Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1516

Search results for: moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR)

1516 Metagenomics Profile during the Bioremediation of Fischer-Tropsch Derived Short-Chain Alcohols and Volatile Fatty Acids Using a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

Authors: Mabtho Moreroa-Monyelo, Grace Ijoma, Rosina Nkuna, Tonderayi Matambo

Abstract:

A moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used for the bioremediation of high strength chemical oxygen demand (COD) Fisher-Tropsch (FT) wastewater. The aerobic MBBR system was operated over 60 days. For metagenomics profile assessment of the targeted 16S sequence of bacteria involved in the bioremediation of the chemical compounds, sludge samples were collected every second day of operation. Parameters such as pH and COD were measured daily to compare the system efficiency as the changedin microbial diversity progressed. The study revealed that pH was a contributing factor to microbial diversity, which further affected the efficiency of the MBBR system. The highest COD removal rate of 86.4% was achieved at pH 8.3. It was observed that when there was more, A higher bacterial diversity led to an improvement in the reduction of COD. Furthermore, an OTUof 4530 was obtained, which were divided into 12 phyla, 27 classes, 44 orders, 74 families, and 138 genera across all sludge samples from the MBBR. A determination of the relative abundance of microorganisms at phyla level indicates that the most abundant phylum on day it was Firmicutes (50%); thereafter, the most abundant phylum changed toProteobacteria.

Keywords: biodegradation, fischer-tropsch wastewater, metagenomics, moving bed biofilm reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
1515 Increased Nitrogen Removal in Cold Deammonification Biofilm Reactor (9-15°C) by Smooth Temperature Decreasing

Authors: Ivar Zekker, Ergo Rikmann, Anni Mandel, Markus Raudkivi, Kristel Kroon, Liis Loorits, Andrus Seiman, Hannu Fritze, Priit Vabamäe, Toomas Tenno, Taavo Tenno

Abstract:

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and nitritation-anammox (deammonification) processes are widely used for N-rich wastewater treatment nowadays. A deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with a high maximum total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) of 1.5 g N m-2 d-1 was started up and similarly high TNRR was sustained at low temperature of 15°C. During biofilm cultivation, temperature in MBBR was lowered by 0.5° C week-1 sustaining the high TNRR. To study the short-term effect of temperature on the TNRR, a series of batch-scale experiments performed showed sufficient TNRRs even at 9-15° C (4.3-5.4 mg N L-1 h-1, respectively). After biomass was adapted to lower temperature (15°C), the TNRR increase at lower temperature (15°C) was relatively higher (15-20%) than with biomass adapted to higher temperatures (17-18°C). Anammox qPCR showed increase of Candidatus Brocadia quantities from 5×103 to 1×107 anammox gene copies g-1 TSS despite temperature lowered to 15°C. Modeling confirmed causes of stable and unstable periods in the reactor and in batch test high Arrhenius constant of 29.7 kJ mol-1 of the process as high as at 100 mg NO2--N L-1 were determined. 

Keywords: deammonification, reject water, intermittent aeration, nitrite inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
1514 Contribution of Soluble Microbial Products on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Wastewater Effluent from Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

Authors: Boonsiri Dandumrongsin, Halis Simsek, Chaiwat Rongsayamanont

Abstract:

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is known as one of the persistence nitrogenous pollutant being originated from secondary treated effluent of municipal sewage treatment plant. However, effect of key system operating condition on the fate and behavior of residual DON in the treated effluent is still not known. This study aims to investigate effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on the residual level of DON in the biofilm reactor effluent. Synthetic municipal wastewater was fed into moving bed biofilm reactors at OLR of 1.6x10-3 and 3.2x10-3 kg SCOD/m3-d. The results showed higher organic removal efficiency was found in the reactor operating at higher OLR. However, DON was observed at higher value in the effluent of the higher OLR reactor than that of the lower OLR reactor evidencing a clear influence of OLR on the residual DON level in the treated effluent of the biofilm reactors. It is possible that the lower DON being observed in the reactor at lower OLR is likely to be a result of providing the microbe with the additional period for utilizing the refractory DON molecules during operation at lower organic loading. All the experiments were repeated using raw wastewaters and similar trend was obtained.

Keywords: dissolved organic nitrogen, hydraulic retention time, moving bed biofilm reactor, soluble microbial products

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1513 Treatment of Septic Tank Effluent Using Moving Bed Biological Reactor

Authors: Fares Almomani, Majeda Khraisheh, Rahul Bhosale, Anand Kumar, Ujjal Gosh

Abstract:

Septic tanks (STs) are very commonly used wastewater collection systems in the world especially in rural areas. In this study, the use of moving bed biological reactors (MBBR) for the treatment of septic tanks effluents (STE) was studied. The study was included treating septic tank effluent from one house hold using MBBRs. Significant ammonia removal rate was observed in all the reactors throughout the 180 days of operation suggesting that the MBBRs were successful in reducing the concentration of ammonia from septic tank effluent. The average ammonia removal rate at 25◦C for the reactor operated at hydraulic retention time of 5.7 hr (R1) was 0.540 kg-N/m3and for the reactor operated at hydraulic retention time of 13.3hr (R2) was 0.279 kg-N/m3. Ammonia removal rates were decreased to 0.3208 kg-N/m3 for R1 and 0.212 kg-N/m3 for R3 as the temperature of reactor was decreased to 8 ◦C. A strong correlation exists between theta model and the rates of ammonia removal for the reactors operated in continuous flow. The average ϴ values for the continuous flow reactors during the temperature change from 8°C to 20 °C were found to be 1.053±0.051. MBBR technology can be successfully used as a polishing treatment for septic tank effluent.

Keywords: septic tanks, wastewater treatment, morphology, moving biological reactors, nitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1512 Nutrients Removal Control via an Intermittently Aerated Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Junior B. N. Adohinzin, Ling Xu

Abstract:

Nitrogen is among the main nutrients encouraging the growth of organic matter and algae which cause eutrophication in water bodies. Therefore, its removal from wastewater has become a worldwide emerging concern. In this research, an innovative Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) system named “moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR)” was developed and investigated under intermittently-aerated mode for simultaneous removal of organic carbon and nitrogen. Results indicated that the variation of the intermittently aerated duration did not have an apparent impact on COD and NH4+–N removal rate, yielding the effluent with average COD and NH4+–N removal efficiency of more than 92 and 91% respectively. However, in the intermittently aerated cycle of (continuously aeration/0s mix), (aeration 90s/mix 90s) and (aeration 90s/mix 180s); the average TN removal efficiency was 67.6%, 69.5% and 87.8% respectively. At the same time, their nitrite accumulation rate was 4.5%, 49.1% and 79.4% respectively. These results indicate that the intermittently aerated mode is an efficient way to controlling the nitrification to stop at nitrition; and also the length of anoxic duration is a key factor in improving TN removal.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor (MBR), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), nutrients removal, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
1511 Up-Flow Sponge Submerged Biofilm Reactor for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Authors: Saber A. El-Shafai, Waleed M. Zahid

Abstract:

An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with sponge was investigated for sewage treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles as single aerobic (1-1 at 3.5 L/L.d HLR and 1-2 at 3.8 L/L.day HLR) and four cycles as single anaerobic/aerobic reactor; 2-1 and 2-2 at low HLR (3.7 and 3.5 L/L.day) and 2-3 and 2-4 at high HLR (5.1 and 5.4 L/L.day). During the aerobic cycles, 50% effluent recycling significantly reduces the system performance except for phosphorous. In case of the anaerobic/aerobic reactor, the effluent recycling, significantly improves system performance at low HLR while at high HLR only phosphorous removal was improved. Excess sludge production was limited to 0.133 g TSS/g COD with better sludge volume index (SVI) in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles; (54.7 versus 58.5 ml/g).

Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, up-flow, submerged biofilm, sponge

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
1510 Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration of Lysostaphin on Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Authors: N. Nagalakshmi, Indira Bairy, M. Atulya, Jesil Mathew

Abstract:

S. aureus has the ability to colonize and form biofilms on implanted biomaterials, which is difficult to disrupt, and current antimicrobial therapies for biofilms have largely proven unsuccessful in complete eradication of biofilm. The present study is aimed to determine the lysostaphin activity against biofilm producing MRSA clinical strains. The minimum biofilm inhibition activity of lysostaphin was studied against twelve strong biofilm producing isolates. The biofilm was produced in 96-wells micro-titer plate and biofilm was treated with lysostaphin (0.5 to 16 µg/ml), vancomycin (0.5 to 64 µg/ml) and linezolid (0.5 to 64 µg/ml). The biofilm inhibitory concentration of lysostaphin was found between 4 to 8 µg/ml whereas vancomycin and linezolid inhibited at concentration between 32 to 64 µg/ml. Results indicate that lysostaphin as potential antimicrobial activity against biofilm at lower concentration is comparable with routine antibiotics like vancomycin and linezolid.

Keywords: biofilm, lysostaphin, MRSA, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
1509 Determination of Biofilm Formation in Different Clinical Candida Species and Investigation of Effects of Some Plant Substances on These Biofilms

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Candida species which often exist as commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals are major causes of important infections, especially in AIDS and immunocompromised patients, by means of their biofilm formation abilities. Therefore, in this study, determination of biofilm formation in different clinical strains of Candida species, investigation of strong biofilm forming Candida strains, examination of clinical information of each strong and weak biofilm forming Candida strains and investigation of some plant substances’ effects on biofilm formation of strong biofilm forming strains were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Candida strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm levels of strains belong to different Candida species were different from each other. Additionally, it is also found that some plant substances effect biofilm formation. All these results indicate that, as well as C. albicans strains, other non-albicans Candida species also emerge as causative agents of infections and have biofilm formation abilities. In addition, usage of some plant substances in different concentrations may provide a new treatment against biofilm related Candida infections.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, Candida species, biosystems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
1508 Investigation of Biofilm Formation in Clinical Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Nermin Hande Avcioglu, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Klebsiella species which are natural colonizers of human upper respiratory and human gastrointestinal tracts are also responsible for every reoccurring nosocomial infections by means of having ability to form slimy layers known as biofilm on many surfaces. Therefore, in this study, investigation of biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis and examination of each Klebsiella strains’ clinical information in the light of their biofilm formation results were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm formation levels of K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis strains were different from each other. Additionally, in comparison to K. rhinoscleromatis strains, K. pneumoniae was observed to include higher amounts of strong biofilm forming strains. Besides, it was also seen that clinical information of patients from which strong biofilm forming Klebsiella strains were isolated were similar to each other. Our results indicate that there should be more precautions against K. pneumoniae which includes higher amount of strong biofilm forming strains.

Keywords: biofilm formation, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, biosystems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
1507 Recovery of Helicobacter Pylori from Stagnant and Moving Water Biofilms

Authors: Maryam Zafar, Sajida Rasheed, Imran Hashmi

Abstract:

Water as an environmental reservoir is reported to act as a habitat and transmission route to microaerophilic bacteria such as Heliobacter pylori. It has been studied that in biofilms are the predominant dwellings for the bacteria to grow in water and protective reservoir for numerous pathogens by protecting them against harsh conditions, such as shear stress, low carbon concentration and less than optimal temperature. In this study, influence of these and many other parameters was studied on H. pylori in stagnant and moving water biofilms both in surface and underground aquatic reservoirs. H. pylori were recovered from pipe of different materials such as Polyvinyl Chloride, Polypropylene and Galvanized iron pipe cross sections from an urban water distribution network. Biofilm swabbed from inner cross section was examined by molecular biology methods coupled with gene sequencing and H. pylori 16S rRNA peptide nucleic acid probe showing positive results for H. pylori presence. Studies showed that pipe material affect growth of biofilm which in turn provide additional survival mechanism for pathogens like H. pylori causing public health concerns.

Keywords: biofilm, gene sequencing, heliobacter pylori, pipe materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1506 Chronic Impact of Silver Nanoparticle on Aerobic Wastewater Biofilm

Authors: Sanaz Alizadeh, Yves Comeau, Arshath Abdul Rahim, Sunhasis Ghoshal

Abstract:

The application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in personal care products, various household and industrial products has resulted in an inevitable environmental exposure of such engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Ag ENPs, released via household and industrial wastes, reach water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs), yet the fate and transport of ENPs in WRRFs and their potential risk in the biological wastewater processes are poorly understood. Accordingly, our main objective was to elucidate the impact of long-term continuous exposure to AgNPs on biological activity of aerobic wastewater biofilm. The fate, transport and toxicity of 10 μg.L-1and 100 μg.L-1 PVP-stabilized AgNPs (50 nm) were evaluated in an attached growth biological treatment process, using lab-scale moving bed bioreactors (MBBRs). Two MBBR systems for organic matter removal were fed with a synthetic influent and operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 180 min and 60% volumetric filling ratio of Anox-K5 carriers with specific surface area of 800 m2/m3. Both reactors were operated for 85 days after reaching steady state conditions to develop a mature biofilm. The impact of AgNPs on the biological performance of the MBBRs was characterized over a period of 64 days in terms of the filtered biodegradable COD (SCOD) removal efficiency, the biofilm viability and key enzymatic activities (α-glucosidase and protease). The AgNPs were quantitatively characterized using single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (spICP-MS), determining simultaneously the particle size distribution, particle concentration and dissolved silver content in influent, bioreactor and effluent samples. The generation of reactive oxygen species and the oxidative stress were assessed as the proposed toxicity mechanism of AgNPs. Results indicated that a low concentration of AgNPs (10 μg.L-1) did not significantly affect the SCOD removal efficiency whereas a significant reduction in treatment efficiency (37%) was observed at 100 μg.L-1AgNPs. Neither the viability nor the enzymatic activities of biofilm were affected at 10 μg.L-1AgNPs but a higher concentration of AgNPs induced cell membrane integrity damage resulting in 31% loss of viability and reduced α-glucosidase and protease enzymatic activities by 31% and 29%, respectively, over the 64-day exposure period. The elevated intercellular ROS in biofilm at a higher AgNPs concentration over time was consistent with a reduced biological biofilm performance, confirming the occurrence of a nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress in the heterotrophic biofilm. The spICP-MS analysis demonstrated a decrease in the nanoparticles concentration over the first 25 days, indicating a significant partitioning of AgNPs into the biofilm matrix in both reactors. The concentration of nanoparticles increased in effluent of both reactors after 25 days, however, indicating a decreased retention capacity of AgNPs in biofilm. The observed significant detachment of biofilm also contributed to a higher release of nanoparticles due to cell-wall destabilizing properties of AgNPs as an antimicrobial agent. The removal efficiency of PVP-AgNPs and the biofilm biological responses were a function of nanoparticle concentration and exposure time. This study contributes to a better understanding of the fate and behavior of AgNPs in biological wastewater processes, providing key information that can be used to predict the environmental risks of ENPs in aquatic ecosystems.

Keywords: biofilm, silver nanoparticle, single particle ICP-MS, toxicity, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1505 Biofilm Formation Due to the Proteome Changes Of Enterococcus Faecium in Response to Sub-Mic of Gentamicin

Authors: Amin Abbasi, Mahdi Asghari Ozma

Abstract:

Background and Objective:Enterococcus faecium is a normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract that causes infection in the host body under conditions such as biofilm formation, in which the use of antibiotics causes changes in these pathogenic mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate comprehensively the changes in E.faecium when exposed to sub-MIC of the gentamicin,especiallythe biofilm formation rate. Materials and Methods: For this study, the keywords "Enterococcus faecium ", "Biofilm", and "Gentamicin" in the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Sid, and MagIran between 2015 and 2021 were searched, and 14 articles were chosen, studied, and analyzed. Results: Gentamicin significantly had increased biofilm formation in most of the isolates in the studies. Increased expression of the genes (efaA and esp) and proteins involved in biofilm formation and decreased expression of the genes (gelE and cylA) involved in spreading and proteins involved in metabolism and cell division in E.faecium were the most significant cause of the biofilm formation, which were increased in sub-MIC gentamicin-treated situation. Conclusion: Inadequate use of gentamicin intensify biofilm formation of E.faecium, which can make the treatment of infections caused by this bacterium difficult.

Keywords: biofilm, enterococcus faecium, gentamicin, proteome

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
1504 Reduction of Biofilm Formation in Closed Circuit Cooling Towers

Authors: Irfan Turetgen

Abstract:

Closed-circuit cooling towers are cooling units that operate according to the indirect cooling principle. Unlike the open-loop cooling tower, the filler material includes a closed-loop water-operated heat exchanger. The main purpose of this heat exchanger is to prevent the cooled process water from contacting with the external environment. In order to ensure that the hot water is cooled, the water is cooled by the air flow and the circulation water of the tower as it passes through the pipe. They are now more commonly used than open loop cooling towers that provide cooling with plastic filling material. As with all surfaces in contact with water, there is a biofilm formation on the outer surface of the pipe. Although biofilm has been studied very well on plastic surfaces in open loop cooling towers, studies on biofilm layer formed on the heat exchangers of the closed circuit tower have not been found. In the recent study, natural biofilm formation was observed on the heat exchangers of the closed loop tower for 6 months. At the same time, nano-silica coating, which is known to reduce the formation of the biofilm layer, a comparison was made between the two different surfaces in terms of biofilm formation potential. Test surfaces were placed into biofilm reactor along with the untreated control coupons up to 6-months period for biofilm maturation. Natural bacterial communities were monitored to analyze the impact to mimic the real-life conditions. Surfaces were monthly analyzed in situ for their microbial load using epifluorescence microscopy. Wettability is known to play a key role in biofilm formation on surfaces, because characteristics of surface properties affect the bacterial adhesion. Results showed that surface-conditioning with nano-silica significantly reduce (up to 90%) biofilm formation. Easy coating process is a facile and low-cost method to prepare hydrophobic surface without any kinds of expensive compounds or methods.

Keywords: biofilms, cooling towers, fill material, nano silica

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1503 Stability of a Biofilm Reactor Able to Degrade a Mixture of the Organochlorine Herbicides Atrazine, Simazine, Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid to Changes in the Composition of the Supply Medium

Authors: I. Nava-Arenas, N. Ruiz-Ordaz, C. J. Galindez-Mayer, M. L. Luna-Guido, S. L. Ruiz-López, A. Cabrera-Orozco, D. Nava-Arenas

Abstract:

Among the most important herbicides, the organochlorine compounds are of considerable interest due to their recalcitrance to the chemical, biological, and photolytic degradation, their persistence in the environment, their mobility, and their bioacummulation. The most widely used herbicides in North America are primarily 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), the triazines (atrazine and simazine), and to a lesser extent diuron. The contamination of soils and water bodies frequently occurs by mixtures of these xenobiotics. For this reason, in this work, the operational stability to changes in the composition of the medium supplied to an aerobic biofilm reactor was studied. The reactor was packed with fragments of volcanic rock that retained a complex microbial film, able to degrade a mixture of organochlorine herbicides atrazine, simazine, diuron and 2,4-D, and whose members have microbial genes encoding the main catabolic enzymes atzABCD, tfdACD and puhB. To acclimate the attached microbial community, the biofilm reactor was fed continuously with a mineral minimal medium containing the herbicides (in mg•L-1): diuron, 20.4; atrazine, 14.2, simazine, 11.4, and 2,4-D, 59.7, as carbon and nitrogen sources. Throughout the bioprocess, removal efficiencies of 92-100% for herbicides, 78-90% for COD, 92-96% for TOC and 61-83% for dehalogenation were reached. In the microbial community, the genes encoding catabolic enzymes of different herbicides tfdACD, puhB and, occasionally, the genes atzA and atzC were detected. After the acclimatization, the triazine herbicides were eliminated from the mixture formulation. Volumetric loading rates of the mixture 2,4-D and diuron were continuously supplied to the reactor (1.9-21.5 mg herbicides •L-1 •h-1). Along the bioprocess, the removal efficiencies obtained were 86-100% for the mixture of herbicides, 63-94% for for COD, 90-100% for COT, and dehalogenation values of 63-100%. It was also observed that the genes encoding the enzymes in the catabolism of both herbicides, tfdACD and puhB, were consistently detected; and, occasionally, the atzA and atzC. Subsequently, the triazine herbicide atrazine and simazine were restored to the medium supply. Different volumetric charges of this mixture were continuously fed to the reactor (2.9 to 12.6 mg herbicides •L-1 •h-1). During this new treatment process, removal efficiencies of 65-95% for the mixture of herbicides, 63-92% for COD, 66-89% for TOC and 73-94% of dehalogenation were observed. In this last case, the genes tfdACD, puhB and atzABC encoding for the enzymes involved in the catabolism of the distinct herbicides were consistently detected. The atzD gene, encoding the cyanuric hydrolase enzyme, could not be detected, though it was determined that there was partial degradation of cyanuric acid. In general, the community in the biofilm reactor showed some catabolic stability, adapting to changes in loading rates and composition of the mixture of herbicides, and preserving their ability to degrade the four herbicides tested; although, there was a significant delay in the response time to recover to degradation of the herbicides.

Keywords: biodegradation, biofilm reactor, microbial community, organochlorine herbicides

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
1502 Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Interference (CRISPRi): An Approach to Inhibit Microbial Biofilm

Authors: Azna Zuberi

Abstract:

Biofilm is a sessile bacterial accretion in which bacteria adapts different physiological and morphological behavior from planktonic form. It is the root cause of about 80% microbial infections in human. Among them, E. coli biofilms are most prevalent in medical devices associated nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to inhibit biofilm formation by targeting LuxS gene, involved in quorum sensing using CRISPRi. luxS is a synthase, involved in the synthesis of Autoinducer-2(AI-2), which in turn guides the initial stage of biofilm formation. To implement CRISPRi system, we have synthesized complementary sgRNA to target gene sequence and co-expressed with dCas9. Suppression of luxS was confirmed through qRT-PCR. The effect of luxS gene on biofilm inhibition was studied through crystal violet assay, XTT reduction assay and scanning electron microscopy. We conclude that CRISPRi system could be a potential strategy to inhibit bacterial biofilm through mechanism base approach.

Keywords: biofilm, CRISPRi, luxS, microbial

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
1501 Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Behzad Nasseri, Ali Akbar Ebrahimi, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, essential oils, nanofibers, proteus mirabilis

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
1500 Fabrication of a Continuous Flow System for Biofilm Studies

Authors: Mohammed Jibrin Ndejiko

Abstract:

Modern and current models such as flow cell technology which enhances a non-destructive growth and inspection of the sessile microbial communities revealed a great understanding of biofilms. A continuous flow system was designed to evaluate possibility of biofilm formation by Escherichia coli DH5α on the stainless steel (type 304) under continuous nutrient supply. The result of the colony forming unit (CFU) count shows that bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation on stainless steel coupons with average surface roughness of 1.5 ± 1.8 µm and 2.0 ± 0.09 µm were both significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of the stainless steel coupon with lower surface roughness of 0.38 ± 1.5 µm. These observations support the hypothesis that surface profile is one of the factors that influence biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces. The SEM and FESEM micrographs of the stainless steel coupons also revealed the attached Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm and dehydrated extracellular polymeric substance on the stainless steel surfaces. Thus, the fabricated flow system represented a very useful tool to study biofilm formation under continuous nutrient supply.

Keywords: biofilm, flowcell, stainless steel, coupon

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
1499 Isolation of a Bacterial Community with High Removal Efficiencies of the Insecticide Bendiocarb

Authors: Eusebio A. Jiménez-Arévalo, Deifilia Ahuatzi-Chacón, Juvencio Galíndez-Mayer, Cleotilde Juárez-Ramírez, Nora Ruiz-Ordaz

Abstract:

Bendiocarb is a known toxic xenobiotic that presents acute and chronic risks for freshwater invertebrates and estuarine and marine biota; thus, the treatment of water contaminated with the insecticide is of concern. In this paper, a bacterial community with the capacity to grow in bendiocarb as its sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated by enrichment techniques in batch culture, from samples of a composting plant located in the northeast of Mexico City. Eight cultivable bacteria were isolated from the microbial community, by PCR amplification of 16 rDNA; Pseudoxanthomonas spadix (NC_016147.2, 98%), Ochrobacterium anthropi (NC_009668.1, 97%), Staphylococcus capitis (NZ_CP007601.1, 99%), Bosea thiooxidans. (NZ_LMAR01000067.1, 99%), Pseudomonas denitrificans. (NC_020829.1, 99%), Agromyces sp. (NZ_LMKQ01000001.1, 98%), Bacillus thuringiensis. (NC_022873.1, 97%), Pseudomonas alkylphenolia (NZ_CP009048.1, 98%). NCBI accession numbers and percentage of similarity are indicated in parentheses. These bacteria were regarded as the isolated species for having the best similarity matches. The ability to degrade bendiocarb by the immobilized bacterial community in a packed bed biofilm reactor, using as support volcanic stone fragments (tezontle), was evaluated. The reactor system was operated in batch using mineral salts medium and 30 mg/L of bendiocarb as carbon and nitrogen source. With this system, an overall removal efficiency (ηbend) rounding 90%, was reached.

Keywords: bendiocarb, biodegradation, biofilm reactor, carbamate insecticide

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
1498 Influence of Bacterial Motility on Biofilm Formation

Authors: Li Cheng, Zhang Yilei, Cohen Yehuda

Abstract:

Two motility mechanisms were introduced into iDynoMiCs software, which adopts an individual-based modeling method. Based on the new capabilities, along with the pressure motility developed before, influence of bacterial motility on biofilm formation was studied. Simulation results were evaluated both qualitatively through 3D structure inspections and quantitatively by parameter characterizations. It was showed that twitching motility increased the biofilm surface irregularity probably due to movement of cells towards higher nutrient concentration location whereas free motility, on the other hand, could make biofilms flatter and smoother relatively. Pressure motility showed no significant influence in this study.

Keywords: iDynoMics, biofilm structure, bacterial motility, motility mechanisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1497 Binding of Avian Excreta-Derived Enteroccoci to a Streptococcocus mutans: Implications for Avian to Human Transmission

Authors: Richard K. Jolley, Jonathan A. Coffman

Abstract:

Since Enterococci has been implicated in oral disease, we hypothesized the transmission of avian Enterococci to humans via fecal-oral transmission facilitated by adherence to dental plaque. To demonstrate the capability of Enterococci to bind to a dental plaque we filtered avian excreta and incubated the filtrate on a sucrose-induced, Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The biofilm was washed several times with a detergent to remove bacteria binding non-specifically to the biofilm, DNA was isolated from the biofilm, 16S rDNA was amplified, sequenced by Ion Torrent DNA sequencing and analyzed with bioinformatics. Enterococci and other known bacterial pathogens were shown to adhere to the biofilm. Culturing the washed biofilm with Bile Esculin Azide (BEA) agar also confirmed the presence of Enterococci as verified with Sanger sequencing. The results suggest that Enteroccoci in avian excreta has the ability to adhere to human dental plaque and may be a mechanism of entry when humans encounter contaminated aerosols, water or food.

Keywords: Enterococci, avian excreta, dental plaque, NGS

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1496 Kinetics of Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Biogas Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds

Authors: Retno A. S. Lestari, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Siti Syamsiah, Sarto

Abstract:

Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated and then grown on salak fruit seeds forming a biofilm on the surface. Their performances in sulfide removal were experimentally observed. In doing so, the salak fruit seeds containing biofilm were then used as packing material in a cylinder. Biogas obtained from biological treatment, which contains 27.95 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was flown through the packed bed. The hydrogen sulfide from the biogas was absorbed in the biofilm and then degraded by the microbes in the biofilm. The hydrogen sulfide concentrations at a various axial position and various times were analyzed. A set of simple kinetics model for the rate of the sulfide removal and the bacterial growth was proposed. Since the biofilm is very thin, the sulfide concentration in the Biofilm at a certain axial position is assumed to be uniform. The simultaneous ordinary differential equations obtained were then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The values of the parameters were also obtained by curve-fitting. The accuracy of the model proposed was tested by comparing the calculation results using the model with the experimental data obtained. It turned out that the model proposed can describe the removal of sulfide liquid using bio-filter in the packed bed. The biofilter could remove 89,83 % of the hydrogen sulfide in the feed at 2.5 hr of operation and biogas flow rate of 30 L/hr.

Keywords: sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, salak fruit seeds, biofilm, packing material, biogas

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1495 Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Biogas Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds

Authors: Retno A. S. Lestari, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Siti Syamsiah, Sarto

Abstract:

Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated and then grown on snakefruits seeds forming biofilm. Their performance in sulfide removal were experimentally observed. Snakefruit seeds were then used as packing material in a cylindrical tube. Biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide from biogas was investigated using biofilm on packed bed of snakefruits seeds. Biogas containing 27,9512 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was flown through the bed. Then the hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the outlet at various times were analyzed. A set of simple kinetics model for the rate of the sulfide removal and the bacterial growth was proposed. The axial sulfide concentration gradient in the flowing liquid are assumed to be steady-state. Mean while the biofilm grows on the surface of the seeds and the oxidation takes place in the biofilm. Since the biofilm is very thin, the sulfide concentration in the biofilm is assumed to be uniform. The simultaneous ordinary differential equations obtained were then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The acuracy of the model proposed was tested by comparing the calcultion results using the model with the experimental data obtained. It turned out that the model proposed can be applied to describe the removal of sulfide liquid using bio-filter in packed bed. The values of the parameters were also obtained by curve-fitting. The biofilter could remove 89,83 % of the inlet of hydrogen sulfide from biogas for 2.5 h, and optimum loading of 8.33 ml/h.

Keywords: Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, snakefruits seeds, biofilm, packing material, biogas

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
1494 Broad Spectrum Biofilm Inhibition by Chitosanase Purified from Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Spoilt Vegetables

Authors: Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M. S. Al-Kadmy, Nadheema Hammood Hussein, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Buthainah Mohammed Taha, Rayim Sabah Abbood, Sarah Naji Aziz

Abstract:

A novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from spoilt cucumber and pepper samples have the ability to produce the chitosanase enzyme when grown on chitosan substrate. Chitosanase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery yield of 35.71% and 5.5 fold of purification by using ammonium sulfate at 45% saturation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The purified chitosanase inhibited the biofilm formation ability for all Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilm-forming bacteria (biofilm producers) after using Congo Red agar and Microtiter plates methods. Highly antibiofilm of chitosanase recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduction of biofilm formation ratio to 22 and 29%, respectively compared with (100)% of control. Thus, chitosanase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria and has promising application as alternative antibiofilm agents to combat the growing number of multidrug-resistant pathogen-associated infections, especially in situation where biofilms are involved.

Keywords: chitosanase, Bacillus licheniformis, vegetables, biofilm

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
1493 Biological Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms from Drinking Water Distribution System in Lebanon

Authors: A. Hamieh, Z. Olama, H. Holail

Abstract:

Drinking Water Distribution Systems provide opportunities for microorganisms that enter the drinking water to develop into biofilms. Antimicrobial agents, mainly chlorine, are used to disinfect drinking water, however, there are not yet standardized disinfection strategies with reliable efficacy and development of novel anti-biofilm strategies is still of major concern. In the present study the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptomyces sp. cell free supernatants to inhibit the bacterial biofilm formation in Drinking Water Distribution System in Lebanon was investigated. Treatment with cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptomyces sp. at 20% concentration resulted in average biofilm inhibition (52.89 and 39.66% respectively). A preliminary investigation about the mode of action of biofilm inhibition revealed that cell free supernatants showed no bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates. Pre-coating wells with supernatants revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus cell free supernatant inhibited average biofilm formation (62.53%) by altering the adhesion of bacterial isolates to the surface, preventing the initial attachment step, which is important for biofilm production.

Keywords: biofilm, cell free supernatant, distribution system, drinking water, lactobacillus acidophilus, streptomyces sp, adhesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1492 Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions

Authors: M. Abdel-Hamid, P. Saporito, R. V. Mateiu, A. Osman, E. Romeih, H. Jenssen

Abstract:

Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: camel milk, whey proteins, antibacterial peptide, anti-biofilm

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
1491 A Rapid Prototyping Tool for Suspended Biofilm Growth Media

Authors: Erifyli Tsagkari, Stephanie Connelly, Zhaowei Liu, Andrew McBride, William Sloan

Abstract:

Biofilms play an essential role in treating water in biofiltration systems. The biofilm morphology and function are inextricably linked to the hydrodynamics of flow through a filter, and yet engineers rarely explicitly engineer this interaction. We develop a system that links computer simulation and 3-D printing to optimize and rapidly prototype filter media to optimize biofilm function with the hypothesis that biofilm function is intimately linked to the flow passing through the filter. A computational model that numerically solves the incompressible time-dependent Navier Stokes equations coupled to a model for biofilm growth and function is developed. The model is imbedded in an optimization algorithm that allows the model domain to adapt until criteria on biofilm functioning are met. This is applied to optimize the shape of filter media in a simple flow channel to promote biofilm formation. The computer code links directly to a 3-D printer, and this allows us to prototype the design rapidly. Its validity is tested in flow visualization experiments and by microscopy. As proof of concept, the code was constrained to explore a small range of potential filter media, where the medium acts as an obstacle in the flow that sheds a von Karman vortex street that was found to enhance the deposition of bacteria on surfaces downstream. The flow visualization and microscopy in the 3-D printed realization of the flow channel validated the predictions of the model and hence its potential as a design tool. Overall, it is shown that the combination of our computational model and the 3-D printing can be effectively used as a design tool to prototype filter media to optimize biofilm formation.

Keywords: biofilm, biofilter, computational model, von karman vortices, 3-D printing.

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
1490 Numerical Simulation of a Three-Dimensional Framework under the Action of Two-Dimensional Moving Loads

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop a general technique so that one may predict the dynamic behaviour of a three-dimensional scale crane model subjected to time-dependent moving point forces by means of conventional finite element computer packages. To this end, the whole scale crane model is divided into two parts: the stationary framework and the moving substructure. In such a case, the dynamic responses of a scale crane model can be predicted from the forced vibration responses of the stationary framework due to actions of the four time-dependent moving point forces induced by the moving substructure. Since the magnitudes and positions of the moving point forces are dependent on the relative positions between the trolley, moving substructure and the stationary framework, it can be found from the numerical results that the time histories for the moving speeds of the moving substructure and the trolley are the key factors affecting the dynamic responses of the scale crane model.

Keywords: moving load, moving substructure, dynamic responses, forced vibration responses

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
1489 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci: Phenotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern

Authors: Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal

Abstract:

Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the normal commensal of human skin and mucous membranes. The study was carried out to study the prevalence of CoNS among clinical isolates, to characterize them up to species level and to compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation. Objectives: to characterize the clinically significant coagulase-negative staphylococci up to species level, to compare the three phenotypic methods for the detection of biofilm formation and to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Methods: CoNS isolates were obtained from various clinical samples during the period of 1 year. Characterization up to species level was done using biochemical test and study of biofilm formation was done by tube adherence, congo red agar, and tissue culture plate method. Results: Among 71 CoNS isolates, seven species were identified. S. epidermidis was the most common species followed by S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CoNS documented resistance of 90% to ampicillin. Resistance to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone was observed in 55% of the isolates. We detected biofilm formation in 71.8% of isolates. The sensitivity of tube adherence method was 82% while that of congo red agar method was 78%. Conclusion: Among 71 CoNS isolated, S. epidermidis was the most common isolates followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. Biofilm formation was detected in 71.8% of the isolates. All of the methods were effective at detecting biofilm-producing CoNS strains. Biofilm former strains are more resistant to antibiotics as compared to biofilm non-formers.

Keywords: CoNS, congo red agar, bloodstream infections, foreign body-related infections, tissue culture plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
1488 Dynamic Response of Euler- Bernoulli Beam on Variable Pre-stressed under a Partially Distributed Moving Load

Authors: Idowu Ibikunle Albert

Abstract:

In this 21st century, all areas of transport have experienced large advances characterized by increasing in higher speeds and weight of vehicles. As a result, the structures and weight of vehicles move have been subjected to different vibrations and dynamics. In this paper dynamics response of the Euler-Bernoulli beam on variable pre-stressed under a partially distributed moving load was investigated. The governed equation of the fourth-order partially differential equation (PDE), which was reduced to the second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE), using an analytical method in term of series solution which was solved numerically using mathematics software (MAPLE 16). The Results show the response amplitude of both moving masses and moving force for variable pre-stressed increase as the mass of the load increases, and the deflection of the beam decrease as the values of pre-stressed (N) increases for both moving mass and moving force. The comparison of moving mass and moving force shows that moving mass is larger than that of moving force.

Keywords: dynamic response, Euler-Bernoulli beam, moving load, partially distributed, variable pre-stressed foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
1487 Bacteriological Characterization of Drinking Water Distribution Network Biofilms by Gene Sequencing Using Different Pipe Materials

Authors: M. Zafar, S. Rasheed, Imran Hashmi

Abstract:

Very little is concerned about the bacterial contamination in drinking water biofilm which provide a potential source for bacteria to grow and increase rapidly. So as to understand the microbial density in DWDs, a three-month study was carried out. The aim of this study was to examine biofilm in three different pipe materials including PVC, PPR and GI. A set of all these pipe materials was installed in DWDs at nine different locations and assessed on monthly basis. Drinking water quality was evaluated by different parameters and characterization of biofilm. Among various parameters are Temperature, pH, turbidity, TDS, electrical conductivity, BOD, COD, total phosphates, total nitrates, total organic carbon (TOC) free chlorine and total chlorine, coliforms and spread plate counts (SPC) according to standard methods. Predominant species were Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas fluorescens , Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Bacillus safensis and significant increase in bacterial population was observed in PVC pipes while least in cement pipes. The quantity of DWDs bacteria was directly depended on biofilm bacteria and its increase was correlated with growth and detachment of bacteria from biofilms. Pipe material also affected the microbial community in drinking water distribution network biofilm while Similarity in bacterial species was observed between systems due to same disinfectant dose, time period and plumbing pipes.

Keywords: biofilm, DWDs, pipe material, bacterial population

Procedia PDF Downloads 280