in order to encourage regulation and a conscious and rational use of their metacognitive abilities.

Keywords: metacognition, text comprehension EIAH, autoregulation, BDI agent

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10229 The Principle of Methodological Rationality and Security of Organisations

Authors: Jan Franciszek Jacko

Abstract:

This investigation presents the principle of methodological rationality of decision making and discusses the impact of an organisation's members' methodologically rational or irrational decisions on its security. This study formulates and partially justifies some research hypotheses regarding the impact. The thinking experiment is used according to Max Weber's ideal types method. Two idealised situations("models") are compared: Model A, whereall decision-makers follow methodologically rational decision-making procedures. Model B, in which these agents follow methodologically irrational decision-making practices. Analysing and comparing the two models will allow the formulation of some research hypotheses regarding the impact of methodologically rational and irrational attitudes of members of an organisation on its security. In addition to the method, phenomenological analyses of rationality and irrationality are applied.

Keywords: methodological rationality, rational decisions, security of organisations, philosophy of economics

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10228 Rational Bureaucracy and E-Government: A Philosophical Study of Universality of E-Government

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

Hegel is the first great political philosopher who specifically contemplates on bureaucracy. For Hegel bureaucracy is the function of the state. Since state, essentially is a rational organization, its function; namely, bureaucracy must be rational. Since, what is rational is universal; Hegel had to explain how the bureaucracy could be understood as universal. Hegel discusses bureaucracy in his treatment of ‘executive power’. He analyses modern bureaucracy as a form of political organization, its constituent members, and its relation to the social environment. Therefore, the essence of bureaucracy in Hegel’s philosophy is the implementation of law and rules. Hegel argues that unlike the other social classes that are particular because they look for their own private interest, bureaucracy as a class is a ‘universal’ because their orientation is the interest of the state. State for Hegel is essentially rational and universal. It is the actualization of ‘objective Spirit’. Marx criticizes Hegel’s argument on the universality of state and bureaucracy. For Marx state is equal to bureaucracy, it constitutes a social class that based on the interest of bourgeois class that dominates the society and exploits proletarian class. Therefore, the main disagreement between these political philosophers is: whether the state (bureaucracy) is universal or particular. Growing e-government in modern state as an important aspect of development leads us to contemplate on the particularity and universality of e-government. In this article, we will argue that e-government essentially is universal. E-government, in itself, is impartial; therefore, it cannot be particular. The development of e-government eliminates many side effects of the private, personal or particular interest of the individuals who work as bureaucracy. Finally, we will argue that more a state is developed more it is universal. Therefore, development of e-government makes the state a more universal and affects the modern philosophical debate on the particularity or universality of bureaucracy and state.

Keywords: particularity, universality, rational bureaucracy, impartiality

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10227 Product Form Bionic Design Based on Eye Tracking Data: A Case Study of Desk Lamp

Authors: Huan Lin, Liwen Pang

Abstract:

In order to reduce the ambiguity and uncertainty of product form bionic design, a product form bionic design method based on eye tracking is proposed. The eye-tracking experiment is designed to calculate the average time ranking of the specific parts of the bionic shape that the subjects are looking at. Key bionic shape is explored through the experiment and then applied to a desk lamp bionic design. During the design case, FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierachy Process) and SD (Semantic Differential) method are firstly used to identify consumer emotional perception model toward desk lamp before product design. Through investigating different desk lamp design elements and consumer views, the form design factors on the desk lamp product are reflected and all design schemes are sequenced after caculation. Desk lamp form bionic design method is combined the key bionic shape extracted from eye-tracking experiment and priority of desk lamp design schemes. This study provides an objective and rational method to product form bionic design.

Keywords: Bionic design; Form; Eye tracking; FAHP; Desk lamp

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10226 Study of Corrosion in Structures due to Chloride Infiltration

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai, Akku Aby Mathews

Abstract:

Corrosion in reinforcing steel is the leading cause for deterioration in concrete structures. It is an electrochemical process which leads to volumetric change in concrete and causes cracking, delamination and spalling. The objective of the study is to provide a rational method to estimate the probable chloride concentration at the reinforcement level for a known surface chloride concentration. The paper derives the formulation of design charts to aid engineers for quick calculation of the chloride concentration. Furthermore, the paper focuses on comparison of durability design against corrosion with American, European and Indian design standards.

Keywords: chloride infiltration, concrete, corrosion, design charts

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10225 Rational Thinking and Forgiveness in Pakistan: The Role of Democratic Values and Mass Media Attitude

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib

Abstract:

Every society has a set of beliefs, norms, values, folkways, mores and laws. All the principles, customs, traditions and procedures of societies are directly or indirectly related to the religion of the society and changed with the passage of time by the mediation of democratic values attitudes and mass media influence. The main objective of the present study is to examine the effects of rational thinking values on forgiveness attitude by the mediation of democratic values and mass media attitude among family members. As many other developing settings, Pakistani society is undergoing a rapid and multifaceted social change, in which traditional thinking coexists and often clashes with modern thinking. Rational thinking attitude has great effects on the forgiveness attitude among family members as well as all the members of Pakistani society. For the present study 520 respondents were sampled from two urban areas of Punjab province; Lahore and Faisalabad, through proportionate random sampling technique. A survey method was used as a technique of data collection and an interview schedule was administered to collect information from the respondents. The results support that the net of other factors, favorable democratic values attitudes are positively associated rational thinking attitudes. The results also provide support that all other things equal, mass media attitudes also have a significant positive effect on rational thinking attitudes. Favorable democratic values attitudes have a significant net positive effect and the effect of mass media attitudes is positive and statistically highly significant. It shows that the effects of both democratic values attitudes and mass media attitudes diminish in magnitude when the rational thinking attitudes scale is included. However, the effect of democratic values remains highly significant. In comparison, the effect of mass media attitudes is only marginally significant.

Keywords: rationality, forgiveness, democratic values, mass media, attitudes, Pakistan

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10224 A Gastro-Intestinal Model for a Rational Design of in vitro Systems to Study Drugs Bioavailability

Authors: Pompa Marcello, Mauro Capocelli, Vincenzo Piemonte

Abstract:

This work focuses on a mathematical model able to describe the gastro-intestinal physiology and providing a rational tool for the design of an artificial gastro-intestinal system. This latter is mainly devoted to analyse the absorption and bioavailability of drugs and nutrients through in vitro tests in order to overcome (or, at least, to partially replace) in vivo trials. The provided model realizes a conjunction ring (with extended prediction capability) between in vivo tests and mechanical-laboratory models emulating the human body. On this basis, no empirical equations controlling the gastric emptying are implemented in this model as frequent in the cited literature and all the sub-unit and the related system of equations are physiologically based. More in detail, the model structure consists of six compartments (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and blood) interconnected through pipes and valves. Paracetamol, Ketoprofen, Irbesartan and Ketoconazole are considered and analysed in this work as reference drugs. The mathematical model has been validated against in vivo literature data. Results obtained show a very good model reliability and highlight the possibility to realize tailored simulations for different couples patient-drug, including food adsorption dynamics.

Keywords: gastro-intestinal model, drugs bioavailability, paracetamol, ketoprofen

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10223 Competence-Based Human Resources Selection and Training: Making Decisions

Authors: O. Starineca, I. Voronchuk

Abstract:

Human Resources (HR) selection and training have various implementation possibilities depending on an organization’s abilities and peculiarities. We propose to base HR selection and training decisions about on a competence-based approach. HR selection and training of employees are topical as there is room for improvement in this field; therefore, the aim of the research is to propose rational decision-making approaches for an organization HR selection and training choice. Our proposals are based on the training development and competence-based selection approaches created within previous researches i.e. Analytic-Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Linear Programming. Literature review on non-formal education, competence-based selection, AHP form our theoretical background. Some educational service providers in Latvia offer employees training, e.g. motivation, computer skills, accounting, law, ethics, stress management, etc. that are topical for Public Administration. Competence-based approach is a rational base for rational decision-making in both HR selection and considering HR training.

Keywords: competence-based selection, human resource, training, decision-making

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10222 Numerical Evolution Methods of Rational Form for Diffusion Equations

Authors: Said Algarni

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate selected numerical methods that demonstrate good performance in solving PDEs. We adapted alternative method that involve rational polynomials. Padé time stepping (PTS) method, which is highly stable for the purposes of the present application and is associated with lower computational costs, was applied. Furthermore, PTS was modified for our study which focused on diffusion equations. Numerical runs were conducted to obtain the optimal local error control threshold.

Keywords: Padé time stepping, finite difference, reaction diffusion equation, PDEs

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10221 An Evaluation of Rational Approach to Management by Objectives in Construction Contracting Organisation

Authors: Zakir H. Shaik, Punam L. Vartak

Abstract:

Management By Objectives (MBO) is a management technique in which objectives of an organisation are conveyed to the employees to establish the individual goals. These objectives and goals are then monitored and assessed jointly by management and the employee time to time. This tool can be used for planning, monitoring as well as for performance appraisal. The success of an organisation is largely dependent on its’s Vision. Thus, it is of paramount importance to achieve the realm of vision through a mission which is well crafted within the organisation to address the objectives. The success of the mission depends upon how realistic and action oriented philosophical approach, an organisation caters to; and how the individual goals are set to track and meet the objectives. Thus, focused and passionate efforts of the team, assigned for the mission, are an absolute obligation for achieving the vision of any organisation. Any construction site is generally a controlled disorder having huge investments, resources and logistics involved. The Construction progression is time-consuming with many isolated as well as interconnected activities. Traditional MBO approach can be unsuccessful if planning and control is non-realistic and inflexible. Moreover, the Construction Industry is far behind understanding these concepts. It is important to address the employee engagement in defining and creating awareness to achieve the targets. Besides, current economic environment and competitive world demands refined management tools to achieve profit, growth and survival of the business. Therefore, the necessity of rational MBO becomes vital part towards the success of an organisation. This paper details about the philosophical assumptions to develop the grounded theory in lieu of achieving objectives through RATIONAL MBO approach in Construction Contracting Organisations. The goals and objectives of the Construction Contracting Organisations can be achieved efficiently by adopting this RATIONAL MBO approach, as those are based on realistic, logical and balanced assumptions.

Keywords: growth, leadership, management by objectives, Management By Objectives (MBO), profit, rational

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10220 Computer-Aided Ship Design Approach for Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline Based Ship Hull Surface Geometry

Authors: Anu S. Nair, V. Anantha Subramanian

Abstract:

This paper presents a surface development and fairing technique combining the features of a modern computer-aided design tool namely the Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline (NURBS) with an algorithm to obtain a rapidly faired hull form. Some of the older series based designs give sectional area distribution such as in the Wageningen-Lap Series. Others such as the FORMDATA give more comprehensive offset data points. Nevertheless, this basic data still requires fairing to obtain an acceptable faired hull form. This method uses the input of sectional area distribution as an example and arrives at the faired form. Characteristic section shapes define any general ship hull form in the entrance, parallel mid-body and run regions. The method defines a minimum of control points at each section and using the Golden search method or the bisection method; the section shape converges to the one with the prescribed sectional area with a minimized error in the area fit. The section shapes combine into evolving the faired surface by NURBS and typically takes 20 iterations. The advantage of the method is that it is fast, robust and evolves the faired hull form through minimal iterations. The curvature criterion check for the hull lines shows the evolution of the smooth faired surface. The method is applicable to hull form from any parent series and the evolved form can be evaluated for hydrodynamic performance as is done in more modern design practice. The method can handle complex shape such as that of the bulbous bow. Surface patches developed fit together at their common boundaries with curvature continuity and fairness check. The development is coded in MATLAB and the example illustrates the development of the method. The most important advantage is quick time, the rapid iterative fairing of the hull form.

Keywords: computer-aided design, methodical series, NURBS, ship design

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10219 Social Action for Strengthening Craftsmen's Bargaining Position in Marketing of Product of Tourism Souvenir

Authors: Dumasari, Pujiati Utami

Abstract:

The bargaining position is important for a craftsman in every transaction. A strong bargaining position to encourage craftsmen to gain feasible prices on souvenirs tourism products are sold in several market segments. Some social actions of craftsmen turned out to also determine the conditions bargaining. The main goal of this study is to assess the range of social action to strengthen the bargaining position of craftsmen in marketing various products of tourism souvenir. Location of the study is set intentionally in the Sub-District of Baturaden, Banyumas Regency and also the Sub-District of Purbalingga Wetan, Purbalingga Regency. Both of them are located in the Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research method is the descriptive case study. The results showed that the craftsmen not only carry out one or two type of social action. They do all of the social action: the first is rational based instrumental, the second is rational based on the values, the third is affective, and the fourth is traditional. However, craftsmen also develop other social actions namely: collective, productive and creative action. At respondents in Baturaden dominant type of social action that is instrumentally rational, productive and creative. Meanwhile, respondents in Purbalingga more dominant social action collective, productive and creative. Some social actions implemented simultaneously by the respondents. Because of this, they concluded that the rational action that modified by themselves is more easily for strengthening the bargaining position when facing the craftsmen traders collectors. Collective and rationality social action has the highest sensitivity value for strengthening the bargaining position of craftsmen.

Keywords: bargaining position, craftsmen, strengthen, social actions, marketing of tourism souvenir

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10218 Comparison of On-Site Stormwater Detention Real Performance and Theoretical Simulations

Authors: Pedro P. Drumond, Priscilla M. Moura, Marcia M. L. P. Coelho

Abstract:

The purpose of On-site Stormwater Detention (OSD) system is to promote the detention of addition stormwater runoff caused by impervious areas, in order to maintain the peak flow the same as the pre-urbanization condition. In recent decades, these systems have been built in many cities around the world. However, its real efficiency continues to be unknown due to the lack of research, especially with regard to monitoring its real performance. Thus, this study aims to compare the water level monitoring data of an OSD built in Belo Horizonte/Brazil with the results of theoretical methods simulations, usually adopted in OSD design. There were made two theoretical simulations, one using the Rational Method and Modified Puls method and another using the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method and Modified Puls method. The monitoring data were obtained with a water level sensor, installed inside the reservoir and connected to a data logger. The comparison of OSD performance was made for 48 rainfall events recorded from April/2015 to March/2017. The comparison of maximum water levels in the OSD showed that the results of the simulations with Rational/Puls and SCS/Puls methods were, on average 33% and 73%, respectively, lower than those monitored. The Rational/Puls results were significantly higher than the SCS/Puls results, only in the events with greater frequency. In the events with average recurrence interval of 5, 10 and 200 years, the maximum water heights were similar in both simulations. Also, the results showed that the duration of rainfall events was close to the duration of monitored hydrograph. The rising time and recession time of the hydrographs calculated with the Rational Method represented better the monitored hydrograph than SCS Method. The comparison indicates that the real discharge coefficient value could be higher than 0.61, adopted in Puls simulations. New researches evaluating OSD real performance should be developed. In order to verify the peak flow damping efficiency and the value of the discharge coefficient is necessary to monitor the inflow and outflow of an OSD, in addition to monitor the water level inside it.

Keywords: best management practices, on-site stormwater detention, source control, urban drainage

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10217 Circular Approximation by Trigonometric Bézier Curves

Authors: Maria Hussin, Malik Zawwar Hussain, Mubashrah Saddiqa

Abstract:

We present a trigonometric scheme to approximate a circular arc with its two end points and two end tangents/unit tangents. A rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curve is constructed whose end control points are defined by the end points of the circular arc. Weight functions and the remaining control points of the cubic trigonometric Bézier curve are estimated by variational approach to reproduce a circular arc. The radius error is calculated and found less than the existing techniques.

Keywords: control points, rational trigonometric Bézier curves, radius error, shape measure, weight functions

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10216 Measure of Pleasure of Drug Users

Authors: Vano Tsertsvadze, Marina Chavchanidze, Lali Khurtsia

Abstract:

Problem of drug use is often seen as a combination of psychological and social problems, but this problem can be considered as economically rational decision in the process of buying pleasure (looking after children, reading, harvesting fruits in the fall, sex, eating, etc.). Before the adoption of the decisions people face to a trade-off - when someone chooses a delicious meal, she takes a completely rational decision, that the pleasure of eating has a lot more value than the pleasure which she will experience after two months diet on the summer beach showing off her beautiful body. This argument is also true for alcohol, drugs and cigarettes. Smoking has a negative effect on health, but smokers are not afraid of the threat of a lung cancer after 40 years, more valuable moment is a pleasure from smoking. Our hypothesis - unsatisfied pleasure and frustration, probably determines the risk of dependence on drug abuse. The purpose of research: 1- to determine the relative measure unit of pleasure, which will be used to measure and assess the intensity of various human pleasures. 2- to compare the intensity of the pleasure from different kinds of activity, with pleasures received from drug use. 3- Based on the analysis of data, to identify factors affecting the rational decision making. Research method: Respondents will be asked to recall the greatest pleasure of their life, which will be used as a measure of the other pleasures. The study will use focus groups and structured interviews.

Keywords: drug, drug-user, measurement, satisfaction

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10215 Rational Design and Synthesis of 2D/3D Conjugated Porous Polymers via Facile and 'Greener' Direct Arylation Polycondensation

Authors: Hassan Bohra, Mingfeng Wang

Abstract:

Conjugated porous polymers (CPPs) are amorphous, insoluble and highly robust organic semiconductors that have been largely synthesized by traditional transition-metal catalyzed reactions. The distinguishing feature of CPP materials is that they combine microporosity and high surface areas with extended conjugation, making them ideal for versatile applications such as separation, catalysis and energy storage. By applying a modular approach to synthesis, chemical and electronic properties of CPPs can be tailored for specific applications making these materials economical alternatives to inorganic semiconductors. Direct arylation - an environmentally benign alternative to traditional polymerization reactions – is one such reaction that extensively over the last decade for the synthesis of linear p-conjugated polymers. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new series of robust conjugated porous polymers synthesized by facile direct arylation polymerization of thiophene-flanked acceptor building blocks with multi-brominated aryls with different geometries. We observed that the porosities and morphologies of the polymers are determined by the chemical structure of the aryl bromide used. Moreover, good control of the optical bandgap in the range 2.53 - 1.3 eV could be obtained by using different building blocks. Structure-property relationships demonstrated in this study suggest that direct arylation polymerization is an attractive synthetic tool for the rational design of porous organic materials with tunable photo-physical properties for applications in photocatalysis, energy storage and conversion.

Keywords: direct arylation, conjugated porous polymers, triazine, photocatalysis

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10214 The Use of a Geographical Information System in the Field of Irrigation (Moyen-Chéliff)

Authors: Benhenni Abdellaziz

Abstract:

Irrigation is a limiting factor for agricultural production and socio-economic development of many countries in arid and semiarid in the world. However, the sustainability of irrigation systems requires a rational management of the water resource that is becoming increasingly rare in these regions. The objective of this work is to apply a geographic information system (GIS) coupled to a model for calculating crop water requirements (CROPWATER) for the management of irrigation water in irrigated area and offer managers with an effective tool to better manage water resources in these areas. The application area of GIS is the irrigated perimeter of Western Middle Cheliff which is located in a semi-arid region (Middle Cheliff). The scope in question is a considerable agrarian dynamics and an increased need for irrigation of most crops.

Keywords: geographical information, irrigation, economical, use rational

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10213 A Comparative Study between Behaviour Activation, Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy and Waiting List Control for Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: Shweta Jha, Digambar Darekar, Krishna Kadam

Abstract:

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common of psychiatric disorders. It has a wide range of symptoms, aetiologies and risk factors, and these reasons make MDD affect not only the primary patient, but also their family, caregivers and associates; by negatively impacting their self dignity, economic condition and self-confidence. Thus, it is important to help individuals suffering from MDD learn adaptive mechanism and deal effectively with their environment, with that aim this study focused on a comparative therapeutic intervention using Behaviour Activation (BA), Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and Waiting list control (WLC) for management of MDD. This study apart from enhancing personal skills will also help us understand which therapeutic method would be more beneficial in treating and prolonging relapse in patients with MDD in Indian population. Fifteen individuals following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected as study samples. They were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Ten sessions of therapy, forty-five minutes each according to the proposed sessions plan were conducted for each group. The individuals selected as samples were re–assessed after 2 months and 6 months post intervention. The overall result showed that individuals treated with BA and REBT showed more improvement in comparison to those in WLC.

Keywords: behaviour activation, major depressive disorder, rational emotive behaviour therapy, therapeutic intervention

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10212 On the Rational Roots of the Agnosticism and the Faith

Authors: Lola Rosalia Saavedra Guzman, Plamen Neytchev Netchev

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In general, agnosticism is perceived as an uncertainty between a well-structured (religious) belief (in some Christian or pagan deity) and its absolute and total absence, often causing the suspicion that an agnostic is an atheist, which is "reinsured" in case if their personal belief is wrong. All of this, along with the prevailing view among the naturalists that science has already demonstrated the inexistence of God, has compelled us to seek the foundation of agnosticism and faith in the contemporary formal human logic, advanced mathematics, and the natural sciences. Along the way, we will find that no natural science can demonstrate the existence of God, nor could it discard it for rational considerations, which show that there is something beyond. After all, it seems that the human intellect is insufficient to respond surely with yes or no to the existence of higher intelligences leaving unconditional faith as the only path to God for Christians and transcendent techniques, for pagan religious beliefs.

Keywords: agnosticism, formal logic, axioms and postulates, Gödel theorems, and logical faults

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10211 High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions J₀(x) and Its Zeros

Authors: Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares

Abstract:

The Bessel function J₀(x) is very important in Electrodynamics and Physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which have high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous used of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. Here us in Pade method, rational functions are used, but now there combined with elementary functions us fractional powers hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, and others. The reason of this is that now power series of the exact function are used, but together with the asymptotic expansion, which usually includes fractional powers trigonometric functions and other type of elementary functions. The approximation must be a bridge between both expansions, and this can not be accomplished using only with rational functions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ∼ 4.9. In this case also the maximum relative error for the zeros is less than 0.003 which is for the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behaviour happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily.

Keywords: analytic approximations, asymptotic approximations, Bessel functions, quasirational approximations

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10210 Multi-objective Rationality Optimisation for Robotic-fabrication-oriented Free-form Timber Structure Morphology Design

Authors: Yiping Meng, Yiming Sun

Abstract:

The traditional construction industry is unable to meet the requirements for novel fabrication and construction. Automated construction and digital design have emerged as industry development trends that compensate for this shortcoming under the backdrop of Industrial Revolution 4.0. Benefitting from more flexible working space and more various end-effector tools compared to CNC methods, robot fabrication and construction techniques have been used in irregular architectural design. However, there is a lack of a systematic and comprehensive design and optimisation workflow considering geometric form, material, and fabrication methods. This paper aims to propose a design optimisation workflow for improving the rationality of a free-form timber structure fabricated by the robotic arm. Firstly, the free-form surface is described by NURBS, while its structure is calculated using the finite element analysis method. Then, by considering the characteristics and limiting factors of robotic timber fabrication, strain energy and robustness are set as optimisation objectives to optimise structural morphology by gradient descent method. As a result, an optimised structure with axial force as the main force and uniform stress distribution is generated after the structure morphology optimisation process. With the decreased strain energy and the improved robustness, the generated structure's bearing capacity and mechanical properties have been enhanced. The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optimisation workflow for free-form timber structure morphology design.

Keywords: robotic fabrication, free-form timber structure, Multi-objective optimisation, Structural morphology, rational design

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