Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7363

Search results for: national Iranian building code

7363 A Resistant-Based Comparative Study between Iranian Concrete Design Code and Some Worldwide Ones

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani

Abstract:

The design in most counties should be inevitably carried out by their native code such as Iran. Since the Iranian concrete code does not exist in structural design software, most engineers in this country analyze the structures using commercial software but design the structural members manually. This point motivated us to make a communication between Iranian code and some other well-known ones to create facility for the engineers. Finally, this paper proposes the so-called interpretation charts which help specify the position of Iranian code in comparison of some worldwide ones.

Keywords: beam, concrete code, strength, interpretation charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
7362 Review and Comparison of Iran`s Sixteenth Topic of the Building with the Ranking System of the Water Sector Lead to Improve the Criteria of the Sixteenth Topic

Authors: o. fatemi

Abstract:

Considering growing building construction industry in developing countries and sustainable development concept, as well as the importance of taking care of the future generations, codifying buildings scoring system based on environmental criteria, has always been a subject for discussion. The existing systems cannot be used for all the regions due to several reasons, including but not limited to variety in regional variables. In this article, the most important common LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) and BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) common and Global environmental scoring systems, used in UK, USA, and Japan, respectively, have been discussed and compared with a special focus on CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency), to credit assigning field (weighing and scores systems) as well as sustainable development criteria in each system. Then, converging and distinct fields of the foregoing systems are examined considering National Iranian Building Code. Furthermore, the common credits in the said systems not mentioned in National Iranian Building Code have been identified. These credits, which are generally included in well-known fundamental principles in sustainable development, may be considered as offered options for the Iranian building environmental scoring system. It is suggested that one of the globally and commonly accepted systems is chosen considering national priorities in order to offer an effective method for buildings environmental scoring, and then, a part of credits is added and/or removed, or a certain credit score is changed, and eventually, a new scoring system with a new title is developed for the country. Evidently, building construction industry highly affects the environment, economy, efficiency, and health of the relevant occupants. Considering the growing trend of cities and construction, achieving building scoring systems based on environmental criteria has always been a matter of discussion. The existing systems cannot be used for all the regions due to several reasons, including but not limited to variety in regional variables.

Keywords: scoring system, sustainability assessment, water efficiency, national Iranian building code

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7361 Anticipation of Bending Reinforcement Based on Iranian Concrete Code Using Meta-Heuristic Tools

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani

Abstract:

In this paper, different concrete codes including America, New Zealand, Mexico, Italy, India, Canada, Hong Kong, Euro Code and Britain are compared with the Iranian concrete design code. First, by using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), the codes having the most correlation with the Iranian ninth issue of the national regulation are determined. Consequently, two anticipated methods are used for comparing the codes: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multi-variable regression. The results show that ANN performs better. Predicting is done by using only tensile steel ratio and with ignoring the compression steel ratio.

Keywords: adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system, anticipate method, artificial neural network, concrete design code, multi-variable regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
7360 A Critical Examination of the Iranian National Legal Regulation of the Ecosystem of Lake Urmia

Authors: Siavash Ostovar

Abstract:

The Iranian national Law on the Ramsar Convention (officially known as the Convention of International Wetlands and Aquatic Birds' Habitat Wetlands) was approved by the Senate and became a law in 1974 after the ratification of the National Council. There are other national laws with the aim of preservation of environment in the country. However, Lake Urmia which is declared a wetland of international importance by the Ramsar Convention in 1971 and designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1976 is now at the brink of total disappearance due mainly to the climate change, water mismanagement, dam construction, and agricultural deficiencies. Lake Urmia is located in the north western corner of Iran. It is the third largest salt water lake in the world and the largest lake in the Middle East. Locally, it is designated as a National Park. It is, indeed, a unique lake both nationally and internationally. This study investigated how effective the national legal regulation of the ecosystem of Lake Urmia is in Iran. To do so, the Iranian national laws as Enforcement of Ramsar Convention in the country including three nationally established laws of (i) Five sets of laws for the programme of economic, social and cultural development of Islamic Republic of Iran, (ii) The Iranian Penal Code, (iii) law of conservation, restoration and management of the country were investigated. Using black letter law methods, it was revealed that (i) regarding the national five sets of laws; the benchmark to force the implementation of the legislations and policies is not set clearly. In other words, there is no clear guarantee to enforce these legislations and policies at the time of deviation and violation; (ii) regarding the Penal Code, there is lack of determining the environmental crimes, determining appropriate penalties for the environmental crimes, implementing those penalties appropriately, monitoring and training programmes precisely; (iii) regarding the law of conservation, restoration and management, implementation of this regulation is adjourned to preparation, announcement and approval of several categories of enactments and guidelines. In fact, this study used a national environmental catastrophe caused by drying up of Lake Urmia as an excuse to direct the attention to the weaknesses of the existing national rules and regulations. Finally, as we all depend on the natural world for our survival, this study recommended further research on every environmental issue including the Lake Urmia.

Keywords: conservation, environmental law, Lake Urmia, national laws, Ramsar Convention, water management, wetlands

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
7359 The Relationship between Organizational Political Behavior and Moral Values with Work Engagement in Sport Employees of National Iranian Gas Company

Authors: Seyed Salahedin Naghshbandi, Mahnaz Ahmadikhatir, Siavash Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational political behavior and ethical values with the job enthusiasm of the sport personnel of the National Iranian Gas Company. The population of this research included all personnel of the National Iranian Gas Company's sports personnel (150 people). For collecting information, library resources and three questionnaires, organizational political behavior by Kaspar and Carlsen (1997), Lewall's moral values questionnaire (1986) and job enthusiasm questionnaire Schaufeli & Bekker (2003) have been used. Validity of the questionnaires was confirmed by university professors. Using Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient, the reliability of the organizational political behavior questionnaire was 0.92, the moral values questionnaire was 0.86 and the Schaufeli & Baker job enthusiasm questionnaire was 0.91-0.96. The results of this research show a significant, direct and positive relationship between the components of job aspiration with political behavior and ethical values. Therefore, managers of organizations should, as far as possible, remove political behaviors from the organization and be able to institutionalize ethical values in their organization so that they can increase employee eagerness.

Keywords: political behavior, ethical values, job enthusiasm, staff, national Iranian gas company

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7358 Energy Efficiency in Hot Arid Climates Code Compliance and Enforcement for Residential Buildings

Authors: Mohamed Edesy, Carlo Cecere

Abstract:

This paper is a part of an ongoing research that proposes energy strategies for residential buildings in hot arid climates. In Egypt, the residential sector is dominated by increase in consumption rates annually. A building energy efficiency code was introduced by the government in 2005; it indicates minimum design and application requirements for residential buildings. Submission is mandatory and should lead to about 20% energy savings with an increase in comfort levels. However, compliance is almost nonexistent, electricity is subsidized and incentives to adopt energy efficient patterns are very low. This work presents an overview of the code and analyzes the impact of its introduction on different sectors. It analyses compliance barriers and indicates challenges that stand in the way of a realistic enforcement. It proposes an action plan for immediate code enforcement, updating current code to include retrofit, and development of rating systems for buildings. This work presents a broad national plan for energy efficiency empowerment in the residential sector.

Keywords: energy efficiency, housing, energy policies, code enforcement

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7357 Designing Sustainable Building Based on Iranian's Windmills

Authors: Negar Sartipzadeh

Abstract:

Energy-conscious design, which coordinates with the Earth ecological systems during its life cycle, has the least negative impact on the environment with the least waste of resources. Due to the increasing in world population as well as the consumption of fossil fuels that cause the production of greenhouse gasses and environmental pollution, mankind is looking for renewable and also sustainable energies. The Iranian native construction is a clear evidence of energy-aware designing. Our predecessors were forced to rely on the natural resources and sustainable energies as well as environmental issues which have been being considered in the recent world. One of these endless energies is wind energy. Iranian traditional architecture foundations is a appropriate model in solving the environmental crisis and the contemporary energy. What will come in this paper is an effort to recognition and introduction of the unique characteristics of the Iranian architecture in the application of aerodynamic and hydraulic energies derived from the wind, which are the most common and major type of using sustainable energies in the traditional architecture of Iran. Therefore, the recent research attempts to offer a hybrid system suggestions for application in new constructions designing in a region such as Nashtifan, which has potential through reviewing windmills and how they deal with sustainable energy sources, as a model of Iranian native construction.

Keywords: renewable energy, sustainable building, windmill, Iranian architecture

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7356 Assessment of Causes of Building Collapse in Nigeria

Authors: Olufemi Oyedele

Abstract:

Building collapse (BC) in Nigeria is becoming a regular occurrence, each recording great casualties in the number of lives and materials lost. Building collapse is a situation where building which has been completed and occupied, completed but not occupied or under construction, collapses on its own due to action or inaction of man or due to natural event like earthquake, storm, flooding, tsunami or wildfire. It is different from building demolition. There are various causes of building collapse and each case requires expert judgment to decide the cause of its collapse. Rate of building collapse is a reflection of the level of organization and control of building activities and degree of sophistication of the construction professionals in a country. This study explored the use of case study by examining the causes of six (6) collapsed buildings (CB) across Nigeria. Samples of materials from the sites of the collapsed buildings were taken for testing and analysis, while critical observations were made at the sites to note the conditions of the ground (building base). The study found out that majority of the building collapses in Nigeria were due to poor workmanship, sub-standard building materials, followed by bad building base and poor design. The National Building Code 2006 is not effective due to lack of enforcement and the Physical Development Departments of states and Federal Capital Territory are just mere agents of corruption allowing all types of construction without building approvals.

Keywords: building collapse, concrete tests, differential settlement, integrity test, quality control

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
7355 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia

Abstract:

Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

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7354 Design of Seismically Resistant Tree-Branching Steel Frames Using Theory and Design Guides for Eccentrically Braced Frames

Authors: R. Gary Black, Abolhassan Astaneh-Asl

Abstract:

The International Building Code (IBC) and the California Building Code (CBC) both recognize four basic types of steel seismic resistant frames; moment frames, concentrically braced frames, shear walls and eccentrically braced frames. Based on specified geometries and detailing, the seismic performance of these steel frames is well understood. In 2011, the authors designed an innovative steel braced frame system with tapering members in the general shape of a branching tree as a seismic retrofit solution to an existing four story “lift-slab” building. Located in the seismically active San Francisco Bay Area of California, a frame of this configuration, not covered by the governing codes, would typically require model or full scale testing to obtain jurisdiction approval. This paper describes how the theories, protocols, and code requirements of eccentrically braced frames (EBFs) were employed to satisfy the 2009 International Building Code (IBC) and the 2010 California Building Code (CBC) for seismically resistant steel frames and permit construction of these nonconforming geometries.

Keywords: eccentrically braced frame, lift slab construction, seismic retrofit, shear link, steel design

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
7353 Studying Iranian Religious Minority Architecture: Differences and Commonalities in Religious and National Architecture after Safavid

Authors: Saeideh Soltanmohammadlou, Pilar M Guerrieri, Amir Kianfar, Sara Sadeghian, Yasaman Nafezi, Emily Irvin

Abstract:

Architecture is rooted in the experiences of the residents in a place. Its foundations are based on needs and circumstances of each territory in terms of climate, available materials, economics and governmental policies, and cultural ideals and ideas of the people that live there. The architectural history of Iran echoes these architectural origins and has revealed certain trends reflecting this territory and culture. However, in recent years, new architectural patterns are developing that diverge from what has previously been considered classic forms of Iranian architecture. This article investigates architectural elements that make up the architecture created by religious minorities after the Safavid dynasty (one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran (from 1501 to 1736) in Iranian cities: Isfahan, Tabriz, Kerman, and Uremia. Similarities and differences are revealed between the architecture that composes neighborhoods of religious minorities in Iran and common national architectural trends in each era after this dynasty. This dynasty is specific as a point of reference in this article because Islam was identified as the state religion of Iran during this era. This decision changed the course of architecture in the country to incorporate religious motifs and meanings. The study associated with this article was conducted as a survey that sought to find links between architecture of religious minorities with Iranian national architecture. Interestingly, a merging of architectural forms and trends occur as immigrants interact with Iranian Islamic meanings. These observations are significant within the context of modern architecture around the world and within Western discourse because what are considered religious minorities in Iran are the dominant religions in Western nations. This makes Iran’s architecture particularly unique as it creates a kind of inverse relationship, than that of Western nations, to the ways in which religion influences architectural history.

Keywords: architecture, ethnic architecture, national architecture, religion architecture

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7352 A Rapid Code Acquisition Scheme in OOC-Based CDMA Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We propose a code acquisition scheme called improved multiple-shift (IMS) for optical code division multiple access systems, where the optical orthogonal code is used instead of the pseudo noise code. Although the IMS algorithm has a similar process to that of the conventional MS algorithm, it has a better code acquisition performance than the conventional MS algorithm. We analyze the code acquisition performance of the IMS algorithm and compare the code acquisition performances of the MS and the IMS algorithms in single-user and multi-user environments.

Keywords: code acquisition, optical CDMA, optical orthogonal code, serial algorithm

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7351 Damage Assessment and Repair for Older Brick Buildings

Authors: Tim D. Sass

Abstract:

The experience of engineers and architects practicing today is typically limited to current building code requirements and modern construction methods and materials. However, many cities have a mix of new and old buildings with many buildings constructed over one hundred years ago when building codes and construction methods were much different. When a brick building sustains damage, a structural engineer is often hired to determine the cause of damage as well as determine the necessary repairs. Forensic studies of dozens of brick buildings shows an appreciation of historical building methods and materials is needed to correctly identify the cause of damage and design an appropriate repair. Damage on an older, brick building can be mistakenly attributed to storms or seismic events when the real source of the damage is deficient original construction. Assessing and remediating damaged brickwork on older brick buildings requires an understanding of the original construction, an understanding of older repair methods, and, an understanding of current building code requirements.

Keywords: brick, damage, deterioration, facade

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
7350 3D Visualization for the Relationship of the Urban Rule and Building Form by Using CityEngine

Authors: Chin Ku, Han liang Lin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to visualize how the rule related to urban design influences the building form by 3D modeling software CityEngine. In order to make the goal of urban design clearly connect to urban form, urban planner or designer should understand how the rule affects the form, especially the building form. In Taiwan, the rule pertained to urban design includes traditional zoning, urban design review and building codes. However, zoning cannot precisely expect the outcome of building form and lack of thinking about public realm and 3D form. In addition to that, urban design review is based on case by case, do not have a comprehensive regulation plan and the building code is just for general regulation. Therefore, rule cannot make the urban form reach the vision or goal of the urban design. Consequently, another kind of zoning called Form-based code (FBC) has arisen. This study uses the component of FBC which pertained to urban fabric such as street width, block and plot size, etc., to be the variants of building form, and find out the relationship between the rule and building form. There are three stages of this research, it will start from a field survey of Taichung City in Taiwan to induce the rule-building form relationship by using cluster analysis and descriptive Statistics. Second, visualize the relationship through the parameterized and codified process in CityEngine which is the procedural modeling, and can analyze, monitor and visualize the 3D world. Last, compare the CityEngine result with real world to examine how extent do this model represent the real world appearance.

Keywords: 3D visualization, CityEngine, form-based code, urban form

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
7349 An Investigation on Overstrength Factor (Ω) of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Turkish Earthquake Draft Code (TEC-2016)

Authors: M. Hakan Arslan, I. Hakkı Erkan

Abstract:

Overstrength factor is an important parameter of load reduction factor. In this research, the overstrength factor (Ω) of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings and the parameters of Ω in TEC-2016 draft version have been explored. For this aim, 48 RC buildings have been modeled according to the current seismic code TEC-2007 and Turkish Building Code-500-2000 criteria. After modelling step, nonlinear static pushover analyses have been applied to these buildings by using TEC-2007 Section 7. After the nonlinear pushover analyses, capacity curves (lateral load-lateral top displacement curves) have been plotted for 48 RC buildings. Using capacity curves, overstrength factors (Ω) have been derived for each building. The obtained overstrength factor (Ω) values have been compared with TEC-2016 values for related building types, and the results have been interpreted. According to the obtained values from the study, overstrength factor (Ω) given in TEC-2016 draft code is found quite suitable.

Keywords: reinforced concrete buildings, overstrength factor, earthquake, static pushover analysis

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7348 Comparing the Embodied Carbon Impacts of a Passive House with the BC Energy Step Code Using Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Lorena Polovina, Maddy Kennedy-Parrott, Mohammad Fakoor

Abstract:

The construction industry accounts for approximately 40% of total GHG emissions worldwide. In order to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius, ambitious reductions in the carbon intensity of our buildings are crucial. Passive House presents an opportunity to reduce operational carbon by as much as 90% compared to a traditional building through improving thermal insulation, limiting thermal bridging, increasing airtightness and heat recovery. Up until recently, Passive House design was mainly concerned with meeting the energy demands without considering embodied carbon. As buildings become more energy-efficient, embodied carbon becomes more significant. The main objective of this research is to calculate the embodied carbon impact of a Passive House and compare it with the BC Energy Step Code (ESC). British Columbia is committed to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings through the ESC, which is targeting net-zero energy-ready buildings by 2032. However, there is a knowledge gap in the embodied carbon impacts of more energy-efficient buildings, in particular Part 3 construction. In this case study, life cycle assessments (LCA) are performed on Part 3, a multi-unit residential building in Victoria, BC. The actual building is not constructed to the Passive House standard; however, the building envelope and mechanical systems are designed to comply with the Passive house criteria, as well as Steps 1 and 4 of the BC Energy Step Code (ESC) for comparison. OneClick LCA is used to perform the LCA of the case studies. Several strategies are also proposed to minimize the total carbon emissions of the building. The assumption is that there will not be significant differences in embodied carbon between a Passive House and a Step 4 building due to the building envelope.

Keywords: embodied carbon, energy modeling, energy step code, life cycle assessment

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7347 Ambient Vibration Testing of Existing Buildings in Madinah

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail

Abstract:

The elastic period has a primary role in the seismic assessment of buildings. Reliable calculations and/or estimates of the fundamental frequency of a building and its site are essential during analysis and design process. Various code formulas based on empirical data are generally used to estimate the fundamental frequency of a structure. For existing structures, in addition to code formulas and available analytical tools such as modal analyses, various methods of testing including ambient and forced vibration testing procedures may be used to determine dynamic characteristics. In this study, the dynamic properties of the 32 buildings located in the Madinah of Saudi Arabia were identified using ambient motions recorded at several, spatially-distributed locations within each building. Ambient vibration measurements of buildings have been analyzed and the fundamental longitudinal and transverse periods for all tested buildings are presented. The fundamental mode of vibration has been compared in plots with codes formulae (Saudi Building Code, EC8, and UBC1997). The results indicate that measured periods of existing buildings are shorter than that given by most empirical code formulas. Recommendations are given based on the common design and construction practice in Madinah city.

Keywords: ambient vibration, fundamental period, RC buildings, infill walls

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7346 Increasing of Resiliency by Using Gas Storage in Iranian Gas Network

Authors: Mohsen Dourandish

Abstract:

Iran has a huge pipeline network in every state of country which is the longest and vastest pipeline network after Russia and USA (360,000 Km high pressure pipelines and 250,000 Km distribution networks). Furthermore in recent years National Iranian Gas Company is planning to develop natural gas network to cover all cities and villages above 20 families, in a way that 97 percent of Iran population will be gas consumer by 2020. In this condition, network resiliency will be the first priority of NIGC and due to that several planning for increasing resiliency of gas network is under construction. The most important strategy of NIGC is converting tree form pattern network to loop gas networks and developing underground gas storage near main gas consuming centers. In this regard NIGC is planning for construction of over 3500 km high-pressure pipeline and also 10 TCM gas storage capacities in UGSs.

Keywords: Iranian gas network, peak shaving, resiliency, underground gas storage

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7345 Role of Facade in Sustainability Enhancement of Contemporary Iranian Buildings

Authors: H. Nejadriahi

Abstract:

A growing demand for sustainability makes sustainability as one of the significant debates of nowadays. Energy saving is one of the main criteria to be considered in the context of sustainability. Reducing energy use in buildings is one of the most important ways to reduce humans’ overall environmental impact. Taking this into consideration, study of different design strategies, which can assist in reducing energy use and subsequently improving the sustainability level of today's buildings would be an essential task. The sustainability level of a building is highly affected by the sustainability performance of its components. One of the main building components, which can have a great impact on energy saving and sustainability level of the building, is its facade. The aim of this study is to investigate on the role of facade in sustainability enhancement of the contemporary buildings of Iran. In this study, the concept of sustainability in architecture, the building facades, and their relationship to sustainability are explained briefly. Following that, a number of contemporary Iranian buildings are discussed and analyzed in terms of different design strategies used in their facades in accordance to the sustainability concepts. The methods used in this study are descriptive and analytic. The results of this paper would assist in generating a wider vision and a source of inspiration for the current designers to design and create environmental and sustainable buildings for the future.

Keywords: building facade, contemporary buildings, Iran, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
7344 Statistical Analysis of the Main Causes of Delay Factors of Infrastructure Projects

Authors: Seyed Ali Mohammadiborna, Mehdi Ravanshadnia

Abstract:

Project delays usually detrimentally affect perceptions of project success and can in some instances, result in increased costs and other time-related damages to project stakeholders. One of the realities in the national infrastructure projects is that since the primary stakeholders are state-affiliated, the delay factors of the projects have not been seriously taken into account despite the importance of on-time completion of projects. Project postponement has different economic and social consequences and leads to the technical and economic infeasibility of the infrastructure projects in the form of reduced productivity and exploitation capacity. The present study aimed at investigating delay factors of Iranian national infrastructure projects according to regulatory reports of the Plan and Budget Organization (BPO) of Iran. The present study scrutinized the influence of each of the factors that caused delays in national Iranian infrastructure projects according to the supervision reports of the planning and budget organization in 8 years. For this purpose, the study analyzed the information regarding the impact of 12 key delay factors causing delays in average 4867 projects per year in all provinces. The said factors were classified into the three groups of executive, credit, and financial and environmental-procurement factors.

Keywords: delays, infrastructure, projects, regulatory

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7343 Some Codes for Variants in Graphs

Authors: Sofia Ait Bouazza

Abstract:

We consider the problem of finding a minimum identifying code in a graph. This problem was initially introduced in 1998 and has been since fundamentally connected to a wide range of applications (fault diagnosis, location detection …). Suppose we have a building into which we need to place fire alarms. Suppose each alarm is designed so that it can detect any fire that starts either in the room in which it is located or in any room that shares a doorway with the room. We want to detect any fire that may occur or use the alarms which are sounding to not only to not only detect any fire but be able to tell exactly where the fire is located in the building. For reasons of cost, we want to use as few alarms as necessary. The first problem involves finding a minimum domination set of a graph. If the alarms are three state alarms capable of distinguishing between a fire in the same room as the alarm and a fire in an adjacent room, we are trying to find a minimum locating domination set. If the alarms are two state alarms that can only sound if there is a fire somewhere nearby, we are looking for a differentiating domination set of a graph. These three areas are the subject of much active research; we primarily focus on the third problem. An identifying code of a graph G is a dominating set C such that every vertex x of G is distinguished from other vertices by the set of vertices in C that are at distance at most r≥1 from x. When only vertices out of the code are asked to be identified, we get the related concept of a locating dominating set. The problem of finding an identifying code (resp a locating dominating code) of minimum size is a NP-hard problem, even when the input graph belongs to a number of specific graph classes. Therefore, we study this problem in some restricted classes of undirected graphs like split graph, line graph and path in a directed graph. Then we present some results on the identifying code by giving an exact value of upper total locating domination and a total 2-identifying code in directed and undirected graph. Moreover we determine exact values of locating dominating code and edge identifying code of thin headless spider and locating dominating code of complete suns.

Keywords: identiying codes, locating dominating set, split graphs, thin headless spider

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7342 Investigation of Building Loads Effect on the Stability of Slope

Authors: Hadj Brahim Mounia, Belhamel Farid, Souici Messoud

Abstract:

In big cities, construction on sloping land (landslide) is becoming increasingly prevalent due to the unavailability of flat lands. This has created a major challenge for structural engineers with regard to structure design, due to the difficulties encountered during the implementation of projects, both for the structure and the soil. This paper analyses the effect of the number of floors of a building, founded on isolated footing on the stability of the slope using the computer code finite element PLAXIS 2D v. 8.2. The isolated footings of a building in this case were anchored in soil so that the levels of successive isolated footing realize a maximum slope of base of three for two heights, which connects the edges of the nearest footings, according to the Algerian building code DTR-BC 2.331: Shallow foundations. The results show that the embedment of the foundation into the soil reduces the value of the safety factor due to the change of the stress state of the soil by these foundations. The number of floors a building has also influences the safety factor. It has been noticed from this case of study that there is no risk of collapse of slopes for an inclination between 5° and 8°. In the case of slope inclination greater than 10° it has been noticed that the urbanization is prohibited.

Keywords: isolated footings, multi-storeys building, PLAXIS 2D, slope

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7341 Structural Analysis and Strengthening of the National Youth Foundation Building in Igoumenitsa, Greece

Authors: Chrysanthos Maraveas, Argiris Plesias, Garyfalia G. Triantafyllou, Konstantinos Petronikolos

Abstract:

The current paper presents a structural assessment and proposals for retrofit of the National Youth Foundation Building, an existing reinforced concrete (RC) building in the city of Igoumenitsa, Greece. The building is scheduled to be renovated in order to create a Municipal Cultural Center. The bearing capacity and structural integrity have been investigated in relation to the provisions and requirements of the Greek Retrofitting Code (KAN.EPE.) and European Standards (Eurocodes). The capacity of the existing concrete structure that makes up the two central buildings in the complex (buildings II and IV) has been evaluated both in its present form and after including several proposed architectural interventions. The structural system consists of spatial frames of columns and beams that have been simulated using beam elements. Some RC elements of the buildings have been strengthened in the past by means of concrete jacketing and have had cracks sealed with epoxy injections. Static-nonlinear analysis (Pushover) has been used to assess the seismic performance of the two structures with regard to performance level B1 from KAN.EPE. Retrofitting scenarios are proposed for the two buildings, including type Λ steel bracings and placement of concrete shear walls in the transverse direction in order to achieve the design-specification deformation in each applicable situation, improve the seismic performance, and reduce the number of interventions required.

Keywords: earthquake resistance, pushover analysis, reinforced concrete, retrofit, strengthening

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7340 The Role of Gender Differences in the Use of National Parks and Forested Areas in Slavonice, Czech Republic Using Quick Response Code

Authors: Chingkheihunba Pebam, Shima Yazdanmehr

Abstract:

This research project aims to study the role that gender has upon the use of National Parks and forested recreation areas in Slavonice, Czech Republic. Furthermore, this study investigate the role and significance that forested areas have upon the daily lives of local residents. This research proposes to observe the users at twenty distinct locations during twelve weeks study period. The study locations are within close proximity to the historic and recreational destination of Slavonice, situated in the southern part of the Czech Republic. This research aims to monitor the frequency of human presence and their associated movements in various recreation and tourism destinations in a discreet manner without disturbing the ecological elements such as wildlife/flora and fauna using uniquely generated Quick Response Codes (QR) for each twenty locations.

Keywords: national park, gender, czech republic, QR code

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7339 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code FORSDRAM Controller

Authors: N. Pitcheswara Rao

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

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7338 Evaluation of Response Modification Factors in Moment Resisting Frame Buildings Considering Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: K. Farheen, A. Munir

Abstract:

Seismic response of the multi-storey buildings is created by the interaction of both the structure and underlying soil medium. The seismic design philosophy is incorporated using response modification factor 'R'. Current code based values of 'R' factor does not reflect the SSI problem as it is based on fixed base condition. In this study, the modified values of 'R' factor for moment resisting frame (MRF) considering SSI are evaluated. The response of structure with and without SSI has been compared using equivalent linear static and nonlinear static pushover analyses for 10-storied moment resisting frame building. The building is located in seismic zone 2B situated on different soils with shear wave velocity (Vₛ) of 300m/sec (SD) and 1200m/s (SB). Code based 'R' factor value for building frame system has been taken as 5.5. Soil medium is modelled using identical but mutually independent horizontal and vertical springs. It was found that the modified 'R' factor values have been decreased by 47% and 43% for soil SD and SB respectively as compared to that of code based 'R' factor.

Keywords: buildings, SSI, shear wave velocity, R factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
7337 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code for SDRAM Controller

Authors: Pitcheswara Rao Nelapati

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
7336 Reliability-Based Codified Design of Concrete Structures

Authors: Naser Alenezi, Ibrahim Alsakkaf, Osama Eid

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to develop an independent reliability based code for reinforced concrete (R/C) structural components and elements solely for the State of Kuwait and its neighboring countries. The proposed code will take into account the harsh Kuwait’s harsh environment, loading conditions and material strengths. The method for developing such a code is based on structural reliability theory that takes into accounts the specific geographical and the various prescribed societal environment of the Kuwait region. These methods were developed according to the following four components: (1) loads, (2) structural strength, (3) reliability analysis, and (4) achieving target reliability levels (reliability index ’s ). The final product from this study will be a design code for R/C structural elements that include beams and columns, and some other structural members. This reliability-based LRFD design code will provide appropriate, easy, fast, and economical approach for designing R/C structural elements such as, beams and columns, for both houses and bridges, and other concrete structures. In addition, this reliability-based codified design of R/C beams, columns, and, possibly, concrete slabs will improve the design and serviceability of R/C bridge and building systems in Kuwait and neighboring GCC countries. Also, it has the potential to reduce the cost of new concrete structures, as fewer materials are used with more design efficiency.

Keywords: live laod, design, evaluation, structural building

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
7335 Wind Interference Effect on Tall Building

Authors: Atul K. Desai, Jigar K. Sevalia, Sandip A. Vasanwala

Abstract:

When a building is located in an urban area, it is exposed to a wind of different characteristics then wind over an open terrain. This is development of turbulent wake region behind an upstream building. The interaction with upstream building can produce significant changes in the response of the tall building. Here, in this paper, an attempt has been made to study wind induced interference effects on tall building. In order to study wind induced interference effect (IF) on Tall Building, initially a tall building (which is termed as Principal Building now on wards) with square plan shape has been considered with different Height to Width Ratio and total drag force is obtained considering different terrain conditions as well as different incident wind direction. Then total drag force on Principal Building is obtained by considering adjacent building which is termed as Interfering Building now on wards with different terrain conditions and incident wind angle. To execute study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Code namely Fluent and Gambit have been used.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, tall building, turbulent, wake region, wind

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
7334 Good Faith and Accession in the New Civil Code

Authors: Adelina Vrancianu

Abstract:

The problem of artificial real accession will be analyzed in this study both in terms of old and current Civil Code provisions and in terms of comparative law, European legal and Canadian systems. The current Civil Code from 2009 has brought new changes about the application and solutions regarding artificial real accession. The hypothesis in which a person is making works with his own materials on the real estate belonging to another person is developed and analyzed in detail from national and international point of view in relation with the good faith. The scope of this analysis is to point out what are the changes issued from case-law and which ones are new, inspired from other law systems in regard to the good/bad faith. The new civil code has promoted a definition for this notion. Is this definition a new one inspired from the comparative law or is it inspired from the case-law? Is it explained for every case scenario of accession or is a general notion? The study tries to respond to these questions and to present the new aspects in the area. has reserved a special place for the situation of execution of works with own materials exceeding the border with violation of another’s right of property, where the variety of solutions brings into discussion the case of expropriation for private interest. The new Civil Code is greatly influenced by the Civil Code from Quebec in comparison with the old code of French influence. The civil reform was needed and has brought into attention new solutions inspired from the Canadian system which has mitigated the permanent conflict between the constructor and the immovable owner.

Keywords: accession, good faith, new civil code, comparative law

Procedia PDF Downloads 383