Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25425

Search results for: green chemical analysis

25425 Eco Scale: A Tool for Assessing the Greenness of Pharmaceuticals Analysis

Authors: Heba M. Mohamed

Abstract:

Owing to scientific and public concern about health and environment and seeking for a better quality of life; “Green”, “Environmentally” and “Eco” friendly practices have been presented and implemented in different research areas. Subsequently, researchers’ attention is drawn in the direction of greening the analytical methodologies and taking the Green Analytical Chemistry principles (GAC) into consideration. It is of high importance to appraise the environmental impact of each of the implemented green approaches. Compared to the other traditional green metrics (E-factor, Atom economy and the process profile), the eco scale is the optimum choice to assess the environmental impact of the analytical procedures used for pharmaceuticals analysis. For analytical methodologies, Eco-Scale is calculated by allotting penalty points to any factor of the used analytical procedure which disagree and not match with the model green analysis, where the perfect green analysis has its Eco-Scale value of 100. In this work, calculation and comparison of the Eco-Scale for some of the reported green analytical methods was done, to accentuate their greening potentials. Where the different scores can reveal how green the method is, compared to the ideal value. The study emphasizes that greenness measurement is not only about the waste quantity determination but also dictates a holistic scheme, considering all factors.

Keywords: eco scale, green analysis, environmentally friendly, pharmaceuticals analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
25424 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang

Abstract:

At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

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25423 Green Chemical Processing in the Teaching Laboratory: A Convenient Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Natural Products

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ferhat, Mohamed Nadjib Bouhatem, Farid Chemat

Abstract:

One of the principal aims of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry to both developed and developing nations. This paper describes one attempt to show that “north-south” collaborations yield innovative sustainable and green technologies which give major benefits for both nations. In this paper we present early results from a solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oils using fresh orange peel, a byproduct in the production of orange juice. SFME is performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. SFME increases essential oil yield and eliminate wastewater treatment. The procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, and allows the students to learn extraction, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis skills, and are expose to dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable and green extraction of essential oil, and are introduced to commercially successful sustainable and green chemical processing with microwave energy.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, green processing, microwave

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25422 Decision Support Tool for Green Roofs Selection: A Multicriteria Analysis

Authors: I. Teotónio, C.O. Cruz, C.M. Silva, M. Manso

Abstract:

Diverse stakeholders show different concerns when choosing green roof systems. Also, green roof solutions vary in their cost and performance. Therefore, decision-makers continually face the difficult task of balancing benefits against green roofs costs. Decision analysis methods, as multicriteria analysis, can be used when the decision‑making process includes different perspectives, multiple objectives, and uncertainty. The present study adopts a multicriteria decision model to evaluate the installation of green roofs in buildings, determining the solution with the best trade-off between costs and benefits in agreement with the preferences of the users/investors. This methodology was applied to a real decision problem, assessing the preferences between different green roof systems in an existing building in Lisbon. This approach supports the decision-making process on green roofs and enables robust and informed decisions on urban planning while optimizing buildings retrofitting.

Keywords: decision making, green roofs, investors preferences, multicriteria analysis, sustainable development

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25421 Building Green Infrastructure Networks Based on Cadastral Parcels Using Network Analysis

Authors: Gon Park

Abstract:

Seoul in South Korea established the 2030 Seoul City Master Plan that contains green-link projects to connect critical green areas within the city. However, the plan does not have detailed analyses for green infrastructure to incorporate land-cover information to many structural classes. This study maps green infrastructure networks of Seoul for complementing their green plans with identifying and raking green areas. Hubs and links of main elements of green infrastructure have been identified from incorporating cadastral data of 967,502 parcels to 135 of land use maps using geographic information system. Network analyses were used to rank hubs and links of a green infrastructure map with applying a force-directed algorithm, weighted values, and binary relationships that has metrics of density, distance, and centrality. The results indicate that network analyses using cadastral parcel data can be used as the framework to identify and rank hubs, links, and networks for the green infrastructure planning under a variable scenarios of green areas in cities.

Keywords: cadastral data, green Infrastructure, network analysis, parcel data

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
25420 An Analysis of the Relationship between Consumer Perception and Purchase Behavior towards Green Fashion in India

Authors: Upasna Bhandari, Indranil Saha, Deepak John Mathew

Abstract:

The green fashion market is growing rapidly as eco-friendly consumers are willing to expand their organic lifestyle to include clothing. With an increasing share of fashion consumers globally, Indian consumers are observed to consider the social and environmental ethics while making purchasing decisions. While some research clearly identifies the efforts of responsible consumers towards green fashion, some argue that fashion-orientated consumers who are sensitive towards environment do not actively participate towards supporting green fashion. This study aims to analyze the current perception of green fashion among Indian consumers. A small-scale exploratory study is conducted where consumers’ perception of green fashion is examined followed by an analysis of translation of this perception into purchase decision making. This research paper gives insight into consumer awareness on green fashion and provides scope towards the expansion of ethical fashion consumption within the demography of India.

Keywords: consumer perception, environmental attitudes, fashion retailing, green fashion, sustainability

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25419 Using a GIS-Based Method for Green Infrastructure Accessibility of Different Socio-Economic Groups in Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Jing Ma, Xindong An

Abstract:

Green infrastructure, the most important aspect of improving the quality of life, has been a crucial element of the liveability measurement. With demanding of more liveable urban environment from increasing population in city area, access to green infrastructure in walking distance should be taken into consideration. This article exemplifies the study on accessibility measurement of green infrastructure in central Auckland (New Zealand), using network analysis tool on the basis of GIS, to verify the accessibility levels of green infrastructure. It analyses the overall situation of green infrastructure and draws some conclusions on the city’s different levels of accessibility according to the categories and facilities distribution, which provides valuable references and guidance for the future facility improvement in planning strategies.

Keywords: quality of life, green infrastructure, GIS, accessibility

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25418 Contextual Paper on Green Finance: Analysis of the Green Bonds Market

Authors: Dina H. Gabr, Mona A. El Bannan

Abstract:

With growing worldwide concern for global warming, green finance has become the fuel that pushes the world to act in combating and mitigating climate change. Coupled with adopting the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Green finance became a vital tool in creating a pathway to sustainable development, as it connects the financial world with environmental and societal benefits. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the concepts and definitions of green finance and the importance of 'green' impact investments today. The core challenge in combating climate change is reducing and controlling Greenhouse gas emissions; therefore, this study explores the solutions green finance provides putting emphasis on the use of renewable energy, which is necessary for enhancing the transition to the green economy. With increasing attention to the concept of green finance, multiple forms of green investments and financial tools have come to fruition; the most prominent are green bonds. The rise of green bonds, a debt market to finance climate solutions, provide a promising mechanism for sustainable finance. Following the review, this paper compiles a comprehensive green bond dataset, presenting a statistical study of the evolution of the green bonds market from its first appearance in 2006 until 2021.

Keywords: climate change, GHG emissions, green bonds, green finance, sustainable finance

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25417 A Framework for Green Use and Disposal of Information Communication Technology Devices

Authors: Frezer Alem Kebede

Abstract:

The notion of viewing ICT as merely support for the business process has shifted towards viewing ICT as a critical business enabler. As such, the need for ICT devices has increased, contributing to high electronic equipment acquisition and disposal. Hence, its use and disposal must be seen in light of environmental sustainability, i.e., in terms of green use and disposal. However, there are limited studies on green Use and Disposal framework to be used as guiding lens by organizations in developing countries. And this study endeavors to address that need taking one of the largest multinational ICT intensive company in the country. The design and development of this framework passed through several stages, initially factors affecting green use and disposal were identified after quantitative and qualitative data analysis then there were multiple brainstorming sessions for the design enhancement as participative modelling was employed. Given the difference in scope and magnitude of the challenges identified, the proposed framework approaches green use and disposal in four imperatives; strategically, tactically, operationally and through continuous improvement.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green disposal, green ICT, green use, green use and disposal framework, sustainability

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25416 Green Construction in EGYPT

Authors: Hanan A. Anwar

Abstract:

This paper introduces green building construction in Egypt with different concepts and practices. The following study includes green building applied definition, guidelines, regulations and Standards. Evaluation of cost/benefit of green construction methods and green construction rating systems are presented. Relevant case studies will be reviewed. Four sites will be included.

Keywords: green construction, ecofreindly, self-sufficient town, carbon neutral atmosphere

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
25415 The Use of Appeals in Green Printed Advertisements: A Case of Product Orientation and Organizational Image Orientation Ads

Authors: Chutima Ruanguttamanun

Abstract:

Despite the relatively large number of studies that have examined the use of appeals in advertisements, research on the use of appeals in green advertisements is still underdeveloped and needs to be investigated further, as it is definitely a tool for marketers to create illustrious ads. In this study, content analysis was employed to examine the nature of green advertising appeals and to match the appeals with the green advertisements. Two different types of green print advertisings, product orientation and organizational image orientation were used. Thirty highly educated participants with different backgrounds were asked individually to ascertain three appeals out of thirty-four given appeals found among forty real green advertisements. To analyze participant responses and to group them based on common appeals, two-step K-mean clustering is used. The clustering solution indicates that eye-catching graphics and imaginative appeals are highly notable in both types of green ads. Depressed, meaningful and sad appeals are found to be highly used in organizational image orientation ads, whereas, corporate image, informative and natural appeals are found to be essential for product orientation ads.

Keywords: advertising appeals, green marketing, green advertisement, printed advertisement

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25414 Using Building Information Modeling in Green Building Design and Performance Optimization

Authors: Moataz M. Hamed, Khalid S. M. Al Hagla, Zeyad El Sayad

Abstract:

Thinking in design energy-efficiency and high-performance green buildings require a different design mechanism and design approach than conventional buildings to achieve more sustainable result. By reasoning about specific issues at the correct time in the design process, the design team can minimize negative impacts, maximize building performance and keep both first and operation costs low. This paper attempts to investigate and exploit the sustainable dimension of building information modeling (BIM) in designing high-performance green buildings that require less energy for operation, emit less carbon dioxide and provide a conducive indoor environment for occupants through early phases of the design process. This objective was attained by a critical and extensive literature review that covers the following issues: the value of considering green strategies in the early design stage, green design workflow, and BIM-based performance analysis. Then the research proceeds with a case study that provides an in-depth comparative analysis of building performance evaluation between an office building in Alexandria, Egypt that was designed by the conventional design process with the same building if taking into account sustainability consideration and BIM-based sustainable analysis integration early through the design process. Results prove that using sustainable capabilities of building information modeling (BIM) in early stages of the design process side by side with green design workflow promote buildings performance and sustainability outcome.

Keywords: BIM, building performance analysis, BIM-based sustainable analysis, green building design

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25413 Factors Affecting Green Supply Chain Management of Lampang Ceramics Industry

Authors: Nattida Wannaruk, Wasawat Nakkiew

Abstract:

This research aims to study the factors that affect the performance of green supply chain management in the Lampang ceramics industry. The data investigation of this research was questionnaires which were gathered from 20 factories in the Lampang ceramics industry. The research factors are divided into five major groups which are green design, green purchasing, green manufacturing, green logistics and reverse logistics. The questionnaire has consisted of four parts that related to factors green supply chain management and general information of the Lampang ceramics industry. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and priority of each factor by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The understanding of factors affecting the green supply chain management of Lampang ceramics industry was indicated in the summary result along with each factor weight. The result of this research could be contributed to the development of indicators or performance evaluation in the future.

Keywords: Lampang ceramics industry, green supply chain management, analysis hierarchy process (AHP), factors affecting

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25412 Mapping of Urban Green Spaces Towards a Balanced Planning in a Coastal Landscape

Authors: Rania Ajmi, Faiza Allouche Khebour, Aude Nuscia Taibi, Sirine Essasi

Abstract:

Urban green spaces (UGS) as an important contributor can be a significant part of sustainable development. A spatial method was employed to assess and map the spatial distribution of UGS in five districts in Sousse, Tunisia. Ecological management of UGS is an essential factor for the sustainable development of the city; hence the municipality of Sousse has decided to support the districts according to different green spaces characters. And to implement this policy, (1) a new GIS web application was developed, (2) then the implementation of the various green spaces was carried out, (3) a spatial mapping of UGS using Quantum GIS was realized, and (4) finally a data processing and statistical analysis with RStudio programming language was executed. The intersection of the results of the spatial and statistical analyzes highlighted the presence of an imbalance in terms of the spatial UGS distribution in the study area. The discontinuity between the coast and the city's green spaces was not designed in a spirit of network and connection, hence the lack of a greenway that connects these spaces to the city. Finally, this GIS support will be used to assess and monitor green spaces in the city of Sousse by decision-makers and will contribute to improve the well-being of the local population.

Keywords: distributions, GIS, green space, imbalance, spatial analysis

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25411 Facile, Cost Effective and Green Synthesis of Graphene in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

Authors: Illyas Isa, Siti Nur Akmar Mohd Yazid, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

We report a simple, green and cost effective synthesis of graphene via chemical reduction of graphene oxide in alkaline aqueous solution. Extensive characterizations have been studied to confirm the formation of graphene in sodium carbonate solution. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical properties of the prepared graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode using potassium ferricyanide as a redox probe. Based on the result, with the addition of graphene to the glassy carbon electrode the current flow increases and the peak also broadens as compared to graphite and graphene oxide. This method is fast, cost effective, and green as nontoxic solvents are used which will not result in contamination of the products. Thus, this method can serve for the preparation of graphene which can be effectively used in sensors, electronic devices and supercapacitors.

Keywords: chemical reduction, electrochemical, graphene, green synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
25410 Green Hydrogen: Exploring Economic Viability and Alluring Business Scenarios

Authors: S. Sakthivel

Abstract:

Currently, the global economy is based on the hydrocarbon economy, which is referencing the global hydrocarbon industry. Problems of using these fossil fuels (like oil, NG, coal) are emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) and price fluctuation, supply/distribution, etc. These challenges can be overcome by using clean energy as hydrogen. The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for hydrogen vehicles, alternative industrial feedstock, power generation, and energy storage, etc. Engineering consulting firms have a significant role in this ambition and green hydrogen value chain (i.e., integration of renewables, production, storage, and distribution to end-users). Typically, the cost of green hydrogen is a function of the price of electricity needed, the cost of the electrolyser, and the operating cost to run the system. This article focuses on economic viability and explores the alluring business scenarios globally. Break-even analysis was carried out for green hydrogen production and in order to evaluate and compare the impact of the electricity price on the production costs of green hydrogen and relate it to fossil fuel-based brown/grey/blue hydrogen costs. It indicates that the cost of green hydrogen production will fall drastically due to the declining costs of renewable electricity prices and along with the improvement and scaling up of electrolyser manufacturing. For instance, in a scenario where electricity prices are below US$ 40/MWh, green hydrogen cost is expected to reach cost competitiveness.

Keywords: green hydrogen, cost analysis, break-even analysis, renewables, electrolyzer

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25409 Spatial Analysis of the Impact of City Developments Degradation of Green Space in Urban Fringe Eastern City of Yogyakarta Year 2005-2010

Authors: Pebri Nurhayati, Rozanah Ahlam Fadiyah

Abstract:

In the development of the city often use rural areas that can not be separated from the change in land use that lead to the degradation of urban green space in the city fringe. In the long run, the degradation of green open space this can impact on the decline of ecological, psychological and public health. Therefore, this research aims to (1) determine the relationship between the parameters of the degradation rate of urban development with green space, (2) develop a spatial model of the impact of urban development on the degradation of green open space with remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems in an integrated manner. This research is a descriptive research with data collection techniques of observation and secondary data . In the data analysis, to interpret the direction of urban development and degradation of green open space is required in 2005-2010 ASTER image with NDVI. Of interpretation will generate two maps, namely maps and map development built land degradation green open space. Secondary data related to the rate of population growth, the level of accessibility, and the main activities of each city map is processed into a population growth rate, the level of accessibility maps, and map the main activities of the town. Each map is used as a parameter to map the degradation of green space and analyzed by non-parametric statistical analysis using Crosstab thus obtained value of C (coefficient contingency). C values were then compared with the Cmaximum to determine the relationship. From this research will be obtained in the form of modeling spatial map of the City Development Impact Degradation Green Space in Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010. In addition, this research also generate statistical analysis of the test results of each parameter to the degradation of green open space in the Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010.

Keywords: spatial analysis, urban development, degradation of green space, urban fringe

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25408 The Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on the Mg and P Concentrations in Turkish Black and Green Tea

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, T. Yalcin, O. Dere Ozdemir, S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Tea is one of the most consumed beverages all over the world. Especially, black and green teas are preferred to consume. In Turkey, some local tea houses use sodium bicarbonate (SB) to obtain more infusion by using less amount of tea. Therefore, the addition of SB to black and green teas affects element concentrations of these teas. In this study, determination of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) contents in black and green teas is aimed for conscious consumption, after the addition of SB. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for these analysis. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of Mg and P decreased by adding SB from 11.020, 21.915 to 10.009, 17.520 in black tea and from 12.605, 14.550 to 8.118, 9.425 in green tea, respectively. The addition of SB on analyzed teas is not recommended as it reduces intake percentages of Mg and P from the essential elements.

Keywords: elements, ICP-OES, sodium bicarbonate, tea

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25407 A Green Analytical Curriculum for Renewable STEM Education

Authors: Mian Jiang, Zhenyi Wu

Abstract:

We have incorporated green components into existing analytical chemistry curriculum with the aims to present a more environment benign approach in both teaching laboratory and undergraduate research. These include the use of cheap, sustainable, and market-available material; minimized waste disposal, replacement of non-aqueous media; and scale-down in sample/reagent consumption. Model incorporations have covered topics in quantitative chemistry as well as instrumental analysis, lower division as well as upper level, and research in traditional titration, spectroscopy, electrochemical analysis, and chromatography. The green embedding has made chemistry more daily life relevance, and application focus. Our approach has the potential to expand into all STEM fields to make renewable, high-impact education experience for undergraduate students.

Keywords: green analytical chemistry, pencil lead, mercury, renewable

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
25406 Quest for an Efficient Green Multifunctional Agent for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles with Highly Specified Structural Properties

Authors: Niharul Alam

Abstract:

The development of energy efficient, economic and eco-friendly synthetic protocols for metal nanoparticles (NPs) with tailor-made structural properties and biocompatibility is a highly cherished goal for researchers working in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this context, green chemistry is highly relevant and the 12 principles of Green Chemistry can be explored to develop such synthetic protocols which are practically implementable. One of the most promising green chemical synthetic methods which can serve the purpose is biogenic synthetic protocol, which utilizes non-toxic multifunctional reactants derived from natural, biological sources ranging from unicellular organisms to higher plants that are often characterized as “medicinal plants”. Over the past few years, a plethora of medicinal plants have been explored as the source of this kind of multifunctional green chemical agents. In this presentation, we focus on the syntheses of stable monometallic Au and Ag NPs and also bimetallic Au/Ag alloy NPs with highly efficient catalytic property using aqueous extract of leaves of Indian Curry leaf plat (Murraya koenigii Spreng.; Fam. Rutaceae) as green multifunctional agents which is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine and cuisine. We have also studied the interaction between the synthesized metal NPs and surface-adsorbed fluorescent moieties, quercetin and quercetin glycoside which are its chemical constituents. This helped us to understand the surface property of the metal NPs synthesized by this plant based biogenic route and to predict a plausible mechanistic pathway which may help in fine-tuning green chemical methods for the controlled synthesis of various metal NPs in future. We observed that simple experimental parameters e.g. pH and temperature of the reaction medium, concentration of multifunctional agent and precursor metal ions play important role in the biogenic synthesis of Au NPs with finely tuned structures.

Keywords: green multifunctional agent, metal nanoparticles, biogenic synthesis

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25405 Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Industrial Waste Materials: Full Factorial Design

Authors: Semra Çoruh, Yusuf Tibet

Abstract:

Dyes are widely used in industries such as textiles, paper, paints, leather, rubber, plastics, cosmetics, food, and drug etc, to color their products. Due to their chemical structures, dyes are resistant to fading on exposure to light, water and many chemicals and, therefore, are difficult to be decolorized once released into the aquatic environment. Many of the organic dyes are hazardous and may affect aquatic life and even the food chain. This study deals with the adsorption of malachite green dye onto fly ash and red mud. The effects of experimental factors (adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and temperature) on the adsorption process were examined by using 24 full factorial design. The results were statistically analyzed by using the student’s t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an F-test to define important experimental factors and their levels. A regression model that considers the significant main and interaction effects was suggested. The results showed that initial dye concentration an pH is the most significant factor that affects the removal of malachite green.

Keywords: malachite green, adsorption, red mud, fly ash, full factorial design

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25404 CertifHy: Developing a European Framework for the Generation of Guarantees of Origin for Green Hydrogen

Authors: Frederic Barth, Wouter Vanhoudt, Marc Londo, Jaap C. Jansen, Karine Veum, Javier Castro, Klaus Nürnberger, Matthias Altmann

Abstract:

Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in the transition towards a low-carbon economy, especially within the transport sector, the energy sector and the (petro)chemical industry sector. However, the production and use of hydrogen only make sense if the production and transportation are carried out with minimal impact on natural resources, and if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced in comparison to conventional hydrogen or conventional fuels. The CertifHy project, supported by a wide range of key European industry leaders (gas companies, chemical industry, energy utilities, green hydrogen technology developers and automobile manufacturers, as well as other leading industrial players) therefore aims to: 1. Define a widely acceptable definition of green hydrogen. 2. Determine how a robust Guarantee of Origin (GoO) scheme for green hydrogen should be designed and implemented throughout the EU. It is divided into the following work packages (WPs). 1. Generic market outlook for green hydrogen: Evidence of existing industrial markets and the potential development of new energy related markets for green hydrogen in the EU, overview of the segments and their future trends, drivers and market outlook (WP1). 2. Definition of “green” hydrogen: step-by-step consultation approach leading to a consensus on the definition of green hydrogen within the EU (WP2). 3. Review of existing platforms and interactions between existing GoO and green hydrogen: Lessons learnt and mapping of interactions (WP3). 4. Definition of a framework of guarantees of origin for “green” hydrogen: Technical specifications, rules and obligations for the GoO, impact analysis (WP4). 5. Roadmap for the implementation of an EU-wide GoO scheme for green hydrogen: the project implementation plan will be presented to the FCH JU and the European Commission as the key outcome of the project and shared with stakeholders before finalisation (WP5 and 6). Definition of Green Hydrogen: CertifHy Green hydrogen is hydrogen from renewable sources that is also CertifHy Low-GHG-emissions hydrogen. Hydrogen from renewable sources is hydrogen belonging to the share of production equal to the share of renewable energy sources (as defined in the EU RES directive) in energy consumption for hydrogen production, excluding ancillary functions. CertifHy Low-GHG hydrogen is hydrogen with emissions lower than the defined CertifHy Low-GHG-emissions threshold, i.e. 36.4 gCO2eq/MJ, produced in a plant where the average emissions intensity of the non-CertifHy Low-GHG hydrogen production (based on an LCA approach), since sign-up or in the past 12 months, does not exceed the emissions intensity of the benchmark process (SMR of natural gas), i.e. 91.0 gCO2eq/MJ.

Keywords: green hydrogen, cross-cutting, guarantee of origin, certificate, DG energy, bankability

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25403 Planning of Green Infrastructure on a city level

Authors: James Li, Darko Joksimovic

Abstract:

Urban development changes the natural hydrologic cycle, resulting in storm water impacts such as flooding, water quality degradation, receiving water erosion, and ecosystem deterioration. An integrated storm water managementapproach utilizing source and conveyance (termed green infrastructure) and end-of-pipe control measures is an effective way to manage urban storm water impacts. This paper focuses onplanning green infrastructure (GI) at the source and along the drainage system on a city level. It consists of (1)geospatial analysis of feasible GI using physical suitability; (2) modelling of cumulative GI's stormwater performance; and (3) cost-effectiveness analysis to prioritize the implementation of GI. A case study of the City of Barrie in Ontario, Canada, was used to demonstrate the GI's planning.

Keywords: cost-effectiveness of storm water controls, green infrastructure, urban storm water, city-level master planning

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25402 Rating the Importance of Customer Requirements for Green Product Using Analytic Hierarchy Process Methodology

Authors: Lara F. Horani, Shurong Tong

Abstract:

Identification of customer requirements and their preferences are the starting points in the process of product design. Most of design methodologies focus on traditional requirements. But in the previous decade, the green products and the environment requirements have increasingly attracted the attention with the constant increase in the level of consumer awareness towards environmental problems (such as green-house effect, global warming, pollution and energy crisis, and waste management). Determining the importance weights for the customer requirements is an essential and crucial process. This paper used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach to evaluate and rate the customer requirements for green products. With respect to the ultimate goal of customer satisfaction, surveys are conducted using a five-point scale analysis. With the help of this scale, one can derive the weight vectors. This approach can improve the imprecise ranking of customer requirements inherited from studies based on the conventional AHP. Furthermore, the AHP with extent analysis is simple and easy to implement to prioritize customer requirements. The research is based on collected data through a questionnaire survey conducted over a sample of 160 people belonging to different age, marital status, education and income groups in order to identify the customer preferences for green product requirements.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process (AHP), green product, customer requirements for green design, importance weights for the customer requirements

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25401 Synthesis and Characterization of Renewable Resource Based Green Epoxy Coating

Authors: Sukanya Pradhan, Smita Mohanty, S. K Nayak

Abstract:

Plant oils are a great renewable source for being a reliable starting material to access new products with a wide spectrum of structural and functional variations. Even though petroleum products might also render the same, but it would also impose a high risk factor of environmental and health hazard. Since epoxidized vegetable oils are easily available, eco-compatible, non-toxic and renewable, hence these have drawn much of the attentions in the polymer industrial sector especially for the development of eco-friendly coating materials. In this study a waterborne epoxy coating was prepared from epoxidized soyabean oil by using triethanolamine. Because of its hydrophobic nature, it was a tough and tedius task to make it hydrophilic. The hydrophobic biobased epoxy was modified into waterborne epoxy by the help of a plant based anhydride as curing agent. Physico-mechanical, chemical resistance tests and thermal analysis of the green coating material were carried out which showed good physic-mechanical, chemical resistance properties as well as environment friendly. The complete characterization of the final material was done in terms of scratch hardness, gloss test, impact resistance, adhesion and bend test.

Keywords: epoxidized soybean oil, waterborne, curing agent, green coating

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25400 Agriroofs and Agriwalls: Applications of Food Production in Green Roofs and Green Walls

Authors: Eman M. Elmazek

Abstract:

Green roofs and walls are a rising technology in the global sustainable architectural industry. The idea takes great steps towards the future of sustainable design due to its many benefits. However, there are many barriers and constraints. Economical, structural, and knowledge barriers prevent the spread of the usage of green roofs and living walls. Understanding the benefits and expanding them will spread the idea. Benefits provided by these green spots interrupt and maintain the current urban cover. Food production is one of the benefits of green roofs. It can save money and energy spent in food transportation. The goal of this paper is to put a better understanding of implementing green systems. The paper aims to identify gains versus challenges facing the technology. It surveys with case studies buildings with green roofs and walls used for food production.

Keywords: green roof, green walls, urban farming, roof herb garden

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25399 Integrated Evaluation of Green Design and Green Manufacturing Processes Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Shin-Han Lin

Abstract:

In this research, a mathematical model for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. To design a product, there can be alternative options to design the detailed components to fulfill the same product requirement. In the design alternative cases, the components of the product can be designed with different materials and detailed specifications. If several design alternative cases are proposed, the different materials and specifications can affect the manufacturing processes. In this paper, a new concept for integrating green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. A green design can be determined based the manufacturing processes of the designed product by evaluating the green criteria including energy usage and environmental impact, in addition to the traditional criteria of manufacturing cost. With this concept, a mathematical model is developed to find the green design and the associated green manufacturing processes. In the mathematical model, the cost items include material cost, manufacturing cost, and green related cost. The green related cost items include energy cost and environmental cost. The objective is to find the decisions of green design and green manufacturing processes to achieve the minimized total cost. In practical applications, the decision-making can be made to select a good green design case and its green manufacturing processes. In this presentation, an example product is illustrated. It shows that the model is practical and useful for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes.

Keywords: supply chain management, green supply chain, green design, green manufacturing, mathematical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
25398 Green Computing: Awareness and Practice in a University Information Technology Department

Authors: Samson Temitope Obafemi

Abstract:

The fact that ICTs is pervasive in today’s society paradoxically also calls for the need for green computing. Green computing generally encompasses the study and practice of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources effectively and efficiently without negatively affecting the environment. Since the emergence of this innovation, manufacturers and governmental bodies such as Energy Star and the United State of America’s government have obviously invested many resources in ensuring the reality of green design, manufacture, and disposal of ICTs. However, the level of adherence to green use of ICTs among users have been less accounted for especially in developing ICT consuming nations. This paper, therefore, focuses on examining the awareness and practice of green computing among academics and students of the Information Technology Department of Durban University of Technology, Durban South Africa, in the context of green use of ICTs. This was achieved through a survey that involved the use of a questionnaire with four sections: (a) demography of respondents, (b) Awareness of green computing, (c) practices of green computing, and (d) attitude towards greener computing. One hundred and fifty (150) questionnaires were distributed, one hundred and twenty (125) were completed and collected for data analysis. Out of the one hundred and twenty-five (125) respondents, twenty-five percent (25%) were academics while the remaining seventy-five percent (75%) were students. The result showed a higher level of awareness of green computing among academics when compared to the students. Green computing practices are also shown to be highly adhered to among academics only. However, interestingly, the students were found to be more enthusiastic towards greener computing in the future. The study, therefore, suggests that the awareness of green computing should be further strengthened among students from the curriculum point of view in order to improve on the greener use of ICTs in universities especially in developing countries.

Keywords: awareness, green computing, green use, information technology

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25397 Building a Parametric Link between Mapping and Planning: A Sunlight-Adaptive Urban Green System Plan Formation Process

Authors: Chenhao Zhu

Abstract:

Quantitative mapping is playing a growing role in guiding urban planning, such as using a heat map created by CFX, CFD2000, or Envi-met, to adjust the master plan. However, there is no effective quantitative link between the mappings and planning formation. So, in many cases, the decision-making is still based on the planner's subjective interpretation and understanding of these mappings, which limits the improvement of scientific and accuracy brought by the quantitative mapping. Therefore, in this paper, an effort has been made to give a methodology of building a parametric link between the mapping and planning formation. A parametric planning process based on radiant mapping has been proposed for creating an urban green system. In the first step, a script is written in Grasshopper to build a road network and form the block, while the Ladybug Plug-in is used to conduct a radiant analysis in the form of mapping. Then, the research creatively transforms the radiant mapping from a polygon into a data point matrix, because polygon is hard to engage in the design formation. Next, another script is created to select the main green spaces from the road network based on the criteria of radiant intensity and connect the green spaces' central points to generate a green corridor. After that, a control parameter is introduced to adjust the corridor's form based on the radiant intensity. Finally, a green system containing greenspace and green corridor is generated under the quantitative control of the data matrix. The designer only needs to modify the control parameter according to the relevant research results and actual conditions to realize the optimization of the green system. This method can also be applied to much other mapping-based analysis, such as wind environment analysis, thermal environment analysis, and even environmental sensitivity analysis. The parameterized link between the mapping and planning will bring about a more accurate, objective, and scientific planning.

Keywords: parametric link, mapping, urban green system, radiant intensity, planning strategy, grasshopper

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25396 Green Organic Chemistry, a New Paradigm in Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Pesaru Vigneshwar Reddy, Parvathaneni Pavan

Abstract:

Green organic chemistry which is the latest and one of the most researched topics now-a- days has been in demand since 1990’s. Majority of the research in green organic chemistry chemicals are some of the important starting materials for greater number of major chemical industries. The production of organic chemicals has raw materials (or) reagents for other application is major sector of manufacturing polymers, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paints, artificial fibers, food additives etc. organic synthesis on a large scale compound to the labratory scale, involves the use of energy, basic chemical ingredients from the petro chemical sectors, catalyst and after the end of the reaction, seperation, purification, storage, packing distribution etc. During these processes there are many problems of health and safety for workers in addition to the environmental problems caused there by use and deposition as waste. Green chemistry with its 12 principles would like to see changes in conventional way that were used for decades to make synthetic organic chemical and the use of less toxic starting materials. Green chemistry would like to increase the efficiency of synthetic methods, to use less toxic solvents, reduce the stage of synthetic routes and minimize waste as far as practically possible. In this way, organic synthesis will be part of the effort for sustainable development Green chemistry is also interested for research and alternatives innovations on many practical aspects of organic synthesis in the university and research labaratory of institutions. By changing the methodologies of organic synthesis, health and safety will be advanced in the small scale laboratory level but also will be extended to the industrial large scale production a process through new techniques. The three key developments in green chemistry include the use of super critical carbondioxide as green solvent, aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidising agent and use of hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis. It also focuses on replacing traditional methods of heating with that of modern methods of heating like microwaves traditions, so that carbon foot print should reduces as far as possible. Another beneficiary of this green chemistry is that it will reduce environmental pollution through the use of less toxic reagents, minimizing of waste and more bio-degradable biproducts. In this present paper some of the basic principles, approaches, and early achievements of green chemistry has a branch of chemistry that studies the laws of passing of chemical reactions is also considered, with the summarization of green chemistry principles. A discussion about E-factor, old and new synthesis of ibuprofen, microwave techniques, and some of the recent advancements also considered.

Keywords: energy, e-factor, carbon foot print, micro-wave, sono-chemistry, advancement

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