Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36968

Search results for: paper based analytical device

36968 Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Paste Electrode on Paper-Based Analytical Device for Simultaneous Determination of Norepinephrine and Serotonin

Authors: Siriwan Nantaphol, Robert B. Channon, Takeshi Kondo, Weena Siangproh, Orawon Chailapakul, Charles S. Henry


In this work, we demonstrate a novel electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified boron-doped diamond paste (BDDP) electrode on paper-based analytical devices (PADs) for simultaneous determination of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). The BDD paste electrode was easily constructed by filling BDD paste in small channels, which made in transparency film sheets using a CO₂ laser etching 
system. The counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on paper by in-house screen-printing and then combined with BDD paste microelectrode. The electrochemical characterization of the device was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed for the simultaneous determination of NE and 5-HT. The ERGO-modified BDDP electrode displayed excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of NE and 5-HT and strong function for resolving the overlapping voltammetric responses of NE and 5-HT into two well-defined voltammetric peaks. This device was capable of simultaneously detecting NE and 5-HT in wide concentration ranges and with a low limit of detections. In addition, it has the advantages in terms of ease of use, low cost, and disposability.

Keywords: boron-doped diamond paste electrode, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide, norepinephrine, paper-based analytical device, serotonin

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36967 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri


Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay

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36966 Development of Paper Based Analytical Devices for Analysis of Iron (III) in Natural Water Samples

Authors: Sakchai Satienperakul, Manoch Thanomwat, Jutiporn Seedasama


A paper based analytical devices (PADs) for the analysis of Fe (III) ion in natural water samples is developed, using reagent from guava leaf extract. The extraction is simply performed in deionized water pH 7, where tannin extract is obtained and used as an alternative natural reagent. The PADs are fabricated by ink-jet printing using alkenyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax. The quantitation of Fe (III) is carried out using reagent from guava leaf extract prepared in acetate buffer at the ratio of 1:1. A color change to gray-purple is observed by naked eye when dropping sample contained Fe (III) ion on PADs channel. The reflective absorption measurement is performed for creating a standard curve. The linear calibration range is observed over the concentration range of 2-10 mg L-1. Detection limited of Fe (III) is observed at 2 mg L-1. In its optimum form, the PADs is stable for up to 30 days under oxygen free conditions. The small dimensions, low volume requirement and alternative natural reagent make the proposed PADs attractive for on-site environmental monitoring and analysis.

Keywords: green chemical analysis, guava leaf extract, lab on a chip, paper based analytical device

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36965 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo


This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3, and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, latch-up

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36964 Developement of a New Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service

Authors: Dawei Cai


In this paper, we present a new wearable device that provide an automatic guidance servie for visitors. By combining the position information from NFC and the orientation information from a 6 axis acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor, the head's direction can be calculated. We developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is just lift up his mobile device. The identification program will automatically identify the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content for him. This service may be convenient for old people or disables or children.

Keywords: wearable device, ubiquitous computing, guide sysem, MEMS sensor, NFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
36963 Total Thermal Resistance of Graphene-Oxide-Substrate Stack: Role of Interfacial Thermal Resistance in Heat Flow of 2D Material Based Devices

Authors: Roisul H. Galib, Prabhakar R. Bandaru


In 2D material based device, an interface between 2D materials and substrates often limits the heat flow through the device. In this paper, we quantify the total thermal resistance of a graphene-based device by series resistance model and show that the thermal resistance at the interface of graphene and substrate contributes to more than 50% of the total resistance. Weak Van der Waals interactions at the interface and dissimilar phonon vibrational modes create this thermal resistance, allowing less heat to flow across the interface. We compare our results with commonly used materials and interfaces, demonstrating the role of the interface as a potential application for heat guide or block in a 2D material-based device.

Keywords: 2D material, graphene, thermal conductivity, thermal conductance, thermal resistance

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36962 Hyperchaos-Based Video Encryption for Device-To-Device Communications

Authors: Samir Benzegane, Said Sadoudi, Mustapha Djeddou


In this paper, we present a software development of video streaming encryption for Device-to-Device (D2D) communications by using Hyperchaos-based Random Number Generator (HRNG) implemented in C#. The software implements and uses the proposed HRNG to generate key stream for encrypting and decrypting real-time video data. The used HRNG consists of Hyperchaos Lorenz system which produces four signal outputs taken as encryption keys. The generated keys are characterized by high quality randomness which is confirmed by passing standard NIST statistical tests. Security analysis of the proposed encryption scheme confirms its robustness against different attacks.

Keywords: hyperchaos Lorenz system, hyperchaos-based random number generator, D2D communications, C#

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36961 Analytical Solution for Stellar Distance Based on Photon Dominated Cosmic Expansion Model

Authors: Xiaoyun Li, Suoang Longzhou


This paper derives the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift based on the photon-dominated universe expansion model. Firstly, it calculates stellar separation speed and the farthest distance of observable stars via simulation. Then the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift is derived. It shows that when the redshift is large, the stellar distance (and its separation speed) is not proportional to its redshift due to the relativity effect. It also reveals the relationship between stellar age and its redshift. The correctness of the analytical solution is verified by the latest astronomic observations of Ia supernovas in 2020.

Keywords: redshift, cosmic expansion model, analytical solution, stellar distance

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36960 Photoplethysmography-Based Device Designing for Cardiovascular System Diagnostics

Authors: S. Botman, D. Borchevkin, V. Petrov, E. Bogdanov, M. Patrushev, N. Shusharina


In this paper, we report the development of the device for diagnostics of cardiovascular system state and associated automated workstation for large-scale medical measurement data collection and analysis. It was shown that optimal design for the monitoring device is wristband as it represents engineering trade-off between accuracy and usability. The monitoring device is based on the infrared reflective photoplethysmographic sensor, which allows collecting multiple physiological parameters, such as heart rate and pulsing wave characteristics. Developed device use BLE interface for medical and supplementary data transmission to the coupled mobile phone, which process it and send it to the doctor's automated workstation. Results of this experimental model approbation confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, health monitoring systems, photoplethysmography, pulse wave, remote diagnostics

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36959 Hand-Held X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Pre-Diagnostic Studies in Conservation, and Limitations

Authors: Irmak Gunes Yuceil


This paper outlines interferences and analytical errors which are encountered in the qualification and quantification of archaeological and ethnographic artifacts, by means of handheld x-ray fluorescence. These shortcomings were evaluated through case studies carried out on metallic artifacts related to various periods and cultures around Anatolia. An Innov-X Delta Standard 2000 handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to collect data from 1361 artifacts, through 6789 measurements and 70 hours’ tube usage, in between 2013-2017. Spectrum processing was done by Delta Advanced PC Software. Qualitative and quantitative results screened by the device were compared with the spectrum graphs, and major discrepancies associated with physical and analytical interferences were clarified in this paper.

Keywords: hand-held x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, art and archaeology, interferences and analytical errors, pre-diagnosis in conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
36958 Output Voltage Analysis of CMOS Colpitts Oscillator with Short Channel Device

Authors: Maryam Ebrahimpour, Amir Ebrahimi


This paper presents the steady-state amplitude analysis of MOS Colpitts oscillator with short channel device. The proposed method is based on a large signal analysis and the nonlinear differential equations that govern the oscillator circuit behaviour. Also, the short channel effects are considered in the proposed analysis and analytical equations for finding the steady-state oscillation amplitude are derived. The output voltage calculated from this analysis is in excellent agreement with simulations for a wide range of circuit parameters.

Keywords: colpitts oscillator, CMOS, electronics, circuits

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36957 Secrecy Analysis in Downlink Cellular Networks in the Presence of D2D Pairs and Hardware Impairment

Authors: Mahdi Rahimi, Mohammad Mahdi Mojahedian, Mohammad Reza Aref


In this paper, a cellular communication scenario with a transmitter and an authorized user is considered to analyze its secrecy in the face of eavesdroppers and the interferences propagated unintentionally through the communication network. It is also assumed that some D2D pairs and eavesdroppers are randomly located in the cell. Assuming hardware impairment, perfect connection probability is analytically calculated, and upper bound is provided for the secrecy outage probability. In addition, a method based on random activation of D2Ds is proposed to improve network security. Finally, the analytical results are verified by simulations.

Keywords: physical layer security, stochastic geometry, device-to-device, hardware impairment

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36956 Optical Repeater Assisted Visible Light Device-to-Device Communications

Authors: Samrat Vikramaditya Tiwari, Atul Sewaiwar, Yeon-Ho Chung


Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered a promising technique to provide wireless peer-to-peer communication services. Due to increasing demand on mobile services, available spectrum for radio frequency (RF) based communications becomes scarce. Recently, visible light communications (VLC) has evolved as a high speed wireless data transmission technology for indoor environments with abundant available bandwidth. In this paper, a novel VLC based D2D communication that provides wireless peer-to-peer communication is proposed. Potential low operating power devices for an efficient D2D communication over increasing distance of separation between devices is analyzed. Optical repeaters (OR) are also proposed to enhance the performance in an environment where direct D2D communications yield degraded performance. Simulation results show that VLC plays an important role in providing efficient D2D communication up to a distance of 1 m between devices. It is also found that the OR significantly improves the coverage distance up to 3.5 m.

Keywords: visible light communication, light emitting diode, device-to-device, optical repeater

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36955 Analytical Investigation of Modeling and Simulation of Different Combinations of Sinusoidal Supplied Autotransformer under Linear Loading Conditions

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır


This paper investigates the operation of a sinusoidal supplied autotransformer on the different states of magnetic polarity of primary and secondary terminals for four different step-up and step-down analytical conditions. In this paper, a new analytical modeling and equations for dot-marked and polarity-based step-up and step-down autotransformer are presented. These models are validated by the simulation of current and voltage waveforms for each state. PSpice environment was used for simulation.

Keywords: autotransformer modeling, autotransformer simulation, step-up autotransformer, step-down autotransformer, polarity

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36954 Screening of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Using Paper-Based Lateral Flow Device

Authors: Pattarachaya Preechakasedkit, Kota Osada, Koji Suzuki, Daniel Citterio, Orawon Chailapakul


A paper-based lateral flow device for screening thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is reported. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using two mouse monoclonal TSH antibodies (anti-hTSH 5403 and 5404) as immobilized and labeled antibodies for capturing TSH samples. Test (anti-hTSH 5403) and control (goat anti-Mouse IgG) lines were fabricated on nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) using ballpoint pen printed with a speed of 3 cm/s and thickness setting of 1. The novel gold nanoparticles europium complex ([email protected]) was used as fluorescence label compared to conventional AuNPs label. The results obtained with this device can be visually assessed by the naked eyes and under UV hand lamps, and quantitative analysis can be performed using the ImageJ program. The limit of detection (LOD) under UV hand lamps (0.1 µIU/mL) provided 50-fold greater sensitivity than AuNPs (5 µIU/mL), which is suitable for both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism screening within 30 min. A linear relationship between the red intensity and the logarithmic concentrations of TSH was observed with a good correlation (R²=0.992). Furthermore, the device can be effectively applied for screening TSH in the spiked human serum with recovery range of 96.80-104.45% and RSD of 2.18-3.63%. Therefore, the developed device is an alternative method for TSH screening which provides a lot of advantages including low cost, short time analysis, ease of use, disposability, portability, and on-site measurement.

Keywords: thyroid stimulating hormone, paper-based lateral flow, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism

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36953 Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji


This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.

Keywords: sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS devices, fatigue and fracture nanomechanical testing device, static and cyclic nanomechanical testing device

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36952 Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh


In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above-mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these two sections there are some significant discrepancies between numerical and analytical results mainly originated from model geometry and high overburden. SGR and the analytical and numerical calculations, confirm the high concentration of seepage inflow in fault zones. Maximum seepage flow into tunnel has been estimated 0.425 lit/sec/m using analytical method and 0.628 lit/sec/m using numerical method occurred in crashed zone. Based on SGR method, six sections of 14 sections in Amirkabir tunnel axis are found to be in "No Risk" class that is supported by the analytical and numerical seepage value of less than 0.04 lit/sec/m.

Keywords: water Seepage, Amirkabir Tunnel, analytical method, DEM, SGR

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36951 Battery/Supercapacitor Emulator for Chargers Functionality Testing

Authors: S. Farag, A. Kuperman


In this paper, design of solid-state battery/super capacitor emulator based on dc-dc boost converter is described. The emulator mimics charging behavior of any storage device based on a predefined behavior set by the user. The device is operated by a two-level control structure: high-level emulating controller and low-level input voltage controller. Simulation and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the emulator operation.

Keywords: battery, charger, energy, storage, super capacitor

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36950 Earphone Style Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service with Position Sensing

Authors: Dawei Cai


This paper describes a design of earphone style wearable device that may provide an automatic guidance service for visitors. With both position information and orientation information obtained from NFC and terrestrial magnetism sensor, a high level automatic guide service may be realized. To realize the service, a algorithm for position detection using the packet from NFC tags, and developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensors called as MEMS. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is only move to the object and stands for a moment. The identification program will automatically recognize the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content about the exhibit. This service should be useful for improving the understanding of the exhibition items and bring more satisfactory visiting experience without less burden.

Keywords: wearable device, MEMS sensor, ubiquitous computing, NFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
36949 Performance Analysis of Microelectromechanical Systems-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

Authors: Sanket S. Jugade, Swapneel U. Naphade, Satyabodh M. Kulkarni


Microscale energy harvesters can be used to convert ambient mechanical vibrations to electrical energy. Such devices have great applications in low powered electronics in remote environments like powering wireless sensor nodes of Internet of Things, lightings on highways or in ships, etc. In this paper, a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based energy harvester has been modeled using Analytical and Finite Element Method (FEM). The device consists of a microcantilever with a proof mass attached to its free end and a Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric thin film deposited on the surface of microcantilever in a unimorph or bimorph configuration. For the analytical method, the energy harvester was modeled as an equivalent electrical system in SIMULINK. The Finite element model was developed and analyzed using the commercial package COMSOL Multiphysics. The modal analysis was performed first to find the fundamental natural frequency and its variation with geometrical parameters of the system. Then the harmonic analysis was performed to find the input mechanical power, output electrical voltage, and power for a range of excitation frequencies and base acceleration values. The variation of output power with load resistance, PVDF film thickness, and damping values was also found out. The results from FEM were then validated with that of the analytical model. Finally, the performance of the device was optimized with respect to various electro-mechanical parameters. For a unimorph configuration consisting of single crystal silicon microcantilever of dimensions 8mm×2mm×80µm and proof mass of 9.32 mg with optimal values of the thickness of PVDF film and load resistance as 225 µm and 20 MΩ respectively, the maximum electrical power generated for base excitation of 0.2g at 630 Hz is 0.9 µW.

Keywords: bimorph, energy harvester, FEM, harmonic analysis, MEMS, PVDF, unimorph

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36948 Secure Transmission Scheme in Device-to-Device Multicast Communications

Authors: Bangwon Seo


In this paper, we consider multicast device-to-device (D2D) direct communication systems in cellular networks. In multicast D2D communications, nearby mobile devices exchanges, their data directly without going through a base station and a D2D transmitter send its data to multiple D2D receivers that compose of D2D multicast group. We consider wiretap channel where there is an eavesdropper that attempts to overhear the transmitted data of the D2D transmitter. In this paper, we propose a secure transmission scheme in D2D multicast communications in cellular networks. In order to prevent the eavesdropper from overhearing the transmitted data of the D2D transmitter, a precoding vector is employed at the D2D transmitter in the proposed scheme. We perform computer simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Through the simulation, we show that the secrecy rate performance can be improved by selecting an appropriate precoding vector.

Keywords: device-to-device communications, wiretap channel, secure transmission, precoding

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36947 Forensic Challenges in Source Device Identification for Digital Videos

Authors: Mustapha Aminu Bagiwa, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris, Suleman Khan


Video source device identification has become a problem of concern in numerous domains especially in multimedia security and digital investigation. This is because videos are now used as evidence in legal proceedings. Source device identification aim at identifying the source of digital devices using the content they produced. However, due to affordable processing tools and the influx in digital content generating devices, source device identification is still a major problem within the digital forensic community. In this paper, we discuss source device identification for digital videos by identifying techniques that were proposed in the literature for model or specific device identification. This is aimed at identifying salient open challenges for future research.

Keywords: video forgery, source camcorder, device identification, forgery detection

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36946 Effect of Halo Protection Device on the Aerodynamic Performance of Formula Racecar

Authors: Mark Lin, Periklis Papadopoulos


This paper explores the aerodynamics of the formula racecar when a ‘halo’ driver-protection device is added to the chassis. The halo protection device was introduced at the start of the 2018 racing season as a safety measure against foreign object impacts that a driver may encounter when driving an open-wheel racecar. In the one-year since its introduction, the device has received wide acclaim for protecting the driver on two separate occasions. The benefit of such a safety device certainly cannot be disputed. However, by adding the halo device to a car, it changes the airflow around the vehicle, and most notably, to the engine air-intake and the rear wing. These negative effects in the air supply to the engine, and equally to the downforce created by the rear wing are studied in this paper using numerical technique, and the resulting CFD outputs are presented and discussed. Comparing racecar design prior to and after the introduction of the halo device, it is shown that the design of the air intake and the rear wing has not followed suit since the addition of the halo device. The reduction of engine intake mass flow due to the halo device is computed and presented for various speeds the car may be going. Because of the location of the halo device in relation to the air intake, airflow is directed away from the engine, making the engine perform less than optimal. The reduction is quantified in this paper to show the correspondence to reduce the engine output when compared to a similar car without the halo device. This paper shows that through aerodynamic arguments, the engine in a halo car will not receive unobstructed, clean airflow that a non-halo car does. Another negative effect is on the downforce created by the rear wing. Because the amount of downforce created by the rear wing is influenced by every component that comes before it, when a halo device is added upstream to the rear wing, airflow is obstructed, and less is available for making downforce. This reduction in downforce is especially dramatic as the speed is increased. This paper presents a graph of downforce over a range of speeds for a car with and without the halo device. Acknowledging that although driver safety is paramount, the negative effect of this safety device on the performance of the car should still be well understood so that any possible redesign to mitigate these negative effects can be taken into account in next year’s rules regulation.

Keywords: automotive aerodynamics, halo device, downforce. engine intake

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36945 A Modified Decoupled Semi-Analytical Approach Based On SBFEM for Solving 2D Elastodynamic Problems

Authors: M. Fakharian, M. I. Khodakarami


In this paper, a new trend for improvement in semi-analytical method based on scale boundaries in order to solve the 2D elastodynamic problems is provided. In this regard, only the boundaries of the problem domain discretization are by specific sub-parametric elements. Mapping functions are uses as a class of higher-order Lagrange polynomials, special shape functions, Gauss-Lobatto -Legendre numerical integration, and the integral form of the weighted residual method, the matrix is diagonal coefficients in the equations of elastodynamic issues. Differences between study conducted and prior research in this paper is in geometry production procedure of the interpolation function and integration of the different is selected. Validity and accuracy of the present method are fully demonstrated through two benchmark problems which are successfully modeled using a few numbers of DOFs. The numerical results agree very well with the analytical solutions and the results from other numerical methods.

Keywords: 2D elastodynamic problems, lagrange polynomials, G-L-Lquadrature, decoupled SBFEM

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36944 Analysis of Gas Disturbance Characteristics in Lunar Sample Storage

Authors: Lv Shizeng, Han Xiao, Zhang Yi, Ding Wenjing


The lunar sample storage device is mainly used for the preparation of the lunar samples, observation, physical analysis and other work. The lunar samples and operating equipment are placed directly inside the storage device. The inside of the storage device is a high purity nitrogen environment to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by the Earth's environment. In order to ensure that the water and oxygen indicators in the storage device meet the sample requirements, a dynamic gas cycle is required between the storage device and the external purification equipment. However, the internal gas disturbance in the storage device can affect the operation of the sample. In this paper, the storage device model is established, and the tetrahedral mesh is established by Tetra/Mixed method. The influence of different inlet position and gas flow on the internal flow field disturbance is calculated, and the disturbed flow area should be avoided during the sampling operation.

Keywords: lunar samples, gas disturbance, storage device, characteristic analysis

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36943 Design of a Compact Herriott Cell for Heat Flux Measurement Applications

Authors: R. G. Ramírez-Chavarría, C. Sánchez-Pérez, V. Argueta-Díaz


In this paper we present the design of an optical device based on a Herriott multi-pass cell fabricated on a small sized acrylic slab for heat flux measurements using the deflection of a laser beam propagating inside the cell. The beam deflection is produced by the heat flux conducted to the acrylic slab due to a gradient in the refractive index. The use of a long path cell as the sensitive element in this measurement device, gives the possibility of high sensitivity within a small size device. We present the optical design as well as some experimental results in order to validate the device’s operation principle.

Keywords: heat flux, Herriott cell, optical beam deflection, thermal conductivity

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36942 Integrating Ergonomics at Design Stage in Development of Continuous Passive Motion Machine

Authors: Mahesh S. Harne, Sunil V. Deshmukh


A continuous passive motion machine improves and helps the patient to restore range of motion in various physiotherapy activities. The paper presents a concept for portable CPM. The device is used for various joint for upper and lower body extremities. The device is designed so that the active and passive motion is incorporated. During development, the physiotherapist and patient need is integrated with designer aspects. Various tools such as Analytical Higher Hierarchy process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is used to integrate the need at the design stage. With market survey of various commercial CPM the gaps are identified, and efforts are made to fill the gaps with ergonomic need. Indian anthropomorphic dimension is referred. The device is modular to best suit for all the anthropomorphic need of different human. Experimentation is carried under the observation of physiotherapist and doctor on volunteer patient. We reported better results are compare to conventional CPM with comfort and less pain. We concluded that the concept will be helpful to reduces therapy cost and wide utility of device for various joint and physiotherapy exercise.

Keywords: continuous passive motion machine, ergonomics, physiotherapy, quality function deployment

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36941 A Cellular-Based Structural Health Monitoring Device (HMD) Based on Cost-Effective 1-Axis Accelerometers

Authors: Chih-Hsing Lin, Wen-Ching Chen, Chih-Ting Kuo, Gang-Neng Sung, Chih-Chyau Yang, Chien-Ming Wu, Chun-Ming Huang


This paper proposes a cellular-based structure health monitoring device (HMD) for temporary bridge monitoring without the requirement of power line and internet service. The proposed HMD includes sensor node, power module, cellular gateway, and rechargeable batteries. The purpose of HMD focuses on short-term collection of civil infrastructure information. It achieves the features of low cost by using three 1-axis accelerometers with data synchronization problem being solved. Furthermore, instead of using data acquisition system (DAQ) sensed data is transmitted to Host through cellular gateway. Compared with 3-axis accelerometer, our proposed 1-axis accelerometers based device achieves 50.5% cost saving with high sensitivity 2000mv/g. In addition to fit different monitoring environments, the proposed system can be easily replaced and/or extended with different PCB boards, such as communication interfaces and sensors, to adapt to various applications. Therefore, with using the proposed device, the real-time diagnosis system for civil infrastructure damage monitoring can be conducted effectively.

Keywords: cellular-based structural health monitoring, cost-effective 1-axis accelerometers, short-term monitoring, structural engineering

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36940 Analytical Solution of Blassius Equation Using the Kourosh Method

Authors: Mohammad Reza Shahnazari, Reza Kazemi, Ali Saberi


Most of the engineering problems are in nonlinear forms. Nonlinear boundary layer problems defined in infinite intervals contain specific complexities, especially in boundary layer condition conformance. As an example of these nonlinear complex problems, the well-known Blasius equation can be mentioned, which itself is one of the classic boundary layer problems. No analytical solution has been proposed yet for the Blasius equation due to its complexity. In this paper, an analytical method, namely the Kourosh method, based on the singularity perturbation method and the Liao homotopy analysis is utilized to solve the Blasius problem. In this method, an inner solution is developed in the [0,1] interval to expedite the solution convergence. The magnitude of the f ˝(0), as an essential quantity for determining the physical parameters, is directly calculated from the solution of the boundary condition problem. The advantages of this solution are that it does not need any numerical solution, it has a closed form and that its validation is shown in the entire [0,∞] interval. Furthermore, all of the desirable parameters could be extracted through a series of simple analytical operations from the final solution. This solution also satisfies the continuity conditions, which is one of the main contributions of this paper in comparison with most of the other proposed analytical solutions available in the literature. Comparison with numerical solutions reveals that the proposed method is highly accurate and convenient for application.

Keywords: Blasius equation, boundary layer, Kourosh method, analytical solution

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36939 SCR-Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for IO and Power Clamp

Authors: Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Han Hee Cho, Sang Woon Cho, Yong Seo Koo


In this paper, we proposed a novel SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection device for I/O and power clamp. The proposed device has a higher holding voltage characteristic than conventional SCR. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity under normal operating conditions as well as superior full chip ESD protection. The proposed device was analyzed to figure out electrical characteristics and tolerance robustness in term of individual design parameters (D1, D2, D3). They are investigated by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As a result of simulation, holding voltage increased with different design parameters. The holding voltage of the proposed device changes from 3.3V to 7.9V. Also, N-Stack structure ESD device with the high holding voltage is proposed. In the simulation results, 2-stack has holding voltage of 6.8V and 3-stack has holding voltage of 10.5V. The simulation results show that holding voltage of stacking structure can be larger than the operation voltage of high-voltage application.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, stack, power clamp

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