Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4299

Search results for: natural gas

4089 Effect of Solvents in the Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanin from the Petals of Caesalpinia pulcherrima for Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: N. Prabavathy, R. Balasundaraprabhu, S. Shalini, Dhayalan Velauthapillai, S. Prasanna, N. Muthukumarasamy


Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has become a significant research area due to their fundamental and scientific importance in the area of energy conversion. Synthetic dyes as sensitizer in DSSC are efficient and durable but they are costlier, toxic and have the tendency to degrade. Natural sensitizers contain plant pigments such as anthocyanin, carotenoid, flavonoid, and chlorophyll which promote light absorption as well as injection of charges to the conduction band of TiO2 through the sensitizer. But, the efficiency of natural dyes is not up to the mark mainly due to instability of the pigment such as anthocyanin. The stability issues in vitro are mainly due to the effect of solvents on extraction of anthocyanins and their respective pH. Taking this factor into consideration, in the present work, the anthocyanins were extracted from the flower Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrimma) with various solvents and their respective stability and pH values are discussed. The usage of citric acid as solvent to extract anthocyanin has shown good stability than other solvents. It also helps in enhancing the sensitization properties of anthocyanins with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods. The IPCE spectra show higher photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized TiO2nanorods using citric acid as solvent. The natural DSSC using citric acid as solvent shows a higher efficiency compared to other solvents. Hence citric acid performs to be a safe solvent for natural DSSC in boosting the photovoltaic performance and maintaining the stability of anthocyanins.

Keywords: Caesalpinia pulcherrima, citric acid, dye sensitized solar cells, TiO₂ nanorods

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4088 Effect of High Temperature on Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Brick Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Samia Hachemi, Abdelhafid Ounis, W. Heriheri


This paper presents an experimental investigation of high temperatures applied to normal and high performance concrete made with natural coarse aggregates. The experimental results of physical and mechanical properties were compared with those obtained with recycled brick aggregates produced by replacing 30% of natural coarse aggregates by recycled brick aggregates. The following parameters: compressive strength, concrete mass loss, apparent density and water porosity were examined in this experiment. The results show that concrete could be produced by using recycled brick aggregates and reveals that at high temperatures recycled aggregate concrete preformed similar or even better than natural aggregate concrete.

Keywords: high temperature, compressive strength, mass loss, recycled brick aggregate

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
4087 Pre-Industrial Local Architecture According to Natural Properties

Authors: Selin Küçük


Pre-industrial architecture is integration of natural and subsequent properties by intelligence and experience. Since various settlements relatively industrialized or non-industrialized at any time, ‘pre-industrial’ term does not refer to a definite time. Natural properties, which are existent conditions and materials in natural local environment, are climate, geomorphology and local materials. Subsequent properties, which are all anthropological comparatives, are culture of societies, requirements of people and construction techniques that people use. Yet, after industrialization, technology took technique’s place, cultural effects are manipulated, requirements are changed and local/natural properties are almost disappeared in architecture. Technology is universal, global and expands simply; conversely technique is time and experience dependent and should has a considerable cultural background. This research is about construction techniques according to natural properties of a region and classification of these techniques. Understanding local architecture is only possible by searching its background which is hard to reach. There are always changes in positive and negative in architectural techniques through the time. Archaeological layers of a region sometimes give more accurate information about transformation of architecture. However, natural properties of any region are the most helpful elements to perceive construction techniques. Many international sources from different cultures are interested in local architecture by mentioning natural properties separately. Unfortunately, there is no literature deals with this subject as far as systematically in the correct way. This research aims to improve a clear perspective of local architecture existence by categorizing archetypes according to natural properties. The ultimate goal of this research is generating a clear classification of local architecture independent from subsequent (anthropological) properties over the world such like a handbook. Since local architecture is the most sustainable architecture with refer to its economic, ecologic and sociological properties, there should be an excessive information about construction techniques to be learned from. Constructing the same buildings in all over the world is one of the main criticism of modern architectural system. While this critics going on, the same buildings without identity increase incrementally. In post-industrial term, technology widely took technique’s place, yet cultural effects are manipulated, requirements are changed and natural local properties are almost disappeared in architecture. These study does not offer architects to use local techniques, but it indicates the progress of pre-industrial architectural evolution which is healthier, cheaper and natural. Immigration from rural areas to developing/developed cities should be prohibited, thus culture and construction techniques can be preserved. Since big cities have psychological, sensational and sociological impact on people, rural settlers can be convinced to not to immigrate by providing new buildings designed according to natural properties and maintaining their settlements. Improving rural conditions would remove the economical and sociological gulf between cities and rural. What result desired to arrived in, is if there is no deformation (adaptation process of another traditional buildings because of immigration) or assimilation in a climatic region, there should be very similar solutions in the same climatic regions of the world even if there is no relationship (trade, communication etc.) among them.

Keywords: climate zones, geomorphology, local architecture, local materials

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4086 Invalidation of the Start of Lunar Calendars Based on Sighting of Crescent: A Survey of 101 Years of Data between 1938 and 2038

Authors: Rafik Ouared


The purpose of this paper is to invalidate decisions made by the Islamic conference led at Istanbul in 2016, which had defined two basic criteria to determine the start of the lunar month: (1)they are all based on the sighting of the crescent, be it observed or computed with modern methods, and (2) they've strongly recommended the adoption of the principle of 'unification of sighting', by which any occurrence of sighting anywhere would be applicable everywhere. To demonstrate the invalidation of those statements, a survey of 101 years of data, from 1938 to 2038, have been analyzed to compare the probability density function (PDF) of time difference between different types of fajr and new moon. Two groups of fajr have been considered: the 'natural fajr', which is the very first fajr following new moon, and the 'biased fajr', which is defined by human being inclusively of all chosen definitions. The parametric and non-parametric statistical comparisons between the different groups have shown the all the biased PDFs are significantly different from the unbiased (natural) PDF with probability value (p-value) less than 0.001. The significance level was fixed to 0.05. Conclusion: the on-going reference to sighting of crescent is inducing an significant bias in defining lunar calendar. Therefore, 'natural' calendar would be more applicable requiring a more contextualized revision of issue in fiqh.

Keywords: biased fajr, lunar calendar, natural fajr, probability density function, sighting of crescent, time difference between fajr and new moon

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
4085 Impact of Organic Architecture in Building Design

Authors: Zainab Yahaya Suleiman


Physical fitness, as one of the most important keys to a healthy wellbeing, is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. As a result, the fitness world is expanding every day. It is believed that a fitness centre is a place of healing and also the natural environment is vital to speedy recovery. The aim of this paper is to propose and designs a suitable location for a fitness centre in Batagarawa metropolis. Batagarawa city is enriched with four tertiary institutions with diverse commerce and culture but lacks the facility of a well-equipped fitness centre. The proposed fitness centre intends to be an organically sound centre that will make use of principles of organic architecture to create a new pleasant environment between man and his environments. Organic architecture is the science of designing a building within pleasant natural resources and features surrounding the environment. It is regarded as visual poetry and reinterpretation of nature’s principles; as well as embodies a settlement of person, place, and materials. Using organic architecture, the design was interlaced with the dynamic, organic and monumental features surrounding the environment. The city has inadequate/no facility that is considered organic where one can keep fit in a friendly, conducive and adequate location. Thus, the need for establishing a fitness centre to cater for this need cannot be over-emphasised. Conclusively, a fitness centre will be an added advantage to this fast growing centre of learning.

Keywords: organic architecture, fitness center, environment, natural resources, natural features, building design

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4084 A Multimodal Dialogue Management System for Achieving Natural Interaction with Embodied Conversational Agents

Authors: Ozge Nilay Yalcin


Dialogue has been proposed to be the natural basis for the human-computer interaction, which is behaviorally rich and includes different modalities such as gestures, posture changes, gaze, para-linguistic parameters and linguistic context. However, equipping the system with these capabilities might have consequences on the usability of the system. One issue is to be able to find a good balance between rich behavior and fluent behavior, as planning and generating these behaviors is computationally expensive. In this work, we propose a multi-modal dialogue management system that automates the conversational flow from text-based dialogue examples and uses synchronized verbal and non-verbal conversational cues to achieve a fluent interaction. Our system is integrated with Smartbody behavior realizer to provide real-time interaction with embodied agent. The nonverbal behaviors are used according to turn-taking behavior, emotions, and personality of the user and linguistic analysis of the dialogue. The verbal behaviors are responsive to the emotional value of the utterance and the feedback from the user. Our system is aimed for online planning of these affective multi-modal components, in order to achieve enhanced user experience with richer and more natural interaction.

Keywords: affect, embodied conversational agents, human-agent interaction, multimodal interaction, natural interfaces

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4083 The Basin Management Methodology for Integrated Water Resources Management and Development

Authors: Julio Jesus Salazar, Max Jesus De Lama


The challenges of water management are aggravated by global change, which implies high complexity and associated uncertainty; water management is difficult because water networks cross domains (natural, societal, and political), scales (space, time, jurisdictional, institutional, knowledge, etc.) and levels (area: patches to global; knowledge: a specific case to generalized principles). In this context, we need to apply natural and non-natural measures to manage water and soil. The Basin Management Methodology considers multifunctional measures of natural water retention and erosion control and soil formation to protect water resources and address the challenges related to the recovery or conservation of the ecosystem, as well as natural characteristics of water bodies, to improve the quantitative status of water bodies and reduce vulnerability to floods and droughts. This method of water management focuses on the positive impacts of the chemical and ecological status of water bodies, restoration of the functioning of the ecosystem and its natural services; thus, contributing to both adaptation and mitigation of climate change. This methodology was applied in 7 interventions in the sub-basin of the Shullcas River in Huancayo-Junín-Peru, obtaining great benefits in the framework of the participation of alliances of actors and integrated planning scenarios. To implement the methodology in the sub-basin of the Shullcas River, a process called Climate Smart Territories (CST) was used; with which the variables were characterized in a highly complex space. The diagnosis was then worked using risk management and adaptation to climate change. Finally, it was concluded with the selection of alternatives and projects of this type. Therefore, the CST approach and process face the challenges of climate change through integrated, systematic, interdisciplinary and collective responses at different scales that fit the needs of ecosystems and their services that are vital to human well-being. This methodology is now replicated at the level of the Mantaro river basin, improving with other initiatives that lead to the model of a resilient basin.

Keywords: climate-smart territories, climate change, ecosystem services, natural measures, Climate Smart Territories (CST) approach

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4082 Extraction of Natural Colorant from the Flowers of Flame of Forest Using Ultrasound

Authors: Sunny Arora, Meghal A. Desai


An impetus towards green consumerism and implementation of sustainable techniques, consumption of natural products and utilization of environment friendly techniques have gained accelerated acceptance. Butein, a natural colorant, has many medicinal properties apart from its use in dyeing industries. Extraction of butein from the flowers of flame of forest was carried out using ultrasonication bath. Solid loading (2-6 g), extraction time (30-50 min), volume of solvent (30-50 mL) and types of solvent (methanol, ethanol and water) have been studied to maximize the yield of butein using the Taguchi method. The highest yield of butein 4.67% (w/w) was obtained using 4 g of plant material, 40 min of extraction time and 30 mL volume of methanol as a solvent. The present method provided a greater reduction in extraction time compared to the conventional method of extraction. Hence, the outcome of the present investigation could further be utilized to develop the method at a higher scale.

Keywords: butein, flowers of Flame of the Forest, Taguchi method, ultrasonic bath

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
4081 An Investigation on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Concrete While Using Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) as Aggregate

Authors: Md. Jahidul Islam, A. K. M. Rakinul Islam, M. Salamah Meherier


This study investigates the suitability of using plastic, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), as a partial replacement of natural coarse and fine aggregates (for example, brick chips and natural sand) to produce lightweight concrete for load bearing structural members. The plastic coarse aggregate (PCA) and plastic fine aggregate (PFA) were produced from melted polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Tests were conducted using three different water–cement (w/c) ratios, such as 0.42, 0.48, and 0.57, where PCA and PFA were used as 50% replacement of coarse and fine aggregate respectively. Fresh and hardened properties of concrete have been compared for natural aggregate concrete (NAC), PCA concrete (PCC) and PFA concrete (PFC). The compressive strength of concrete at 28 days varied with the water–cement ratio for both the PCC and PFC. Between PCC and PFC, PFA concrete showed the highest compressive strength (23.7 MPa) at 0.42 w/c ratio and also the lowest compressive strength (13.7 MPa) at 0.57 w/c ratio. Significant reduction in concrete density was mostly observed for PCC samples, ranging between 1977–1924 kg/m³. With the increase in water–cement ratio PCC achieved higher workability compare to both NAC and PFC. It was found that both the PCA and PFA contained concrete achieved the required compressive strength to be used for structural purpose as partial replacement of the natural aggregate; but to obtain the desired lower density as lightweight concrete the PCA is most suited.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate, plastic aggregate, concrete, fresh and hardened properties

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4080 Exposure to Natural Outdoor Environment and Positive Health Impacts: A Synthesis of Empirical Research

Authors: Joris Zufferey, Roderick John Lawrence


This paper provides an overview of the state of the art about the positive health impacts of exposure to natural outdoor environments. It presents the results of a “review of reviews” in terms of empirical evidence and identifies some key questions. Finally, the authors stress the need to develop more interdisciplinary and systemic contributions. This synthesis of empirical research has been done as part of the EU- FP7 PHENOTYPE research project.

Keywords: Exposure, environment, phenotype, salutogenic effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
4079 Krill-Herd Step-Up Approach Based Energy Efficiency Enhancement Opportunities in the Offshore Mixed Refrigerant Natural Gas Liquefaction Process

Authors: Kinza Qadeer, Muhammad Abdul Qyyum, Moonyong Lee


Natural gas has become an attractive energy source in comparison with other fossil fuels because of its lower CO₂ and other air pollutant emissions. Therefore, compared to the demand for coal and oil, that for natural gas is increasing rapidly world-wide. The transportation of natural gas over long distances as a liquid (LNG) preferable for several reasons, including economic, technical, political, and safety factors. However, LNG production is an energy-intensive process due to the tremendous amount of power requirements for compression of refrigerants, which provide sufficient cold energy to liquefy natural gas. Therefore, one of the major issues in the LNG industry is to improve the energy efficiency of existing LNG processes through a cost-effective approach that is 'optimization'. In this context, a bio-inspired Krill-herd (KH) step-up approach was examined to enhance the energy efficiency of a single mixed refrigerant (SMR) natural gas liquefaction (LNG) process, which is considered as a most promising candidate for offshore LNG production (FPSO). The optimal design of a natural gas liquefaction processes involves multivariable non-linear thermodynamic interactions, which lead to exergy destruction and contribute to process irreversibility. As key decision variables, the optimal values of mixed refrigerant flow rates and process operating pressures were determined based on the herding behavior of krill individuals corresponding to the minimum energy consumption for LNG production. To perform the rigorous process analysis, the SMR process was simulated in Aspen Hysys® software and the resulting model was connected with the Krill-herd approach coded in MATLAB. The optimal operating conditions found by the proposed approach significantly reduced the overall energy consumption of the SMR process by ≤ 22.5% and also improved the coefficient of performance in comparison with the base case. The proposed approach was also compared with other well-proven optimization algorithms, such as genetic and particle swarm optimization algorithms, and was found to exhibit a superior performance over these existing approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, Krill-herd, LNG, optimization, single mixed refrigerant

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
4078 Hydrological Modelling of Geological Behaviours in Environmental Planning for Urban Areas

Authors: Sheetal Sharma


Runoff,decreasing water levels and recharge in urban areas have been a complex issue now a days pointing defective urban design and increasing demography as cause. Very less has been discussed or analysed for water sensitive Urban Master Plans or local area plans. Land use planning deals with land transformation from natural areas into developed ones, which lead to changes in natural environment. Elaborated knowledge of relationship between the existing patterns of land use-land cover and recharge with respect to prevailing soil below is less as compared to speed of development. The parameters of incompatibility between urban functions and the functions of the natural environment are becoming various. Changes in land patterns due to built up, pavements, roads and similar land cover affects surface water flow seriously. It also changes permeability and absorption characteristics of the soil. Urban planners need to know natural processes along with modern means and best technologies available,as there is a huge gap between basic knowledge of natural processes and its requirement for balanced development planning leading to minimum impact on water recharge. The present paper analyzes the variations in land use land cover and their impacts on surface flows and sub-surface recharge in study area. The methodology adopted was to analyse the changes in land use and land cover using GIS and Civil 3d auto cad. The variations were used in  computer modeling using Storm-water Management Model to find out the runoff for various soil groups and resulting recharge observing water levels in POW data for last 40 years of the study area. Results were anlayzed again to find best correlations for sustainable recharge in urban areas.

Keywords: geology, runoff, urban planning, land use-land cover

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
4077 Application of Chitosan as a Natural Antimicrobial Compound in Stirred Yoghurt

Authors: Javad Hesari, Tahereh Donyatalab, Sodeif Azadmard Damirchi, Reza Rezaii Mokaram, Abbas Rafat


The main objective of this research was to increase shelf life of stirred yoghurt by adding chitosan as a naturally antimicrobial compound. Chitosan were added at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6%) to the stirred yoghurt. Samples were stored at refrigerator and room temperature for 3 weeks and tested with respect of microbial properties (counts of starter bacteria, mold and yeast, coliforms and E. coli). Starter bacteria and yeast counts in samples containing chitosan was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those in control samples and its antibacterial and anti-yeast effects increased with increasing concentration of chitosan. The lowest counts of starter bacteria and yeast were observed at samples whit 0.6% of chitosan. The Results showed Chitosan had a positive effect on increasing shelf life and controlling of yeasts and therefore can be used as a natural preservative in stirred yogurt.

Keywords: chitosan, natural preservative, stirred yoghurt, self-life

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
4076 Effect of Infill’s in Influencing the Dynamic Responses of Multistoried Structures

Authors: Rahmathulla Noufal E.


Investigating the dynamic responses of high rise structures under the effect of siesmic ground motion is extremely important for the proper analysis and design of multitoried structures. Since the presence of infilled walls strongly influences the behaviour of frame systems in multistoried buildings, there is an increased need for developing guidelines for the analysis and design of infilled frames under the effect of dynamic loads for safe and proper design of buildings. In this manuscript, we evaluate the natural frequencies and natural periods of single bay single storey frames considering the effect of infill walls by using the Eigen value analysis and validating with SAP 2000 (free vibration analysis). Various parameters obtained from the diagonal strut model followed for the free vibration analysis is then compared with the Finite Element model, where infill is modeled as shell elements (four noded). We also evaluated the effect of various parameters on the natural periods of vibration obtained by free vibration analysis in SAP 2000 comparing them with those obtained by the empirical expressions presented in I.S. 1893(Part I)-2002.

Keywords: infilled frame, eigen value analysis, free vibration analysis, diagonal strut model, finite element model, SAP 2000, natural period

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
4075 Development of Carrageenan-Psyllium/Montmorillonite Clay Hybrid Hydrogels for Agriculture Purpose

Authors: D. Aydinoglu, N. Karaca, O. Ceylan


Limited water resources on the earth come first among the most alarming issues. In this respect, several solutions from treatment of waste water to water management have been proposed. Recently, use of hydrogels as soil additive, which is one of the water management ways in agriculture, has gained increasing interest. In traditional agriculture applications, water used with irrigation aim, rapidly flows down between the pore structures in soil, without enough useful for soil. To overcome this fact and increase the abovementioned limit values, recently, several natural based hydrogels have been suggested and tested to find out their efficiency in soil. However, most of these researches have dealt with grafting of synthetic acrylate based monomers on natural gelling agents, most probably due to reinforced of the natural gels. These results motivated us to search a natural based hydrogel formulations, not including any synthetic component, and strengthened with montmorillonite clay instead of any grafting polymerization with synthetic monomer and examine their potential in this field, as well as characterize of them. With this purpose, carrageenan-psyllium/ montmorillonite hybrid hydrogels have been successively prepared. Their swelling capacities were determined both in deionized and tap water and were found to be dependent on the carrageenan, psyllium and montmorillonite ratios, as well as the water type. On the other hand, mechanical tests revealed that especially carrageenan and montmorillonite contents have a great effect on gel strength, which is one of the essential features, preventing the gels from cracking resulted in readily outflow of all the water in the gel without beneficial for soil. They found to reach 0.23 MPa. The experiments carried out with soil indicated that hydrogels significantly improved the water uptake capacities and water retention degrees of the soil from 49 g to 85 g per g of soil and from 32 to 67%, respectively, depending on the ingredient ratios. Also, biodegradation tests demonstrated that all the hydrogels undergo biodegradation, as expected from their natural origin. The overall results suggested that these hybrid hydrogels have a potential for use as soil additive and can be safely used owing to their totally natural structure.

Keywords: carrageenan, hydrogel, montmorillonite, psyllium

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4074 Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Diaphragm Based Acoustic Sensor

Authors: Vasudha Hegde, Narendra Chaulagain, H. M. Ravikumar, Sonu Mishra, Siva Yellampalli


Acoustic sensors are extensively used in recent days not only for sensing and condition monitoring applications but also for small scale energy harvesting applications to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) due to their inherent advantages. The natural frequency of the structure plays a major role in energy harvesting applications since the sensor key element has to operate at resonant frequency. In this paper, circular diaphragm based MEMS acoustic sensor is modelled by Lumped Element Model (LEM) and the natural frequency is compared with the simulated model using Finite Element Method (FEM) tool COMSOL Multiphysics. The sensor has the circular diaphragm of 3000 µm radius and thickness of 30 µm to withstand the high SPL (Sound Pressure Level) and also to withstand the various fabrication steps. A Piezoelectric ZnO layer of thickness of 1 µm sandwiched between two aluminium electrodes of thickness 0.5 µm and is coated on the diaphragm. Further, a channel with radius 3000 µm radius and length 270 µm is connected at the bottom of the diaphragm. The natural frequency of the structure by LEM method is approximately 16.6 kHz which is closely matching with that of simulated structure with suitable approximations.

Keywords: acoustic sensor, diaphragm based, lumped element modeling (LEM), natural frequency, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
4073 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah


The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

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4072 Removal of Aromatic Fractions of Natural Organic Matter from Synthetic Water Using Aluminium Based Electrocoagulation

Authors: Tanwi Priya, Brijesh Kumar Mishra


Occurrence of aromatic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) led to formation of carcinogenic disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated water. In the present study, the efficiency of aluminium based electrocoagulation on the removal of prominent aromatic groups such as phenol, hydrophobic auxochromes, and carboxyl groups from NOM enriched synthetic water has been evaluated using various spectral indices. The effect of electrocoagulation on turbidity has also been discussed. The variation in coagulation performance as a function of pH has been studied. Our result suggests that electrocoagulation can be considered as appropriate remediation approach to reduce trihalomethanes formation in water. It has effectively reduced hydrophobic fractions from NOM enriched low turbid water. The charge neutralization and enmeshment of dispersed colloidal particles inside metallic hydroxides is the possible mechanistic approach in electrocoagulation.

Keywords: aromatic fractions, electrocoagulation, natural organic matter, spectral indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
4071 Finite Element Method for Modal Analysis of FGM

Authors: S. J. Shahidzadeh Tabatabaei, A. M. Fattahi


Modal analysis of a FGM plate containing the ceramic phase of Al2O3 and metal phase of stainless steel 304 was performed using ABAQUS, with the assumptions that the material has an elastic mechanical behavior and its Young modulus and density are varying in thickness direction. For this purpose, a subroutine was written in FOTRAN and linked with ABAQUS. First, a simulation was performed in accordance to other researcher’s model, and then after comparing the obtained results, the accuracy of the present study was verified. The obtained results for natural frequency and mode shapes indicate good performance of user-written subroutine as well as FEM model used in present study. After verification of obtained results, the effect of clamping condition and the material type (i.e. the parameter n) was investigated. In this respect, finite element analysis was carried out in fully clamped condition for different values of n. The results indicate that the natural frequency decreases with increase of n, since with increase of n, the amount of ceramic phase in FGM plate decreases, while the amount of metal phase increases, leading to decrease of the plate stiffness and hence, natural frequency, as the Young modulus of Al2O3 is equal to 380 GPa and the Young modulus of stainless steel 304 is equal to 207 GPa.

Keywords: FGM plates, modal analysis, natural frequency, finite element method

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4070 3D Printing: Rebounding from Global Supply Chain Disruption Due to Natural Disaster

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Jasmeen Kaur, Mukul Dhiman


This paper mainly describes the significance of 3D printing in the supply chain management in a scenario when there is disruption in global supply chain. Furthermore, the development and implementation of supply chain strategies in context of 3D printing technology is framed to make supply chain of an organization resilient to disruption caused by natural disasters.

Keywords: 3D printing, global supply chain, supply chain management, supply chain strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
4069 Decision Support System for a Pilot Flash Flood Early Warning System in Central Chile

Authors: D. Pinto, L. Castro, M. L. Cruzat, S. Barros, J. Gironás, C. Oberli, M. Torres, C. Escauriaza, A. Cipriano


Flash floods, together with landslides, are a common natural threat for people living in mountainous regions and foothills. One way to deal with this constant menace is the use of Early Warning Systems, which have become a very important mitigation strategy for natural disasters. In this work, we present our proposal for a pilot Flash Flood Early Warning System for Santiago, Chile, the first stage of a more ambitious project that in a future stage shall also include early warning of landslides. To give a context for our approach, we first analyze three existing Flash Flood Early Warning Systems, focusing on their general architectures. We then present our proposed system, with main focus on the decision support system, a system that integrates empirical models and fuzzy expert systems to achieve reliable risk estimations.

Keywords: decision support systems, early warning systems, flash flood, natural hazard

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
4068 How Natural Environments Are Being Used by Teachers to Improve Student Learning and Wellbeing in Australia

Authors: Jade Fersterer, Tristan Snell, Mark Rickinson


This paper is designed to provide a review of the literature concerning the impact of natural environments on student learning and wellbeing in Australia. Specific areas of interest include how child-led and teacher-led pedagogies differ in outdoor learning settings, and the impact of each approach on children’s well-being, behavior, relationships with others as well as educational outcomes. The review will include links to possibilities for future research, including a Ph.D. currently being undertaken in Australia, which aims to fulfill a considerable gap in psychological, educational and outdoor learning research, regarding how natural environments are being used by teachers to improve learning and wellbeing among primary school students. The proposed study aims to understand if children’s experience of learning, 1. in a natural environment, and 2. in a child-led way, can support and strengthen their skills across several areas of development, including those required for positive educational outcomes. Data will be collected from a sample of primary school students and teachers via both quantitative and qualitative methods, including a pre- and post-questionnaire, direct observation, and semi-structured interviews. The study will have valuable implications for the provision of quality education as well as the promotion of good health and wellbeing. The implications of the research will be useful not only for teachers and parents but also for Psychologists working with children and young people in both a school and clinical setting. Understanding the impacts and implications of child-led learning and exposure to natural environments provides the opportunity to build on the current school curriculum. The inclusion of child-led experiences in nature may provide a simple way to build enthusiasm for school and learning, cultivating skills for life and relationships as well as meeting current curriculum requirements and building capacity for ongoing academic pursuits. In addition, understanding the impact of learning in a natural environment on wellbeing will assist in the development and dissemination of an educational model that could help mitigate the negative health outcomes associated with reduced physical activity and decreasing contact with nature among children.

Keywords: child-led learning, educational outcomes, natural environments, wellbeing

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4067 Natural Convection in Wavy-Wall Cavities Filled with Power-Law Fluid

Authors: Cha’o-Kuang Chen, Ching-Chang Cho


This paper investigates the natural convection heat transfer performance in a complex-wavy-wall cavity filled with power-law fluid. In performing the simulations, the continuity, Cauchy momentum and energy equations are solved subject to the Boussinesq approximation using a finite volume method. The simulations focus specifically on the effects of the flow behavior index in the power-law model and the Rayleigh number on the flow streamlines, isothermal contours and mean Nusselt number within the cavity. The results show that pseudoplastic fluids have a better heat transfer performance than Newtonian or dilatant fluids. Moreover, it is shown that for Rayleigh numbers greater than Ra=103, the mean Nusselt number has a significantly increase as the flow behavior index is decreased.

Keywords: non-Newtonian fluid, power-law fluid, natural convection, heat transfer enhancement, cavity, wavy wall

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4066 Integrating Multiple Types of Value in Natural Capital Accounting Systems: Environmental Value Functions

Authors: Pirta Palola, Richard Bailey, Lisa Wedding


Societies and economies worldwide fundamentally depend on natural capital. Alarmingly, natural capital assets are quickly depreciating, posing an existential challenge for humanity. The development of robust natural capital accounting systems is essential for transitioning towards sustainable economic systems and ensuring sound management of capital assets. However, the accurate, equitable and comprehensive estimation of natural capital asset stocks and their accounting values still faces multiple challenges. In particular, the representation of socio-cultural values held by groups or communities has arguably been limited, as to date, the valuation of natural capital assets has primarily been based on monetary valuation methods and assumptions of individual rationality. People relate to and value the natural environment in multiple ways, and no single valuation method can provide a sufficiently comprehensive image of the range of values associated with the environment. Indeed, calls have been made to improve the representation of multiple types of value (instrumental, intrinsic, and relational) and diverse ontological and epistemological perspectives in environmental valuation. This study addresses this need by establishing a novel valuation framework, Environmental Value Functions (EVF), that allows for the integration of multiple types of value in natural capital accounting systems. The EVF framework is based on the estimation and application of value functions, each of which describes the relationship between the value and quantity (or quality) of an ecosystem component of interest. In this framework, values are estimated in terms of change relative to the current level instead of calculating absolute values. Furthermore, EVF was developed to also support non-marginalist conceptualizations of value: it is likely that some environmental values cannot be conceptualized in terms of marginal changes. For example, ecological resilience value may, in some cases, be best understood as a binary: it either exists (1) or is lost (0). In such cases, a logistic value function may be used as the discriminator. Uncertainty in the value function parameterization can be considered through, for example, Monte Carlo sampling analysis. The use of EVF is illustrated with two conceptual examples. For the first time, EVF offers a clear framework and concrete methodology for the representation of multiple types of value in natural capital accounting systems, simultaneously enabling 1) the complementary use and integration of multiple valuation methods (monetary and non-monetary); 2) the synthesis of information from diverse knowledge systems; 3) the recognition of value incommensurability; 4) marginalist and non-marginalist value analysis. Furthermore, with this advancement, the coupling of EVF and ecosystem modeling can offer novel insights to the study of spatial-temporal dynamics in natural capital asset values. For example, value time series can be produced, allowing for the prediction and analysis of volatility, long-term trends, and temporal trade-offs. This approach can provide essential information to help guide the transition to a sustainable economy.

Keywords: economics of biodiversity, environmental valuation, natural capital, value function

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4065 On-line Control of the Natural and Anthropogenic Safety in Krasnoyarsk Region

Authors: T. Penkova, A. Korobko, V. Nicheporchuk, L. Nozhenkova, A. Metus


This paper presents an approach of on-line control of the state of technosphere and environment objects based on the integration of Data Warehouse, OLAP and Expert systems technologies. It looks at the structure and content of data warehouse that provides consolidation and storage of monitoring data. There is a description of OLAP-models that provide a multidimensional analysis of monitoring data and dynamic analysis of principal parameters of controlled objects. The authors suggest some criteria of emergency risk assessment using expert knowledge about danger levels. It is demonstrated now some of the proposed solutions could be adopted in territorial decision making support systems. Operational control allows authorities to detect threat, prevent natural and anthropogenic emergencies and ensure a comprehensive safety of territory.

Keywords: decision making support systems, emergency risk assessment, natural and anthropogenic safety, on-line control, territory

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4064 The Curse of Natural Resources: An Empirical Analysis Applied to the Case of Copper Mining in Zambia

Authors: Chomba Kalunga


Many developing countries have a rich endowment of natural resources. Yet, amidst that wealth, living standards remain poor. At the same time, international markets have been surged with an increase in copper prices in the last twenty years. This is a presentation of the findings on the causal economic impact of Zambia’s copper mines, a country located in sub-Saharan Africa endowed with vast copper deposits on living standards using household data from 1996 to 2010, exploiting an episode where the copper prices on the international market were rising. Using an Instrumental Variable approach and controlling for constituency-level and microeconomic factors, the results show a significant impact of copper production on living standards. After splitting the constituencies close to and far away from the nearest mine, the results document that constituencies close to the mines benefited significantly from the increase in copper production, compared to their counterparts through increased levels of employment. Finally, the results are not consistent with the natural resource curse hypothesis; findings show a positive causal relationship between the presence of natural resources and socioeconomic outcomes in less developed countries, particularly for constituencies close to the mines in Zambia. Some key policy implications follow from the findings. The finding that increased copper production led to an increase in employment suggests that, in Zambias’ context, policies that promote local employment may be more beneficial to residents. Meaning that it is government policies that can help improve the living standards were government needs to work towards making this impact more substantial.

Keywords: copper prices, local development, mining, natural resources

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4063 The Effect of Transparent Oil Wood Stain on the Colour Stability of Spruce Wood during Weathering

Authors: Eliska Oberhofnerova, Milos Panek, Stepan Hysek, Martin Lexa


Nowadays the use of wood, both indoors and outdoors, is constantly increasing. However wood is a natural organic material and in the exterior is subjected to a degradation process caused by abiotic factors (solar radiation, rain, moisture, wind, dust etc.). This process affects only surface layers of wood but neglecting some of the basic rules of wood protection leads to increased possibility of biological agents attack and thereby influences a function of the wood element. The process of wood degradation can be decreased by proper surface treatment, especially in the case of less naturally durable wood species, as spruce. Modern coating systems are subjected to many requirements such as colour stability, hydrophobicity, low volatile organic compound (VOC) content, long service life or easy maintenance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour stability of spruce wood (Picea abies), as the basic parameter indicating the coating durability, treated with two layers of transparent natural oil wood stain and exposed to outdoor conditions. The test specimens were exposed for 2 years to natural weathering and 2000 hours to artificial weathering in UV-chamber. The colour parameters were measured before and during exposure to weathering by the spectrophotometer according to CIELab colour space. The comparison between untreated and treated wood and both testing procedures was carried out. The results showed a significant effect of coating on the colour stability of wood, as expected. Nevertheless, increasing colour changes of wood observed during the exposure to weathering differed according to applied testing procedure - natural and artificial.

Keywords: colour stability, natural and artificial weathering, spruce wood, transparent coating

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4062 Radiological Assessment of Fish Samples Due to Natural Radionuclides in River Yobe, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: H. T. Abba, Abbas Baba Kura


Assessment of natural radioactivity of some fish samples in river Yobe was conducted, using gamma spectroscopy method with NaI(TI) detector. Radioactivity is phenomenon that leads to production of radiations, whereas radiation is known to trigger or induce cancer. The fish were analyzed to estimate the radioactivity (activity) concentrations due to natural radionuclides (Radium 222(226Ra), Thorium 232 (232Th) and Potassium 40 (40K)). The obtained result show that the activity concentration for (226Ra), in all the fish samples collected ranges from 15.23±2.45 BqKg-1 to 67.39±2.13 BqKg-1 with an average value of 34.13±1.34 BqKg-1. That of 232Th, ranges from 42.66±0.81 BqKg-1 to 201.18±3.82 BqKg-1, and the average value stands at 96.01±3.82 BqKg-1. The activity concentration for 40K, ranges between 243.3±1.56 BqKg-1 to 618.2±2.81 BqKg-1 and the average is 413.92±1.7 BqKg-1. This study indicated that average daily intake due to natural activity from the fish is valued at 0.913 Bq/day, 2.577Bq/day and 11.088 Bq/day for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively. This shows that the activity concentration values for fish, shows a promising result with most of the fish activity concentrations been within the acceptable limits. However locations (F02, F07 and F12) fish, became outliers with significant values of 112.53μSvy-1, 121.11μSvy-1 and 114.32μSvy-1 effective Dose. This could be attributed to variation in geological formations within the river as while as the feeding habits of these fish. The work shows that consumers of fish from River Yobe have no risk of radioactivity ingestion, even though no amount of radiation is assumed to be totally safe.

Keywords: radiation, radio-activity, dose, radionuclides, river Yobe

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4061 Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation

Authors: A. Melka, N. Slater, A. Mualem, Y. Louzoun


Networks are often presented as containing a “core” and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques, k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure. This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus, the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct result of the natural percolation of dense communities.

Keywords: cliques, core structure, percolation, phase transition

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4060 Modal Analysis of FGM Plates Using Finite Element Method

Authors: S. J. Shahidzadeh Tabatabaei, A. M. Fattahi


Modal analysis of an FGM plate containing the ceramic phase of Al2O3 and metal phase of stainless steel 304 was performed using ABAQUS, with the assumptions that the material has an elastic mechanical behavior and its Young modulus and density are varying in thickness direction. For this purpose, a subroutine was written in FORTRAN and linked with ABAQUS. First, a simulation was performed in accordance to other researcher’s model, and then after comparing the obtained results, the accuracy of the present study was verified. The obtained results for natural frequency and mode shapes indicate good performance of user-written subroutine as well as FEM model used in present study. After verification of obtained results, the effect of clamping condition and the material type (i.e. the parameter n) was investigated. In this respect, finite element analysis was carried out in fully clamped condition for different values of n. The results indicate that the natural frequency decreases with increase of n, since with increase of n, the amount of ceramic phase in FGM plate decreases, while the amount of metal phase increases, leading to decrease of the plate stiffness and hence, natural frequency, as the Young modulus of Al2O3 is equal to 380 GPa and the Young modulus of stainless steel 304 is equal to 207 GPa.

Keywords: FGM plates, modal analysis, natural frequency, finite element method

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