Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1429

Search results for: constructed wetlands

1429 Crowdsourced Economic Valuation of the Recreational Benefits of Constructed Wetlands

Authors: Andrea Ghermandi

Abstract:

Constructed wetlands have long been recognized as sources of ancillary benefits such as support for recreational activities. To date, there is a lack of quantitative understanding of the extent and welfare impact of such benefits. Here, it is shown how geotagged, passively crowdsourced data from online social networks (e.g., Flickr and Panoramio) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques can: (1) be used to infer annual recreational visits to 273 engineered wetlands worldwide; and (2) be integrated with non-market economic valuation techniques (e.g., travel cost method) to infer the monetary value of recreation in these systems. Counts of social media photo-user-days are highly correlated with the number of observed visits in 62 engineered wetlands worldwide (Pearson’s r = 0.811; p-value < 0.001). The estimated, mean willingness to pay for access to 115 wetlands ranges between $5.3 and $374. In 50% of the investigated wetlands providing polishing treatment to advanced municipal wastewater, the present value of such benefits exceeds that of the capital, operation and maintenance costs (lifetime = 45 years; discount rate = 6%), indicating that such systems are sources of net societal benefits even before factoring in benefits derived from water quality improvement and storage. Based on the above results, it is argued that recreational benefits should be taken into account in the design and management of constructed wetlands, as well as when such green infrastructure systems are compared with conventional wastewater treatment solutions.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, cultural ecosystem services, ecological engineering, social media

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1428 Constructed Wetlands with Subsurface Flow for Nitrogen and Metazachlor Removal from Tile Drainage: First Year Results

Authors: P. Fucik, J. Vymazal, M. Seres

Abstract:

Pollution from agricultural drainage is a severe issue for water quality, and it is a major reason for the failure in accomplishment of 'good chemical status' according to Water Framework Directive, especially due to high nitrogen and pesticide burden of receiving waters. Constructed wetlands were proposed as a suitable measure for removal of nitrogen from agricultural drainage in the early 1990s. Until now, the vast majority of constructed wetlands designed to treat tile drainage were free-surface constructed wetlands. In 2018, three small experimental constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow were built in Czech Highlands to treat tile drainage from 15.73 ha watershed. The wetlands have a surface area of 79, 90 and 98 m² and were planted with Phalaris arundinacea and Glyceria maxima in parallel bands. The substrate in the first two wetlands is gravel (4-8 mm) mixed with birch woodchips (10:1 volume ratio). In one of those wetlands, the water level is kept 10 cm above the surface; in the second one, the water is kept below the surface. The third wetland has 20 cm layer of birch woodchips on top of gravel. The drainage outlet, as well as wetland outlets, are equipped with automatic discharge-gauging devices, temperature probes, as well as automatic water samplers (Teledyne ISCO). During the monitored period (2018-2019), the flows were unexpectedly low due to a drop of the shallow ground water level, being the main source of water for the monitored drainage system, as experienced at many areas of the Czech Republic. The mean water residence time was analyzed in the wetlands (KBr), which was 16, 9 and 27 days, respectively. The mean total nitrogen concentration eliminations during one-year period were 61.2%, 62.6%, and 70.9% for wetlands 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The average load removals amounted to 0.516, 0.323, and 0.399 g N m-2 d-1 or 1885, 1180 and 1457 kg ha-1 yr-1 in wetlands 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The plant uptake and nitrogen sequestration in aboveground biomass contributed only marginally to the overall nitrogen removal. Among the three variants, the one with shallow water on the surface was revealed to be the most effective for removal of nitrogen from drainage water. In August 2019, herbicide Metazachlor was experimentally poured in time of 2 hours at drainage outlet in a concentration of 250 ug/l to find out the removal rates of the aforementioned wetlands. Water samples were taken the first day every six hours, and for the next nine days, every day one water sample was taken. The removal rates were as follows 94, 69 and 99%; when the most effective wetland was the one with the longest water residence time and the birch woodchip-layer on top of gravel.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, metazachlor, nitrogen, tile drainage

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1427 Feasibility Study of Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Asmara, Eritrea

Authors: Hagos Gebrehiwet Bahta

Abstract:

Asmara, the capital city of Eritrea, is facing a sanitation challenge because the city discharges its wastewater to the environment without any kind of treatment. The aim of this research is to conduct a pre-feasibility study of using constructed wetlands in the peri-urban areas of Asmara for wastewater treatment and reuse. It was found that around 15,000 m³ of wastewater is used daily for agricultural activities, and products are sold in the city's markets, which are claimed to cause some health effects. In this study, three potential sites were investigated around Mai-Bela and an optimum location was selected on the basis of land availability, topography, and geotechnical information. Some types of local microphytes that can be used in constructed wetlands have been identified and documented for further studies. It was found that subsurface constructed wetlands can provide a sufficient pollutant removal with careful planning and design. Following the feasibility study, a preliminary design of screening, grit chamber and subsurface constructed wetland was prepared and cost estimation was done. In the cost estimation part, the filter media was found to be the most expensive part and consists of around 30% percent of the overall cost. The city wastewater drainage runs in two directions and the selected site is located in the southern sub-system, which only carries sewage (separate system). The wastewater analysis conducted particularly around this area (Sembel) indicates high heavy metal levels and organic concentrations, which reveals that there is a high level of industrial pollution in addition to the domestic sewage.

Keywords: agriculture, constructed wetland, Mai-Bela, wastewater reuse

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1426 Overview of Constructed Wetlands System for Greywater Treatment: Challenges, Advantages, and Sustainable Analysis

Authors: Iga Maliga

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As developing country, Indonesia, retreatment for greywater is an important factor that guaranteeing water sustainability? But, its still not familiar in Indonesian society. Because they still use their old habit for wasting the water without retreatment. Differently, with industry wastewater, effect of domestic wastewater is not directly looked with naked eyes. Domestic wastewater that not gets treatment directly can affect pollution in water body or river. Its affected by accumulation many pollutants that include on water. This paper is trying to analyze the challenges and advantages on greywater treatment system based on Constructed Wetlands (CWs) system in Bandung, one of the biggest cities in Indonesia. Aside that, this paper also is trying to analyze sustainability aspects. There is economic, social and of course environment with two methods. The first, study literature is used to see the advantages and challenges that faced by Indonesia when CWs are applied. Secondly, quantitative method is used to get the society perception about retreatment of greywater. Then, it will get a conclusion that this technique not only good in theoretically but also practically.

Keywords: greywater, constructed wetlands, advantages, challenges, Bandung, sustainability analysis

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1425 Contribution of Urban Wetlands to Livelihood in Tanzania

Authors: Halima Kilungu, Munishi P. K. T., Happiness Jackson Nko

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Wetlands contribute significantly to the national economy. Nevertheless, urban wetlands in Tanzania have been taken for granted; many have been converted into waste disposal areas and settlements despite their substantial role in climate-change flood attenuation and livelihood. This is due to the lacking informing assessments from a socio-economic perspective. This study assesses the contribution of urban wetlands to the livelihood of marginalised communities in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Specifically, the study assesses the an extent and nature of change in wetlands in Dar es Salaam City for the past 30 years using the land-use land-cover change approach and the contribution of wetlands to livelihood using questionnaires. The results show that the loss of wetlands in Dar es Salaam is high to extent that will likely jeopardise their future contributions to livelihood. The results inform decision-makers on the importance of wise use of Urban Wetlands and conservation to improving livelihood for urban dwellers.

Keywords: wetlands, tanzania, dar es salaam, climate-change, and wetlands, livelihood

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1424 Calculation of Methane Emissions from Wetlands in Slovakia via IPCC Methodology

Authors: Jozef Mindas, Jana Skvareninova

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Wetlands are a main natural source of methane emissions, but they also represent the important biodiversity reservoirs in the landscape. There are about 26 thousands hectares of wetlands in Slovakia identified via the wetlands monitoring program. Created database of wetlands in Slovakia allows to analyze several ecological processes including also the methane emissions estimate. Based on the information from the database, the first estimate of the methane emissions from wetlands in Slovakia has been done. The IPCC methodology (Tier 1 approach) has been used with proposed emission factors for the ice-free period derived from the climatic data. The highest methane emissions of nearly 550 Gg are associated with the category of fens. Almost 11 Gg of methane is emitted from bogs, and emissions from flooded lands represent less than 8 Gg.

Keywords: bogs, methane emissions, Slovakia, wetlands

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1423 An Analysis of Urban Institutional Arrangements and Their Implications on Wetlands Allocation for Development Purposes: A Case of Harare, Zimbabwe

Authors: Effort M. Magoso

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This study analyses urban institutional arrangements and their implications on allocation of wetlands for development purposes in Zimbabwe using a case study of Harare. It was driven by the need to get to the root of the current urban assault on wetlands. The study sought to analyse institutions that influence wetlands governance in Harare, to ascertain level of wetlands loss and to determine the adequacy of the legal and regulatory framework for governing wetlands. Theories of common property resources and of institutions are the paradigms that undergird this study. A qualitative research methodology was employed, while in-depth interviews, observations and document review were used to gather data. The study found out that unchecked infrastructure developments are taking place in the city’s wetlands. Urban institutional arrangements in Harare were exposed as having negative implications on the protection of wetlands. It is the key argument of this study that good institutional arrangements are priceless in the protection of commons such as wetlands. This study also recommends a new framework that has environmentalists and technocrats as the final decision maker in land allocation as the solution to protect wetlands from undue anthropogenic activities.

Keywords: institutional arrangements, common property resources, wetlands, institutions

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1422 Constructed Wetlands: A Sustainable Approach for Waste Water Treatment

Authors: S. Sehar, S. Khan, N. Ali, S. Ahmed

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In the last decade, the hunt for cost-effective, eco-friendly and energy sustainable technologies for waste water treatment are gaining much attention due to emerging water crisis and rapidly depleting existing water reservoirs all over the world. In this scenario, constructed wetland being a “green technology” could be a reliable mean for waste water treatment especially in small communities due to cost-effectiveness, ease in management, less energy consumption and sludge production. Therefore, a low cost, lab-scale sub-surface flow hybrid constructed wetland (SS-HCW) was established for domestic waste water treatment.It was observed that not only the presence but also choice of suitable vegetation along with hydraulic retention time (HRT) are key intervening ingredients which directly influence pollutant removals in constructed wetlands. Another important aspect of vegetation is that it may facilitate microbial attachment in rhizosphere, thus promote biofilm formation via microbial interactions. The major factors that influence initial aggregation and subsequent biofilm formation i.e. divalent cations (Ca2+) and extra cellular DNA (eDNA) were also studied in detail. The presence of Ca2+ in constructed wetland demonstrate superior performances in terms of effluent quality, i.e BOD5, COD, TDS, TSS, and PO4- than in absence of Ca2+. Finally, light and scanning electron microscopies coupled with EDS were carried out to get more insights into the mechanics of biofilm formation with or without Ca addition. Therefore, the same strategy can be implemented in other waste water treatment technologies.

Keywords: hybrid constructed wetland, biofilm formation, waste water treatment, waste water

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1421 Improving the Ability of Constructed Wetlands to Treat Acid Mine Drainage

Authors: Chigbo Emmanuel Ikechukwu

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Constructed wetlands are seen as a potential means of ameliorating the poor quality water that derives from coal and gold mining operations. However, the processes whereby a wetland environment is able to improve water quality are not well understood and techniques for optimising their performance poorly developed. A parameter that may be manipulated in order to improve the treatment capacity of a wetland is the substrate in which the aquatic plants are rooted. This substrate can provide an environment wherein sulphate reducing bacteria, which contribute to the removal of contaminants from the water, are able to flourish. The bacteria require an energy source which is largely provided by carbon in the substrate. This paper discusses the form in which carbon is most suitable for the bacteria and describes the results of a series of experiments in which different materials were used as substrate. Synthetic acid mine drainage was passed through an anaerobic bioreactor that contained either compost or cow manure. The effluent water quality was monitored with respect to time and the effect of the substrate composition discussed.

Keywords: constructed wetland, bacteria, carbon, acid mine drainage, sulphate

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1420 Interaction of Steel Slag and Zeolite on Ammonium Nitrogen Removal and Its Illumination on a New Carrier Filling Configuration for Constructed Wetlands

Authors: Hongtao Zhu, Dezhi Sun

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Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential nutrients for biomass growth. But excessive nitrogen and phosphorus can contribute to accelerated eutrophication of lakes and rivers. Constructed wetland is an efficient and eco-friendly wastewater treatment technology with low operating cost and low-energy consumption. Because of high affinity with ammonium ion, zeolite, as a common substrate, is applied in constructed wetlands worldwide. Another substrate seen commonly for constructed wetlands is steel slag, which has high contents of Ca, Al, or Fe, and possesses a strong affinity with phosphate. Due to the excellent ammonium removal ability of zeolite and phosphate removal ability of steel slag, they were considered to be combined in the substrate bed of a constructed wetland in order to enhance the simultaneous removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. In our early tests, zeolite and steel slag were combined with each other in order to simultaneously achieve a high removal efficiency of ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. However, compared with the results when only zeolite was used, the removal efficiency of ammonia was sharply decreased when zeolite and steel slag were used together. The main objective of this study was to establish an overview of the interaction of steel slag and zeolite on ammonium nitrogen removal. The CaO dissolution from slag, as well as the effects of influencing parameters (i.e. pH and Ca2+ concentration) on the ammonium adsorption onto zeolite, was systematically studied. Modeling results of Ca2+ and OH- release from slag indicated that pseudo-second order reaction had a better fitness than pseudo-first order reaction. Changing pH value from 7 to 12 would result in a drastic reduction of the ammonium adsorption capacity on zeolite, from the peak at pH7. High Ca2+ concentration in solution could also inhibit the adsorption of ammonium onto zeolite. The mechanism for steel slag inhibiting the ammonium adsorption capacity of zeolite includes: on one hand, OH- released from steel slag can react with ammonium ions to produce molecular form ammonia (NH3∙H2O), which would cause the dissociation of NH4+ from zeolite. On the other hand, Ca2+ could replace the NH4+ ions to adhere onto the surface of zeolite. An innovative substrate filling configuration that zeolite and steel slag are placed sequentially was proposed to eliminate the disadvantageous effects of steel slag. Experimental results showed that the novel filling configuration was superior to the other two contrast filling configurations in terms of ammonium removal.

Keywords: ammonium nitrogen, constructed wetlands, steel slag, zeolite

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1419 Effect of Substrate Type on Pollutant Removal and Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Constructed Wetlands with Ornamental Plants

Authors: Maria E. Hernnadez, Elizabeth Ramos, Claudia Ortiz

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Pollutant removal (N-NH4, COD, S-SO4, N-NO3 and P-PO4) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) emissions were investigated in constructed wetlands CW mesocosms with four types of substrate (gravel (G) zeolite (Z), Gravel+Plastic (GP) and zeolite+plastic), all planted with the ornamental plant lily (Lilium sp). Significantly higher N-NH4 removal was found in the CW-Z (97%) and CW-ZP (85%) compared with CW-G (61%) and CW-GP (17%), also significantly lower emissions of nitrous oxide were found in CW-Z (2.2 µgm-2min-1) and CW-ZP (2.5 µgm-2min-1) compared with CW-G(7.4 µgm-2min-1 ) and CW-GP (6.30 µgm-2min-1).

Keywords: methane, nitrous oxide, lily, zeolite

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1418 Analytical Study on Threats to Wetland Ecosystems and Their Solutions in the Framework of the Ramsar Convention

Authors: Ehsan Daryadel, Farhad Talaie

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Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, various challenges threaten these ecosystems and disrupt their ecological character. Among these, the effects of human-based threats are more devastating. Following mass degradation of wetlands during 1970s, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) was concluded to conserve wetlands of international importance and prevent destruction and degradation of such ecosystems through wise use of wetlands as a mean to achieve sustainable development in all over the world. Therefore, in this paper, efforts have been made to analyze threats to wetlands and then investigate solutions in the framework of the Ramsar Convention. Finally, in order to operate these mechanisms, this study concludes that all states should in turn make their best effort to improve and restore global wetlands through preservation of environmental standards and close contribution and also through taking joint measures with other states effectively.

Keywords: Ramsar Convention, threats, wetland wcosystems, wise use

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1417 A Constructed Wetland as a Reliable Method for Grey Wastewater Treatment in Rwanda

Authors: Hussein Bizimana, Osman Sönmez

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Constructed wetlands are current the most widely recognized waste water treatment option, especially in developing countries where they have the potential for improving water quality and creating valuable wildlife habitat in ecosystem with treatment requirement relatively simple for operation and maintenance cost. Lack of grey waste water treatment facilities in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology in Rwanda, causes pollution in the surrounding localities of Rugunga sector, where already a problem of poor sanitation is found. In order to treat grey water produced at Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology, with high BOD concentration, high nutrients concentration and high alkalinity; a Horizontal Sub-surface Flow pilot-scale constructed wetland was designed and can operate in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology. The study was carried out in a sedimentation tank of 5.5 m x 1.42 m x 1.2 m deep and a Horizontal Sub-surface constructed wetland of 4.5 m x 2.5 m x 1.42 m deep. The grey waste water flow rate of 2.5 m3/d flew through vegetated wetland and sandy pilot plant. The filter media consisted of 0.6 to 2 mm of coarse sand, 0.00003472 m/s of hydraulic conductivity and cattails (Typha latifolia spp) were used as plants species. The effluent flow rate of the plant is designed to be 1.5 m3/ day and the retention time will be 24 hrs. 72% to 79% of BOD, COD, and TSS removals are estimated to be achieved, while the nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphate) removal is estimated to be in the range of 34% to 53%. Every effluent characteristic will meet exactly the Rwanda Utility Regulatory Agency guidelines primarily because the retention time allowed is enough to make the reduction of contaminants within effluent raw waste water. Treated water reuse system was developed where water will be used in the campus irrigation system again.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, hydraulic conductivity, grey waste water, cattails

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1416 Treatment of Wastewater by Constructed Wetland Eco-Technology: Plant Species Alters the Performance and the Enrichment of Bacteria Ries Alters the Performance and the Enrichment of Bacteria

Authors: Kraiem Khadija, Hamadi Kallali, Naceur Jedidi

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Constructed wetland systems are eco-technology recognized as environmentally friendly and emerging innovative solutions remediation as these systems are cost-effective and sustainable wastewater treatment systems. The performance of these biological system is affected by various factors such as plant, substrate, wastewater type, hydraulic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, water depth, and operation mood. The objective of this study was to to assess the alters of plant species on pollutants reduction and enrichment of anammox and nitrifing denitrifing bacteria in a modified vertical flow (VFCW) constructed wetland. This tests were carried out using three modified vertical constructed wetlands with a surface of 0.23 m² and depth 80 cm. It was a saturated vertical constructed wetland at the bottom. The saturation zone is maintained by the siphon structure at the outlet. The VFCW (₁) system was unplanted, VFCW (₂) planted with Typha angustofolia, and VFCW(₃) planted with Phragmites australis. The experimental units were fed with domestic wastewater and were operated by batch mode during 8 months at an average hydraulic loading rate around 20 cm day− 1. The operation cycle was two days feeding and five days rest. Results indicated that plants presence improved the removal efficiency; the removal rates of organic matter (85.1–90.9%; COD and 81.8–88.9%; BOD5), nitrogen (54.2–73%; NTK and 66–77%; NH4 -N) were higher by 10.7–30.1% compared to the unplanted vertical constructed wetland. On the other hand, the plant species had no significant effect on removal efficiency of COD, The removal of COD was similar in VFCW (₂) and VFCW (₃) (p > 0.05), attaining average removal efficiencies of 88.7% and 85.2%, respectively. Whereas it had a significant effect on NTK removal (p > 0.05), with an average removal rate of 72% versus 51% for VFCW (₂) and VFCW (₃), respectively. Among the three sets of vertical flow constructed wetlands, the VFCW(₂) removed the highest percent of total streptococcus, fecal streptococcus total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli as 59, 62, 52, 63, and 58%, respectively. The presence and the plant species alters the community composition and abundance of the bacteria. The abundance of bacteria in the planted wetland was much higher than that in the unplanted one. VFCW(₃) had the highest relative abundance of nitrifying bacteria such as Nitrosospira (18%), Nitrosospira (12%), and Nitrobacter (8%). Whereas the vertical constructed wetland planted with typha had larger number of denitrifying species, with relative abundances of Aeromonas (13%), Paracoccus (11%), Thauera (7%), and Thiobacillus (6%). However, the abundance of nitrifying bacteria was very lower in this system than VFCW(₂). Interestingly, the presence of Thypha angustofolia species favored the enrichment of anammox bacteria compared to unplanted system and system planted with phragmites australis. The results showed that the middle layer had the most accumulation of anammox bacteria, which the anaerobic condition is better and the root system is moderate. Vegetation has several characteristics that make it an essential component of wetlands, but its exact effects are complex and debated.

Keywords: wastawater, constructed wetland, anammox, removal

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1415 Pilot Scale Sub-Surface Constructed Wetland: Evaluation of Performance of Bed Vegetated with Water Hyacinth in the Treatment of Domestic Sewage

Authors: Abdul-Hakeem Olatunji Abiola, A. E. Adeniran, A. O. Ajimo, A. B. Lamilisa

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Introduction: Conventional wastewater treatment technology has been found to fail in developing countries because they are expensive to construct, operate and maintain. Constructed wetlands are nowadays considered as a low-cost alternative for effective wastewater treatment, especially where suitable land can be available. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the constructed wetland vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) plant for the treatment of wastewater. Methodology: The sub-surface flow wetland used for this study was an experimental scale constructed wetland consisting of four beds A, B, C, and D. Beds A, B, and D were vegetated while bed C which was used as a control was non-vegetated. This present study presents the results from bed B vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and control bed C which was non-vegetated. The influent of the experimental scale wetland has been pre-treated with sedimentation, screening and anaerobic chamber before feeding into the experimental scale wetland. Results: pH and conductivity level were more reduced, colour of effluent was more improved, nitrate, iron, phosphate, and chromium were more removed, and dissolved oxygen was more improved in the water hyacinth bed than the control bed. While manganese, nickel, cyanuric acid, and copper were more removed from the control bed than the water hyacinth bed. Conclusion: The performance of the experimental scale constructed wetland bed planted with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is better than that of the control bed. It is therefore recommended that plain bed without any plant should not be encouraged.

Keywords: constructed experimental scale wetland, domestic sewage, treatment, water hyacinth

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1414 Use of Remote Sensing for Seasonal and Temporal Monitoring in Wetlands: A Case Study of Akyatan Lagoon

Authors: A. Cilek, S. Berberoglu, A. Akin Tanriover, C. Donmez

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Wetlands are the areas which have important effects and functions on protecting human life, adjust to nature, and biological variety, besides being potential exploitation sources. Observing the changes in these sensitive areas is important to study for data collecting and correct planning for the future. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System are being increasingly used for environmental studies such as biotope mapping and habitat monitoring. Akyatan Lagoon, one of the most important wetlands in Turkey, has been facing serious threats from agricultural applications in recent years. In this study, seasonal and temporal monitoring in wetlands system are determined by using remotely sensed data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) between 1985 and 2015. The research method is based on classifying and mapping biotopes in the study area. The natural biotope types were determined as coastal sand dunes, salt marshes, river beds, coastal woods, lakes, lagoons.

Keywords: biotope mapping, GIS, remote sensing, wetlands

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1413 Role of Environmental Focus in Legal Protection and Efficient Management of Wetlands in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: K. R. Balabiyev, A. O. Kaipbayeva

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The article discusses the legal framework of the government’s environmental function and analyzes the role of the national policy in protection of wetlands. The problem is of interest for it deals with the most important branch of economy–utilization of Kazakhstan’s natural resources, protection of health and environmental well being of the population. Development of a long-term environmental program addressing the protection of wetlands represents the final stage of the government’s environmental policy, and is a relatively new function for the public administration system. It appeared due to the environmental measures that require immediate decisions to be taken. It is an integral part of the effort in the field of management of state-owned natural resource, as well as of the measures aimed at efficient management of natural resources to avoid their early depletion or contamination.

Keywords: environmental focus, government’s environmental function, protection of wetlands, Kazakhstan

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1412 Nutrients Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Christine Odinga, Fred Otieno, Josiah Adeyemo

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A study was done to establish the effectiveness of wetland plants: Echinocloa pyramidalis (L) and Cyperus papyrus (L) in purifying wastewater from sugar factory stabilization pond effluent. A pilot-scale Free Water Surface Wetland (FWSCW) system was constructed in Chemelil sugar factory, Kenya for the study. The wetland was divided into 8 sections (cells) and planted with C. papyrus and E. pyramidalis in alternating sequence. Water samples and plant specimen were taken fortnightly at inlets and outlets of the cells and analysed for total phosphates and total nitrates. The data was analysed by use of Microsoft excel and SPSS computer packages. Water analysis recorded a reduction in the nutrient levels between the inlet pond nine and the final outlet channel to River Nyando. The plants grown in the wetland experienced varied increases and reductions in the level of total foliar nitrogen and phosphorous, indicating that though the nutrients were being removed from the wetland, the same were not those assimilated by the plants either. The control plants had higher folia phosphorous and nitrogen, an indication that the system of the constructed wetland was able to eliminate the nutrients effectively from the plants.

Keywords: wetlands, constructed, plants, nutrients, wastewater, industrial

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1411 Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities: Using Wastewater and Urban Wetlands as Resource

Authors: Hussnain Mukhtar, Yu-Pin Lin

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This paper deals with the concept of ecologically engineered system for sustainable agriculture production with the view of sustainable cities development. Sustainable cities offer numerous eco-services to its inhabitants, and where, among other issues, wastewater nutrients can be considered to be a valuable resource to be used for a sustainable enhancement of urban agriculture in wetlands. Existing cities can be transferred from being only consumer of food and other agriculture product into important resource conserving and sustainable generators of these products. The review provides the food production capacity through introduction of wastewater into urban wetlands, potential for nutrient recovery and ecological engineering intervention to reduce the risk of food contamination by pathogens. Finally, we discuss the potential nutrients accumulating in our cities, as an important aspect of sustainable urban development.

Keywords: ecological engineering, nutrient recovery, pathogens, urban agriculture, wetlands

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1410 The Spatial Analysis of Wetland Ecosystem Services Valuation on Flood Protection in Tone River Basin

Authors: Tingting Song

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Wetlands are significant ecosystems that provide a variety of ecosystem services for humans, such as, providing water and food resources, purifying water quality, regulating climate, protecting biodiversity, and providing cultural, recreational, and educational resources. Wetlands also provide benefits, such as reduction of flood, storm damage, and soil erosion. The flood protection ecosystem services of wetlands are often ignored. Due to climate change, the flood caused by extreme weather in recent years occur frequently. Flood has a great impact on people's production and life with more and more economic losses. This study area is in the Tone river basin in the Kanto area, Japan. It is the second-longest river with the largest basin area in Japan, and it is still suffering heavy economic losses from floods. Tone river basin is one of the rivers that provide water for Tokyo and has an important impact on economic activities in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate land-use changes of wetlands in the Tone River Basin, and whether there are spatial differences in the value of wetland functions in mitigating economic losses caused by floods. This study analyzed the land-use change of wetland in Tone River, based on the Landsat data from 1980 to 2020. Combined with flood economic loss, wetland area, GDP, population density, and other social-economic data, a geospatial weighted regression model was constructed to analyze the spatial difference of wetland ecosystem service value. Now, flood protection mainly relies on such a hard project of dam and reservoir, but excessive dependence on hard engineering will cause the government huge financial pressure and have a big impact on the ecological environment. However, natural wetlands can also play a role in flood management, at the same time they can also provide diverse ecosystem services. Moreover, the construction and maintenance cost of natural wetlands is lower than that of hard engineering. Although it is not easy to say which is more effective in terms of flood management. When the marginal value of a wetland is greater than the economic loss caused by flood per unit area, it may be considered to rely on the flood storage capacity of the wetland to reduce the impact of the flood. It can promote the sustainable development of wetlands ecosystem. On the other hand, spatial analysis of wetland values can provide a more effective strategy for flood management in the Tone river basin.

Keywords: wetland, geospatial weighted regression, ecosystem services, environment valuation

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1409 The Use of Remotely Sensed Data to Extract Wetlands Area in the Cultural Park of Ahaggar, South of Algeria

Authors: Y. Fekir, K. Mederbal, M. A. Hammadouche, D. Anteur

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The cultural park of the Ahaggar, occupying a large area of Algeria, is characterized by a rich wetlands area to be preserved and managed both in time and space. The management of a large area, by its complexity, needs large amounts of data, which for the most part, are spatially localized (DEM, satellite images and socio-economic information...), where the use of conventional and traditional methods is quite difficult. The remote sensing, by its efficiency in environmental applications, became an indispensable solution for this kind of studies. Remote sensing imaging data have been very useful in the last decade in very interesting applications. They can aid in several domains such as the detection and identification of diverse wetland surface targets, topographical details, and geological features... In this work, we try to extract automatically wetlands area using multispectral remotely sensed data on-board the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) and Landsat satellite. Both are high-resolution multispectral imager with a 30 m resolution. The instrument images an interesting surface area. We have used images acquired over the several area of interesting in the National Park of Ahaggar in the south of Algeria. An Extraction Algorithm is applied on the several spectral index obtained from combination of different spectral bands to extract wetlands fraction occupation of land use. The obtained results show an accuracy to distinguish wetlands area from the other lad use themes using a fine exploitation on spectral index.

Keywords: multispectral data, EO1, landsat, wetlands, Ahaggar, Algeria

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1408 Biophysical Assessment of the Ecological Condition of Wetlands in the Parkland and Grassland Natural Regions of Alberta, Canada

Authors: Marie-Claude Roy, David Locky, Ermias Azeria, Jim Schieck

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It is estimated that up to 70% of the wetlands in the Parkland and Grassland natural regions of Alberta have been lost due to various land-use activities. These losses include ecosystem function and services they once provided. Those wetlands remaining are often embedded in a matrix of human-modified habitats and despite efforts taken to protect them the effects of land-uses on wetland condition and function remain largely unknown. We used biophysical field data and remotely-sensed human footprint data collected at 322 open-water wetlands by the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute (ABMI) to evaluate the impact of surrounding land use on the physico-chemistry characteristics and plant functional traits of wetlands. Eight physio-chemistry parameters were assessed: wetland water depth, water temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon. Three plant functional traits were evaluated: 1) origin (native and non-native), 2) life history (annual, biennial, and perennial), and 3) habitat requirements (obligate-wetland and obligate-upland). Intensity land-use was quantified within a 250-meter buffer around each wetland. Ninety-nine percent of wetlands in the Grassland and Parkland regions of Alberta have land-use activities in their surroundings, with most being agriculture-related. Total phosphorus in wetlands increased with the cover of surrounding agriculture, while salinity, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon were positively associated with the degree of soft-linear (e.g. pipelines, trails) land-uses. The abundance of non-native and annual/biennial plants increased with the amount of agriculture, while urban-industrial land-use lowered abundance of natives, perennials, and obligate wetland plants. Our study suggests that land-use types surrounding wetlands affect the physicochemical and biological conditions of wetlands. This research suggests that reducing human disturbances through reclamation of wetland buffers may enhance the condition and function of wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

Keywords: wetlands, biophysical assessment, land use, grassland and parkland natural regions

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1407 The Effects of Human Activities on Plant Diversity in Tropical Wetlands of Lake Tana (Ethiopia)

Authors: Abrehet Kahsay Mehari

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Aquatic plants provide the physical structure of wetlands and increase their habitat complexity and heterogeneity, and as such, have a profound influence on other biotas. In this study, we investigated how human disturbance activities influenced the species richness and community composition of aquatic plants in the wetlands of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Twelve wetlands were selected: four lacustrine, four river mouths, and four riverine papyrus swamps. Data on aquatic plants, environmental variables, and human activities were collected during the dry and wet seasons of 2018. A linear mixed effect model and a distance-based Redundancy Analysis (db-RDA) were used to relate aquatic plant species richness and community composition, respectively, to human activities and environmental variables. A total of 113 aquatic plant species, belonging to 38 families, were identified across all wetlands during the dry and wet seasons. Emergent species had the maximum area covered at 73.45 % and attained the highest relative abundance, followed by amphibious and other forms. The mean taxonomic richness of aquatic plants was significantly lower in wetlands with high overall human disturbance scores compared to wetlands with low overall human disturbance scores. Moreover, taxonomic richness showed a negative correlation with livestock grazing, tree plantation, and sand mining. The community composition also varied across wetlands with varying levels of human disturbance and was primarily driven by turnover (i.e., replacement of species) rather than nestedness resultant(i.e., loss of species). Distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that livestock grazing, tree plantation, sand mining, waste dumping, and crop cultivation were significant predictors of variation in aquatic plant communities’ composition in the wetlands. Linear mixed effect models and distance-based redundancy analysis also revealed that water depth, turbidity, conductivity, pH, sediment depth, and temperature were important drivers of variations in aquatic plant species richness and community composition. Papyrus swamps had the highest species richness and supported different plant communities. Conservation efforts should therefore focus on these habitats and measures should be taken to restore the highly disturbed and species poor wetlands near the river mouths.

Keywords: species richness, community composition, aquatic plants, wetlands, Lake Tana, human disturbance activities

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1406 Application of Typha domingensis Pers. in Artificial Floating for Sewage Treatment

Authors: Tatiane Benvenuti, Fernando Hamerski, Alexandre Giacobbo, Andrea M. Bernardes, Marco A. S. Rodrigues

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Population growth in urban areas has caused damages to the environment, a consequence of the uncontrolled dumping of domestic and industrial wastewater. The capacity of some plants to purify domestic and agricultural wastewater has been demonstrated by several studies. Since natural wetlands have the ability to transform, retain and remove nutrients, constructed wetlands have been used for wastewater treatment. They are widely recognized as an economical, efficient and environmentally acceptable means of treating many different types of wastewater. T. domingensis Pers. species have shown a good performance and low deployment cost to extract, detoxify and sequester pollutants. Constructed Floating Wetlands (CFWs) consist of emergent vegetation established upon a buoyant structure, floating on surface waters. The upper parts of the vegetation grow and remain primarily above the water level, while the roots extend down in the water column, developing an extensive under water-level root system. Thus, the vegetation grows hydroponically, performing direct nutrient uptake from the water column. Biofilm is attached on the roots and rhizomes, and as physical and biochemical processes take place, the system functions as a natural filter. The aim of this study is to diagnose the application of macrophytes in artificial floating in the treatment of domestic sewage in south Brazil. The T. domingensis Pers. plants were placed in a flotation system (polymer structure), in full scale, in a sewage treatment plant. The sewage feed rate was 67.4 m³.d⁻¹ ± 8.0, and the hydraulic retention time was 11.5 d ± 1.3. This CFW treat the sewage generated by 600 inhabitants, which corresponds to 12% of the population served by this municipal treatment plant. During 12 months, samples were collected every two weeks, in order to evaluate parameters as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus, total solids, and metals. The average removal of organic matter was around 55% for both COD and BOD5. For nutrients, TKN was reduced in 45.9% what was similar to the total phosphorus removal, while for total solids the reduction was 33%. For metals, aluminum, copper, and cadmium, besides in low concentrations, presented the highest percentage reduction, 82.7, 74.4 and 68.8% respectively. Chromium, iron, and manganese removal achieved values around 40-55%. The use of T. domingensis Pers. in artificial floating for sewage treatment is an effective and innovative alternative in Brazilian sewage treatment systems. The evaluation of additional parameters in the treatment system may give useful information in order to improve the removal efficiency and increase the quality of the water bodies.

Keywords: constructed wetland, floating system, sewage treatment, Typha domingensis Pers.

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
1405 Effects of Hydraulic Loading Rates and Porous Matrix in Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Li-Jun Ren, Wei Pan, Li-Li Xu, Shu-Qing An

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This study evaluated whether different matrix composition volume ratio can improve water quality in the experiment. The mechanism and adsorption capability of wetland matrixes (oyster shell, coarse slag, and volcanic rock) and their different volume ratio in group configuration during pollutants removal processes were tested. When conditions unchanged, the residence time affects the reaction effect. The average removal efficiencies of four kinds of matrix volume ratio on the TN were 62.76%, 61.54%, 64.13%, and 55.89%, respectively.

Keywords: hydraulic residence time, matrix composition, removal efficiency, volume ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
1404 Paradigms of Assessment, Valuation and Quantification to Trade Ecosystem Services: A Review Focusing on Mangroves and Wetlands

Authors: Rama Seth, Luise Noring, Pratim Majumdar

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Based on an extensive literature review, this paper presents distinct approaches to value, quantify and trade ecosystem services, with particular emphasis on services provided by mangroves and wetlands. Building on diverse monetary and market-based systems for the improved allocation of natural resources, such trading and exchange-based methods can help tackle the degradation of ecosystem services in a more targeted and structured manner than achievable with stand-alone policy and administrative regulations. Using various threads of literature, the paper proposes a platform that serves as the skeletal foundation for developing an efficient global market for ecosystem services trading. The paper bridges a significant research and practice gap by recommending how to establish an equilibrium in the biosphere via trading mechanisms while also discovering other research gaps and future research potential in the domain of ecosystem valuation.

Keywords: environment, economics, mangroves, wetlands, markets, ESG, global capital, climate investments, valuation, ecosystem services

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
1403 Evaluation of Capacity of Bed Planted with Macrophytes for Wastewater Treatment of Biskra City, Algeria

Authors: Mimeche Leila, Debabeche Mahmoud

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It is question to study and to value the possibility of settling the process of purification by plants (constructed wetland) to treat the domestic waste water of Biskra, city in a semi-arid environment with grave problems of. According to the bibliography, the process of treatment by plants is considered as more advantageous than the classic techniques. It is the use of beds with macrophytes where the purification is made by the combined action of plants and micro-organisms in a filtering bed. The micro-organisms which are aerobic bacteria and\or anaerobic have for main function to degrade the polluting materials. Plants in the macrophytes beds have for function to serve as support in the development of bacteria and to favour also their development. In this study, we present a preliminary experimental analysis of the potentialities of treatment of some macrpohytes plants, implanted in basins filled of gravel. Analyses physico chemical and bacteriological of the waste water indicate a good elimination of the polluting materials, and put in evidence the purifier power of these plants, in association with bacteria. The obtained results seem to be interesting and encourage deepening the study for other types of plants in other conditions.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, macrophytes, sewage treatment, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
1402 Cartographic Depiction and Visualization of Wetlands Changes in the North-Western States of India

Authors: Bansal Ashwani

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Cartographic depiction and visualization of wetland changes is an important tool to map spatial-temporal information about the wetland dynamics effectively and to comprehend the response of these water bodies in maintaining the groundwater and surrounding ecosystem. This is true for the states of North Western India, i.e., J&K, Himachal, Punjab, and Haryana that are bestowed upon with several natural wetlands in the flood plains or on the courses of its rivers. Thus, the present study documents, analyses and reconstructs the lost wetlands, which existed in the flood plains of the major river basins of these states, i.e., Chenab, Jhelum, Satluj, Beas, Ravi, and Ghagar, in the beginning of the 20th century. To achieve the objective, the study has used multi-temporal datasets since the 1960s using high to medium resolution satellite datasets, e.g., Corona (1960s/70s), Landsat (1990s-2017) and Sentinel (2017). The Sentinel (2017) satellite image has been used for making the wetland inventory owing to its comparatively higher spatial resolution with multi-spectral bands. In addition, historical records, repeated photographs, historical maps, field observations including geomorphological evidence were also used. The water index techniques, i.e., band rationing, normalized difference water index (NDWI), modified NDWI (MNDWI) have been compared and used to map the wetlands. The wetland types found in the north-western states have been categorized under 19 classes suggested by Space Application Centre, India. These enable the researcher to provide with the wetlands inventory and a series of cartographic representation that includes overlaying multiple temporal wetlands extent vectors. A preliminary result shows the general state of wetland shrinkage since the 1960s with varying area shrinkage rate from one wetland to another. In addition, it is observed that majority of wetlands have not been documented so far and even do not have names. Moreover, the purpose is to emphasize their elimination in addition to establishing a baseline dataset that can be a tool for wetland planning and management. Finally, the applicability of cartographic depiction and visualization, historical map sources, repeated photographs and remote sensing data for reconstruction of long term wetlands fluctuations, especially in the northern part of India, will be addressed.

Keywords: cartographic depiction and visualization, wetland changes, NDWI/MDWI, geomorphological evidence and remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1401 Understanding the Notion between Resiliency and Recovery through a Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Section 404 Wetland Alteration Permits before and after Hurricane Ike

Authors: Md Y. Reja, Samuel D. Brody, Wesley E. Highfield, Galen D. Newman

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Historically, wetlands in the United States have been lost due to agriculture, anthropogenic activities, and rapid urbanization along the coast. Such losses of wetlands have resulted in high flooding risk for coastal communities over the period of time. In addition, alteration of wetlands via the Section 404 Clean Water Act permits can increase the flooding risk to future hurricane events, as the cumulative impact of this program is poorly understood and under-accounted. Further, recovery after hurricane events is acting as an encouragement for new development and reconstruction activities by converting wetlands under the wetland alteration permitting program. This study investigates the degree to which hurricane recovery activities in coastal communities are undermining the ability of these places to absorb the impacts of future storm events. Specifically, this work explores how and to what extent wetlands are being affected by the federal permitting program post-Hurricane Ike in 2008. Wetland alteration patterns are examined across three counties (Harris, Galveston, and Chambers County) along the Texas Gulf Coast over a 10-year time period, from 2004-2013 (five years before and after Hurricane Ike) by conducting descriptive spatial analyses. Results indicate that after Hurricane Ike, the number of permits substantially increased in Harris and Chambers County. The vast majority of individual and nationwide type permits were issued within the 100-year floodplain, storm surge zones, and areas damaged by Ike flooding, suggesting that recovery after the hurricane is compromising the ecological resiliency on which coastal communities depend. The authors expect that the findings of this study can increase awareness to policy makers and hazard mitigation planners regarding how to manage wetlands during a long-term recovery process to maintain their natural functions for future flood mitigation.

Keywords: ecological resiliency, Hurricane Ike, recovery, Section 404 Permitting, wetland alteration

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1400 Conservation Challenges of Wetlands Biodiversity in Northeast Region of Bangladesh

Authors: Anisuzzaman Khan, A. J. K. Masud

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Bangladesh is the largest delta in the world predominantly comprising large network of rives and wetlands. Wetlands in Bangladesh are represented by inland freshwater, estuarine brakishwater and tidal salt-water coastal wetlands. Bangladesh possesses enormous area of wetlands including rivers and streams, freshwater lakes and marshes, haors, baors, beels, water storage reservoirs, fish ponds, flooded cultivated fields and estuarine systems with extensive mangrove swamps. The past, present, and future of Bangladesh, and its people’s livelihoods are intimately connected to its relationship with water and wetlands. More than 90% of the country’s total area consists of alluvial plains, crisscrossed by a complex network of rivers and their tributaries. Floodplains, beels (low-lying depressions in the floodplain), haors (deep depression) and baors (oxbow lakes) represent the inland freshwater wetlands. Over a third of Bangladesh could be termed as wetlands, considering rivers, estuaries, mangroves, floodplains, beels, baors and haors. The country’s wetland ecosystems also offer critical habitats for globally significant biological diversity. Of these the deeply flooded basins of north-east Bangladesh, known as haors, are a habitat of wide range of wild flora and fauna unique to Bangladesh. The haor basin lies within the districts of Sylhet, Sunamgonj, Netrokona, Kishoregonj, Habigonj, Moulvibazar, and Brahmanbaria in the Northeast region of Bangladesh comprises the floodplains of the Meghna tributaries and is characterized by the presence of numerous large, deeply flooded depressions, known as haors. It covers about around 8,568 km2 area of Bangladesh. The topography of the region is steep at around foothills in the north and slopes becoming mild and milder gradually at downstream towards south. Haor is a great reservoir of aquatic biological resources and acts as the ecological safety net to the nature as well as to the dwellers of the haor. But in reality, these areas are considered as wastelands and to make these wastelands into a productive one, a one sided plan has been implementing since long. The programme is popularly known as Flood Control, Drainage and Irrigation (FCDI) which is mainly devoted to increase the monoculture rice production. However, haor ecosystem is a multiple-resource base which demands an integrated sustainable development approach. The ongoing management approach is biased to only rice production through FCDI. Thus this primitive mode of action is diminishing other resources having more economic potential ever thought.

Keywords: freshwater wetlands, biological diversity, biological resources, conservation and sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 259