Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 584

Search results for: simultaneous nitrification and denitrification

584 Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in Suspended Activated Sludge Process Augmented with Immobilized Biomass: A Pilot Study

Authors: Haon-Yao Chen, Cheng-Fang Lin, Pui-Kwan Andy Hong, Ping-Yi Yang, Kok Kwang Ng, Sheng-Fu Yang

Abstract:

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) are a natural phenomenon in the soil environment that can be applied in wastewater treatment. At a domestic wastewater treatment plant, we performed a pilot test of installing bioplates with entrapped biomass into a conventional aeration basin for SND, and investigated the effects of bioplate packing ratio, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen level, on/off aeration mode, and supplemental carbon and alkalinity on nitrogen removal. With the pilot aeration basin of 1.3 m3 loaded with mixed liquor suspended solids of 1500-2500 mg/L and bioplates at PR of 3.2% (3.2% basin volume) operated at HRT of 6 h and DO of 4-6 mg/L without supplemental carbon or alkalinity, nitrogen in the wastewater was removed to an effluent total nitrogen (TN) of 7.3 mg/L from an influent TN of 28 mg/L. The bioplate robust cellulose triacetate structure carrying the biomass shows promise in retrofitting conventional aeration basins for enhanced nutrient removal.

Keywords: immobilization, nitrification/denitrification, nutrient removal, total nitrogen

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583 Investigation of Wood Chips as Internal Carbon Source Supporting Denitrification Process in Domestic Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Ruth Lorivi, Jianzheng Li, John J. Ambuchi, Kaiwen Deng

Abstract:

Nitrogen removal from wastewater is accomplished by nitrification and denitrification processes. Successful denitrification requires carbon, therefore, if placed after biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrification process, a carbon source has to be re-introduced into the water. To avoid adding a carbon source, denitrification is usually placed before BOD and nitrification processes. This process however involves recycling the nitrified effluent. In this study wood chips were used as internal carbon source which enabled placement of denitrification after BOD and nitrification process without effluent recycling. To investigate the efficiency of a wood packed aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor on carbon and nutrients removal from domestic wastewater, a three compartment baffled reactor was presented. Each of the three compartments was packed with 329 g wood chips 1x1cm acting as an internal carbon source for denitrification. The proposed mode of operation was aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic (OAA) with no effluent recycling. The operating temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were 24 ± 2 , 24 h, less than 4 mg/L and 7 ± 1 respectively. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) attained was 99, 87 and 83% respectively. TN removal rate was limited by nitrification as 97% of ammonia converted into nitrate and nitrite was denitrified. These results show that application of wood chips in wastewater treatment processes is an efficient internal carbon source. 

Keywords: aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor, denitrification, nitrification, wood chip

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
582 Nitrification and Denitrification Kinetic Parameters of a Mature Sanitary Landfill Leachate

Authors: Tânia F. C. V. Silva, Eloísa S. S. Vieira, João Pinto da Costa, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar

Abstract:

Sanitary landfill leachates are characterized as a complex mixture of diverse organic and inorganic contaminants, which are usually removed by combining different treatment processes. Due to its simplicity, reliability, high cost-effectiveness and high nitrogen content (mostly under the ammonium form) inherent in this type of effluent, the activated sludge biological process is almost always applied in leachate treatment plants (LTPs). The purpose of this work is to assess the effect of the main nitrification and denitrification variables on the nitrogen's biological removal, from mature leachates. The leachate samples were collected after an aerated lagoon, at a LTP nearby Porto, presenting a high amount of dissolved organic carbon (1.0-1.3 g DOC/L) and ammonium nitrogen (1.1-1.7 g NH4+-N/L). The experiments were carried out in a 1-L lab-scale batch reactor, equipped with a pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) control system, in order to determine the reaction kinetic constants at unchanging conditions. The nitrification reaction rate was evaluated while varying the (i) operating temperature (15, 20, 25 and 30ºC), (ii) DO concentration interval (0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0 and 2.0-4.0 mg/L) and (iii) solution pH (not controlled, 7.5-8.5 and 6.5-7.5). At the beginning of most assays, it was verified that the ammonium stripping occurred simultaneously to the nitrification, reaching up to 37% removal of total dissolved nitrogen. The denitrification kinetic constants and the methanol consumptions were calculated for different values of (i) volatile suspended solids (VSS) content (25, 50 and 100 mL of centrifuged sludge in 1 L solution), (ii) pH interval (6.5-7.0, 7.5-8.0 and 8.5-9.0) and (iii) temperature (15, 20, 25 and 30ºC), using effluent previously nitrified. The maximum nitrification rate obtained was 38±2 mg NH4+-N/h/g VSS (25ºC, 0.5-1.0 mg O2/L, pH not controlled), consuming 4.4±0.3 mg CaCO3/mg NH4+-N. The highest denitrification rate achieved was 19±1 mg (NO2--N+NO3--N)/h/g VSS (30ºC, 50 mL of sludge and pH between 7.5 and 8.0), with a C/N consumption ratio of 1.1±0.1 mg CH3OH/mg (NO2--N+NO3--N) and an overall alkalinity production of 3.7±0.3 mg CaCO3/mg (NO2--N+NO3--N). The denitrification process showed to be sensitive to all studied parameters, while the nitrification reaction did not suffered significant change when DO content was changed.

Keywords: mature sanitary landfill leachate, nitrogen removal, nitrification and denitrification parameters, lab-scale activated sludge biological reactor

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581 Nutrients Removal Control via an Intermittently Aerated Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Junior B. N. Adohinzin, Ling Xu

Abstract:

Nitrogen is among the main nutrients encouraging the growth of organic matter and algae which cause eutrophication in water bodies. Therefore, its removal from wastewater has become a worldwide emerging concern. In this research, an innovative Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) system named “moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR)” was developed and investigated under intermittently-aerated mode for simultaneous removal of organic carbon and nitrogen. Results indicated that the variation of the intermittently aerated duration did not have an apparent impact on COD and NH4+–N removal rate, yielding the effluent with average COD and NH4+–N removal efficiency of more than 92 and 91% respectively. However, in the intermittently aerated cycle of (continuously aeration/0s mix), (aeration 90s/mix 90s) and (aeration 90s/mix 180s); the average TN removal efficiency was 67.6%, 69.5% and 87.8% respectively. At the same time, their nitrite accumulation rate was 4.5%, 49.1% and 79.4% respectively. These results indicate that the intermittently aerated mode is an efficient way to controlling the nitrification to stop at nitrition; and also the length of anoxic duration is a key factor in improving TN removal.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor (MBR), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), nutrients removal, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification

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580 HPSEC Application as a New Indicator of Nitrification Occurrence in Water Distribution Systems

Authors: Sina Moradi, Sanly Liu, Christopher W. K. Chow, John Van Leeuwen, David Cook, Mary Drikas, Soha Habibi, Rose Amal

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In recent years, chloramine has been widely used for both primary and secondary disinfection. However, a major concern with the use of chloramine as a secondary disinfectant is the decay of chloramine and nitrification occurrence. The management of chloramine decay and the prevention of nitrification are critical for water utilities managing chloraminated drinking water distribution systems. The detection and monitoring of nitrification episodes is usually carried out through measuring certain water quality parameters, which are commonly referred to as indicators of nitrification. The approach taken in this study was to collect water samples from different sites throughout a drinking water distribution systems, Tailem Bend – Keith (TBK) in South Australia, and analyse the samples by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). We investigated potential association between the water qualities from HPSEC analysis with chloramine decay and/or nitrification occurrence. MATLAB 8.4 was used for data processing of HPSEC data and chloramine decay. An increase in the absorbance signal of HPSEC profiles at λ=230 nm between apparent molecular weights of 200 to 1000 Da was observed at sampling sites that experienced rapid chloramine decay and nitrification while its absorbance signal of HPSEC profiles at λ=254 nm decreased. An increase in absorbance at λ=230 nm and AMW < 500 Da was detected for Raukkan CT (R.C.T), a location that experienced nitrification and had significantly lower chloramine residual (<0.1 mg/L). This increase in absorbance was not detected in other sites that did not experience nitrification. Moreover, the UV absorbance at 254 nm of the HPSEC spectra was lower at R.C.T. than other sites. In this study, a chloramine residual index (C.R.I) was introduced as a new indicator of chloramine decay and nitrification occurrence, and is defined based on the ratio of area underneath the HPSEC spectra at two different wavelengths of 230 and 254 nm. The C.R.I index is able to indicate DS sites that experienced nitrification and rapid chloramine loss. This index could be useful for water treatment and distribution system managers to know if nitrification is occurring at a specific location in water distribution systems.

Keywords: nitrification, HPSEC, chloramine decay, chloramine residual index

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579 Selected Macrophyte Populations Promotes Coupled Nitrification and Denitrification Function in Eutrophic Urban Wetland Ecosystem

Authors: Rupak Kumar Sarma, Ratul Saikia

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Macrophytes encompass major functional group in eutrophic wetland ecosystems. As a key functional element of freshwater lakes, they play a crucial role in regulating various wetland biogeochemical cycles, as well as maintain the biodiversity at the ecosystem level. The high carbon-rich underground biomass of macrophyte populations may harbour diverse microbial community having significant potential in maintaining different biogeochemical cycles. The present investigation was designed to study the macrophyte-microbe interaction in coupled nitrification and denitrification, considering Deepor Beel Lake (a Ramsar conservation site) of North East India as a model eutrophic system. Highly eutrophic sites of Deepor Beel were selected based on sediment oxygen demand and inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen (P&N) concentration. Sediment redox potential and depth of the lake was chosen as the benchmark for collecting the plant and sediment samples. The average highest depth in winter (January 2016) and summer (July 2016) were recorded as 20ft (6.096m) and 35ft (10.668m) respectively. Both sampling depth and sampling seasons had the distinct effect on variation in macrophyte community composition. Overall, the dominant macrophytic populations in the lake were Nymphaea alba, Hydrilla verticillata, Utricularia flexuosa, Vallisneria spiralis, Najas indica, Monochoria hastaefolia, Trapa bispinosa, Ipomea fistulosa, Hygrorhiza aristata, Polygonum hydropiper, Eichhornia crassipes and Euryale ferox. There was a distinct correlation in the variation of major sediment physicochemical parameters with change in macrophyte community compositions. Quantitative estimation revealed an almost even accumulation of nitrate and nitrite in the sediment samples dominated by the plant species Eichhornia crassipes, Nymphaea alba, Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Euryale ferox and Monochoria hastaefolia, which might have signified a stable nitrification and denitrification process in the sites dominated by the selected aquatic plants. This was further examined by a systematic analysis of microbial populations through culture dependent and independent approach. Culture-dependent bacterial community study revealed the higher population of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the sediment samples dominated by the six macrophyte species. However, culture-independent study with bacterial 16S rDNA V3-V4 metagenome sequencing revealed the overall similar type of bacterial phylum in all the sediment samples collected during the study. Thus, there might be the possibility of uneven distribution of nitrifying and denitrifying molecular markers among the sediment samples collected during the investigation. The diversity and abundance of the nitrifying and denitrifying molecular markers in the sediment samples are under investigation. Thus, the role of different aquatic plant functional types in microorganism mediated nitrogen cycle coupling could be screened out further from the present initial investigation.

Keywords: denitrification, macrophyte, metagenome, microorganism, nitrification

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578 Evaluating the Factors Controlling the Hydrochemistry of Gaza Coastal Aquifer Using Hydrochemical and Multivariate Statistical Analysis

Authors: Madhat Abu Al-Naeem, Ismail Yusoff, Ng Tham Fatt, Yatimah Alias

Abstract:

Groundwater in Gaza strip is increasingly being exposed to anthropic and natural factors that seriously impacted the groundwater quality. Physiochemical data of groundwater can offer important information on changes in groundwater quality that can be useful in improving water management tactics. An integrative hydrochemical and statistical techniques (Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA)) have been applied on the existence ten physiochemical data of 84 samples collected in (2000/2001) using STATA, AquaChem, and Surfer softwares to: 1) Provide valuable insight into the salinization sources and the hydrochemical processes controlling the chemistry of groundwater. 2) Differentiate the influence of natural processes and man-made activities. The recorded large diversity in water facies with dominance Na-Cl type that reveals a highly saline aquifer impacted by multiple complex hydrochemical processes. Based on WHO standards, only (15.5%) of the wells were suitable for drinking. HCA yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 is the highest in salinity, mainly due to the impact of Eocene saline water invasion mixed with human inputs. Cluster 2 is the lowest in salinity also due to Eocene saline water invasion but mixed with recent rainfall recharge and limited carbonate dissolution and nitrate pollution. Cluster 3 is similar in salinity to Cluster 2, but with a high diversity of facies due to the impact of many sources of salinity as sea water invasion, carbonate dissolution and human inputs. Factor analysis yielded two factors accounting for 88% of the total variance. Factor 1 (59%) is a salinization factor demonstrating the mixing contribution of natural saline water with human inputs. Factor 2 measure the hardness and pollution which explained 29% of the total variance. The negative relationship between the NO3- and pH may reveal a denitrification process in a heavy polluted aquifer recharged by a limited oxygenated rainfall. Multivariate statistical analysis combined with hydrochemical analysis indicate that the main factors controlling groundwater chemistry were Eocene saline invasion, seawater invasion, sewage invasion and rainfall recharge and the main hydrochemical processes were base ion and reverse ion exchange processes with clay minerals (water rock interactions), nitrification, carbonate dissolution and a limited denitrification process.

Keywords: dendrogram and cluster analysis, water facies, Eocene saline invasion and sea water invasion, nitrification and denitrification

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577 Passive Attenuation of Nitrogen Species at Northern Mine Sites

Authors: Patrick Mueller, Alan Martin, Justin Stockwell, Robert Goldblatt

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Elevated concentrations of inorganic nitrogen (N) compounds (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia) are a ubiquitous feature to mine-influenced drainages due to the leaching of blasting residues and use of cyanide in the milling of gold ores. For many mines, the management of N is a focus for environmental protection, therefore understanding the factors controlling the speciation and behavior of N is central to effective decision making. In this paper, the passive attenuation of ammonia and nitrite is described for three northern water bodies (two lakes and a tailings pond) influenced by mining activities. In two of the water bodies, inorganic N compounds originate from explosives residues in mine water and waste rock. The third water body is a decommissioned tailings impoundment, with N compounds largely originating from the breakdown of cyanide compounds used in the processing of gold ores. Empirical observations from water quality monitoring indicate nitrification (the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate) occurs in all three waterbodies, where enrichment of nitrate occurs commensurately with ammonia depletion. The N species conversions in these systems occurred more rapidly than chemical oxidation kinetics permit, indicating that microbial mediated conversion was occurring, despite the cool water temperatures. While nitrification of ammonia and nitrite to nitrate was the primary process, in all three waterbodies nitrite was consistently present at approximately 0.5 to 2.0 % of total N, even following ammonia depletion. The persistence of trace amounts of nitrite under these conditions suggests the co-occurrence denitrification processes in the water column and/or underlying substrates. The implications for N management in mine waters are discussed.

Keywords: explosives, mining, nitrification, water

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576 Nitrification Efficiency and Community Structure of Municipal Activated Sewage Sludge

Authors: Oluyemi O. Awolusi, Abimbola M. Enitan, Sheena Kumari, Faizal Bux

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Nitrification is essential to biological processes designed to remove ammonia and/or total nitrogen. It removes the excess nitrogenous compound in wastewater which could be very toxic to the aquatic fauna or cause a serious imbalance of such aquatic ecosystem. Efficient nitrification is linked to an in-depth knowledge of the structure and dynamics of the nitrifying community structure within the wastewater treatment systems. In this study, molecular technique was employed for characterizing the microbial structure of activated sludge [ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB)] in a municipal wastewater treatment with intention of linking it to the plant efficiency. PCR-based phylogenetic analysis was also carried out for. The average operating and environmental parameters, as well as specific nitrification rate of a plant, was investigated during the study. During the investigation, the average temperature was 23±1.5oC. Other operational parameters such as mixed liquor suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand inversely correlated with ammonia removal. The dissolved oxygen level in the plant was constantly lower than the optimum (between 0.24 and 1.267 mg/l) during this study. The plant was treating wastewater with the influent ammonia concentration of 31.69 and 24.47 mg/l. The influent flow rates (ML/day) was 96.81 during the period. The dominant nitrifiers include: Nitrosomonas spp. Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp. The AOB had a correlation with nitrification efficiency and temperature. This study shows that the specific ammonia oxidizing rate and the specific nitrate formation rates can serve as a good indicator of the plant overall nitrification performance.

Keywords: Ammonia monooxygenase α-subunit gene, amoA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, AOB, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, NOB, specific nitrification rate

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575 Study of Biological Denitrification using Heterotrophic Bacteria and Natural Source of Carbon

Authors: Benbelkacem Ouerdia

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Heterotrophic denitrification has been proven to be one of the most feasible processes for removing nitrate from wastewater and drinking water. In this process, heterotrophic bacteria use organic carbon for both growth and as an electron source. Underground water pollution by nitrates become alarming in Algeria. A survey carried out revealed that the nitrate concentration is in continual increase. Studies in some region revealed contamination exceeding the recommended permissible dose which is 50 mg/L. Worrying values in the regions of Mascara, Ouled saber, El Eulma, Bouira and Algiers are respectively 72 mg/L, 75 mg/L, 97 mg/L, 102 mg/L, and 158 mg/L. High concentration of nitrate in drinking water is associated with serious health risks. Research on nitrate removal technologies from municipal water supplies is increasing because of nitrate contamination. Biological denitrification enables the transformation of oxidized nitrogen compounds by a wide spectrum of heterotrophic bacteria into harmless nitrogen gas with accompanying carbon removal. Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality The study investigated the valorization of a vegetable residue as a carbon source (dates nodes) in water treatment using the denitrification process. Throughout the study, the effect of inoculums addition, pH, and initial concentration of nitrates was also investigated. In this research, a natural organic substance: dates nodes were investigated as a carbon source in the biological denitrification of drinking water. This material acts as a solid substrate and bio-film carrier. The experiments were carried out in batch processes. Complete denitrification was achieved varied between 80 and 100% according to the type of process used. It was found that the nitrate removal rate based on our results, we concluded that the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds depended mainly on the initial concentration of nitrate. The effluent pH was mainly affected by the C/N ratio, where a decrease increases pH.

Keywords: biofilm, carbon source, dates nodes, heterotrophic denitrification, nitrate, nitrite

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574 Valorization of Dates Nodes as a Carbon Source Using Biological Denitrification

Authors: Ouerdia Benbelkacem Belouanas

Abstract:

Heterotrophic denitrification has been proven to be one of the most feasible processes for removing nitrate from waste water and drinking water. In this process, heterotrophic bacteria use organic carbon for both growth and as an electron source. Underground water pollution by nitrates become alarming in Algeria. A survey carried out revealed that the nitrate concentration is in continual increase. Studies in some region revealed contamination exceeding the recommended permissible dose which is 50 mg/L. Worrying values in the regions of Mascara, Ouled saber, El Eulma, Bouira and Algiers are respectively 72 mg/L, 75 mg/L, 97 mg/L, 102 mg/L, and 158 mg/L. High concentration of nitrate in drinking water is associated with serious health risks. Research on nitrate removal technologies from municipal water supplies is increasing because of nitrate contamination. Biological denitrification enables transformation of oxidized nitrogen compounds by a wide spectrum of heterotrophic bacteria into harmless nitrogen gas with accompanying carbon removal. Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. The study investigated the valorization of a vegetable residue as a carbon source (dates nodes) in water treatment using the denitrification process. Throughout the study, the effect of inoculums addition, pH, and initial concentration of nitrates was also investigated. In this research, a natural organic substance: dates nodes were investigated as a carbon source in the biological denitrification of drinking water. This material acts as a solid substrate and bio-film carrier. The experiments were carried out in batch processes. Complete denitrification was achieved varied between 80 and 100% according to the type of process used. It was found that the nitrate removal rate based on our results, we concluded that the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds depended mainly on initial concentration of nitrate. The effluent pH was mainly affected by the C/N ratio, where a decrease increases pH.

Keywords: biofilm, carbon source, dates nodes, heterotrophic denitrification, nitrate, nitrite

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573 Understanding Integrated Removal of Heavy Metals, Organic Matter and Nitrogen in a Constructed Wetland System Receiving Simulated Landfill Leachate

Authors: A. Mohammed, A. Babatunde

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This study investigated the integrated removal of heavy metals, organic matter and nitrogen from landfill leachate using a novel laboratory scale constructed wetland system. The main objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the overall effectiveness of the constructed wetland system for treating landfill leachate; (ii) to examine the interactions and impact of key leachate constituents (heavy metals, organic matter and nitrogen) on the overall removal dynamics and efficiency. The constructed wetland system consisted of four stages operated in tidal flow and anoxic conditions. Results obtained from 215 days of operation have demonstrated extraordinary heavy metals removal up to 100%. Analysis of the physico- chemical data reveal that the controlling factors for metals removal were the anoxic condition and the use of the novel media (dewatered ferric sludge which is a by-product of drinking water treatment process) as the main substrate in the constructed wetland system. Results show that the use of the ferric sludge enhanced heavy metals removal and brought more flexibility to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification which occurs within the microbial flocs. Furthermore, COD and NH4-N were effectively removed in the system and this coincided with enhanced aeration in the 2nd and 3rd stages of the constructed wetland system. Overall, the results demonstrated that the ferric dewatered sludge constructed wetland system would be an effective solution for integrated removal of pollutants from landfill leachates.

Keywords: constructed wetland, ferric dewatered sludge, heavy metals, landfill leachate

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572 Productivity and Nutrient Uptake of Cotton as Influenced by Application of Organic Nitrification Inhibitors and Fertilizer Level

Authors: Hemlata Chitte, Anita Chorey, V. M. Bhale, Bharti Tijare

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A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2013-14 at Agronomy research farm, Dr. PDKV, Akola, to study the productivity and nitrogen use efficiency in cotton using organic nitrification inhibitors. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications each having nine treatment combinations comprising three fertilizer levels viz., 75% RDF (F1), 100% RDF (F2) and 125% RDF (F3) and three nitrification inhibitors viz., neem cake @ 300 kgha-1 (N1), karanj cake @ 300 kgha-1 (N2) and control (N3). The result showed that various growth attributes viz., plant height, number of functional leaves plant-1, monopodial and sympodial branches and leaf area plant-1(dm2) were maximum in fertilizer level 125% RDF over fertilizer level 75% RDF and which at par with 100% RDF. In case of yield attributes and yield, number of bolls per plant, Seed cotton yield and stalk yield kg ha-1 significantly higher in fertilizer level 125% RDF over 100% RDF and 75% RDF. Uptake of NPK kg ha-1 after harvest of cotton crop was significantly higher in fertilizer level 125% RDF over 100% RDF and 75% RDF. Significantly highest nitrogen use efficiency was recorded with fertilizer level 75 % RDF as compared to 100 % RDF and lowest nitrogen use efficiency was recorded with 125% RDF level. Amongst nitrification inhibitors, karanj cake @ 300 kg ha-1 increases potentiality of growth characters, yield attributes, uptake of NPK and NUE as compared to control and at par with neem cake @ 300 kgha-1. Interaction effect between fertilizer level and nitrification inhibitors were found to be non significant at all growth attributes and uptake of nutrient but was significant in respect of seed cotton yield.

Keywords: cotton, fertilizer level, nitrification inhibitor and nitrogen use efficiency, nutrient uptake

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571 On Parameter Estimation of Simultaneous Linear Functional Relationship Model for Circular Variables

Authors: N. A. Mokhtar, A. G. Hussin, Y. Z. Zubairi

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This paper proposes a new simultaneous simple linear functional relationship model by assuming equal error variances. We derive the maximum likelihood estimate of the parameters in the simultaneous model and the covariance. We show by simulation study the small bias values of the parameters suggest the suitability of the estimation method. As an illustration, the proposed simultaneous model is applied to real data of the wind direction and wave direction measured by two different instruments.

Keywords: simultaneous linear functional relationship model, Fisher information matrix, parameter estimation, circular variables

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570 Hydrodynamics of Periphyton Biofilters in Recirculating Aquaculture

Authors: Adam N. Bell, Sarina J. Ergas, Michael Nystrom, Nathan P. Brennan, Kevan L. Main

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Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture systems (IMTA) have the potential to improve the sustainability of seafood production, generate organic fertilizer and feed, remove waste discharges and reduce energy use. IMTA can include periphyton biofilters where algae and microbes grow on surfaces, along with caught detritus and amphipods. Periphyton biofilters provide many advantages: nitrification, denitrification, primary production and ecological diversity. The goal of this study was to determine how biofilter hydraulic residence time (τ) effects periphyton biomass production, dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrient removal. A pilot scale recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was designed, constructed and operated at different hydraulic residence times (τ= 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours per tank). For each τ, a conservative tracer study was conducted to investigate system hydrodynamics. Data on periphyton weights, pH, nitrogen species, phosphorus, temperature and DO were collected. The tracer study for τ =1 hour revealed that the normalized time < τ, indicating short-circuiting. Periphyton biomass production rate was relatively unaffected by τ (R_e<1 for all τ). Average ammonia nitrogen removal was > 75% for all trials. Nitrate and nitrite did not accumulate in the RAS for τ≥4 hours due to enhanced denitrification in anoxic zones. For τ≥4 hours DO concentration was at a maximum of 4 mg L-1 after 14:00, and decreased to 0 mg L-1 during nighttime. At τ=1 hour, the RAS stayed > 2 mg L-1 and DO was more evenly distributed. For the validation trial, the culture tank was stocked with Centropomus undecimalis (common snook) and the system was operated at τ= 1 hr. Preliminary results showed that a RAS with an integrated periphyton biofilter could support fish health with low nutrient concentrations DO > 6 mg L-1.

Keywords: sustainable aquaculture, resource recovery, nitrogen, microalgae, hydrodynamics, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture

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569 Development of an Integrated System for the Treatment of Rural Domestic Wastewater: Emphasis on Nutrient Removal

Authors: Prangya Ranjan Rout, Puspendu Bhunia, Rajesh Roshan Dash

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In a developing country like India, providing reliable and affordable wastewater treatment facilities in rural areas is a huge challenge. With the aim of enhancing the nutrient removal from rural domestic wastewater while reducing the cost of treatment process, a novel, integrated treatment system consisting of a multistage bio-filter with drop aeration and a post positioned attached growth carbonaceous denitrifying-bioreactor was designed and developed in this work. The bio-filter was packed with ‘dolochar’, a sponge iron industry waste, as an adsorbent mainly for phosphate removal through physiochemical approach. The Denitrifying bio-reactor was packed with many waste organic solid substances (WOSS) as carbon sources and substrates for biomass attachment, mainly to remove nitrate in biological denitrification process. The performance of the modular system, treating real domestic wastewater was monitored for a period of about 60 days and the average removal efficiencies during the period were as follows: phosphate, 97.37%; nitrate, 85.91%, ammonia, 87.85%, with mean final effluent concentration of 0.73, 9.86, and 9.46 mg/L, respectively. The multistage bio-filter played an important role in ammonium oxidation and phosphate adsorption. The multilevel drop aeration with increasing oxygenation, and the special media used, consisting of certain oxides were likely beneficial for nitrification and phosphorus removal, respectively, whereas the nitrate was effectively reduced by biological denitrification in the carbonaceous bioreactor. This treatment system would allow multipurpose reuse of the final effluent. Moreover, the saturated dolochar can be used as nutrient suppliers in agricultural practices and the partially degraded carbonaceous substances can be subjected to composting, and subsequently used as an organic fertilizer. Thus, the system displays immense potential for treating domestic wastewater significantly decreasing the concentrations of nutrients and more importantly, facilitating the conversion of the waste materials into usable ones.

Keywords: nutrient removal, denitrifying bioreactor, multi-stage bio-filter, dolochar, waste organic solid substances

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568 Examining the Role of Soil pH on the Composition and Abundance of Nitrite Oxidising Bacteria

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Hussein I. Ibrahim, Ahmed F. Umar

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Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate (NO3-) via nitrite (NO2-) is a vital process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and is performed by two distinct functional groups; ammonia oxidisers (comprised of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidising archaea (AOA)) and nitrite oxidising bacteria. Autotrophic nitrification is said to occur in acidic soils, even though most laboratory cultures of isolated ammonia and nitrite oxidising bacteria fail to grow below neutral pH. Published studies revealed that soil pH is a major driver for determining the distribution and abundance of AOB and AOA. To determine whether distinct populations of nitrite oxidising bacteria within the lineages of Nitrospira and Nitrobacter are adapted to a particular range of pH as observed in ammonia oxidising organisms, the community structure of Nitrospira-like and Nitrobacter-like NOB were examined across a pH gradient (4.5–7.5) by amplifying nitrite oxido-reductase (nxrA) and 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The community structure of both Nitrospira and Nitrobacter changed with soil pH, with distinct populations observed in acidic and neutral soils. The abundance of Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA and Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene copies contrasted across the pH gradient. Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene abundance decreased with increasing soil pH, whereas Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA gene abundance increased with increasing pH. Findings indicated that abundance and distributions of soil NOB is influence by soil pH.

Keywords: nitrospira, nitrobacter, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, nitrification, pH, soil

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567 The Impact of Grammatical Differences on English-Mandarin Chinese Simultaneous Interpreting

Authors: Miao Sabrina Wang

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This paper examines the impact of grammatical differences on simultaneous interpreting from English into Mandarin Chinese by drawing upon an empirical study of professional and student interpreters. The research focuses on the effects of three grammatical categories including passives, adverbial components and noun phrases on simultaneous interpreting. For each category, interpretations of instances in which the grammatical structures are the same across the two languages are compared with interpretations of instances in which the grammatical structures differ across the two languages in terms of content accuracy and delivery appropriateness. The results indicate that grammatical differences have a significant impact on the interpreting performance of both professionals and students.

Keywords: content accuracy, delivery appropriateness, grammatical differences, simultaneous interpreting

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566 Leaching Losses of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Sulfur and Nitrification Inhibitor Applications

Authors: Abdel Khalek Selim, Safaa Mahmoud

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Experiments were designed to study nitrogen loss through leaching in soil columns treated with different nitrogen sources and elemental sulfur. The soil material (3 kg alluvial or calcareous soil) were packed in Plexiglas columns (10 cm diameter). The soil columns were treated with 2 g N in the form of Ca(NO3)2, urea, urea + inhibitor (Nitrapyrin), another set of these treatments was prepared to add elemental sulfur. During incubation period, leaching was performed by applying a volume of water that allows the percolation of 250-ml water throughout the soil column. The leachates were analyzed for NH4-N and N03-N. After 10 weeks, soil columns were cut into four equal segments and analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Results indicated the following: Ca(NO3)2 treatment showed a rapid NO3 leaching, especially in the first 3 weeks, in both clay and calcareous soils. This means that soil texture did not play any role in this respect. Sulfur addition also did not affect the rate of NO3 leaching. In urea treatment, there was a steady increase of NH4- and NO3–N from one leachate to another. Addition of sulfur with urea slowed down the nitrification process and decreased N losses. Clay soil contained residual N much more than calcareous soil. Almost one-third of added nitrogen might have been immobilized by soil microorganisms or lost through other loss paths. Nitrification inhibitor can play a role in preserving added nitrogen from being lost through leaching. Combining the inhibitor with elemental sulfur may help to stabilize certain preferred ratio of NH4 to NO3 in the soil for the benefit of the growing plants.

Keywords: alluvial soil, calcareous soil, elemental sulfur, nitrate leaching

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565 Preliminary Study on Using of Thermal Energy from Effluent Water for the SBR Process of RO

Authors: Gyeong-Sung Kim, In-soo Ahn, Yong Cho

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SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) process is usually applied to membrane water treatment plants to treat its concentrated wastewater. The role of SBR process is to remove COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and NH3 from wastewater before discharging it outside of the water treatment plant using microorganism. Microorganism’s nitrification capability is influenced by water temperature because the nitrification rate of the concentrated wastewater becomes ‘zero’ as water temperature approach 0℃. Heating system is necessary to operate SBR in winter season even though the operating cost increase sharply. The operating cost of SBR at ‘D’ RO water treatment plant in Korea was 51.8 times higher in winter (October to March) compare to summer (April to September) season in 2014. Otherwise the effluent water temperature maintained around 8℃ constantly in winter. This study focuses on application heat pump system to recover the thermal energy from the effluent water of ‘D’ RO plant so that the operating cost will be reduced.

Keywords: water treatment, water thermal energy, energy saving, RO, SBR

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564 Effect of a Mixture of Phenol, O-Cresol, P-Cresol, and M-Cresol on the Nitrifying Process in a Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Adriana Sosa, Susana Rincon, Chérif Ben, Diana Cabañas, Juan E. Ruiz, Alejandro Zepeda

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The complex chemical composition (mixtures of ammonium and recalcitrant compounds) of the effluents from the chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries represents a challenge in their biological treatment. This treatment involves nitrification process that can suffer an inhibition due to the presence of aromatic compounds giving as a result the decrease of the process efficiency. The inhibitory effects on nitrification in the presence of aromatic compounds have already been studied; however a few studies have considered the presence of phenolic compounds in the form of mixtures, which is the form that they are present in real context. For this reason, we realized a kinetic study on the nitrifying process in the presence of different concentrations of a mixture of phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol and p-cresol (0 - 320 mg C/L) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Firstly, the nitrifying process was evaluated in absence of the phenolic mixture (control 1) in a SBR with 2 L working volume and 176 mg/L of nitrogen of microbial protein. Total oxidation of initial ammonium (efficiency; ENH4+ of 100 %) to nitrate (nitrifying yield; YNO3- of 0.95) were obtained with specific rates of ammonium consumption (qN-NH4+) and nitrate production (qN-NO3-) (of 1.11 ± 0.04 h-1 and 0.67 h-1 ± 0.11 respectively. During the phase of acclimation with 40 mg C/L of the phenolic mixture, an inhibitory effect on the nitrifying process was observed, provoking a decrease in ENH4+ and YNO3- (11 and 54 % respectively) as well as in the specific rates (89 y 46 % respectively), being the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (BAO) the most affected. However, in the next cycles without the phenolic mixture (control 2), the nitrifying consortium was able to recover its nitrifying capacity (ENH4+ = 100% and YNO3-=0.98). Afterwards the SBR was fed with 10 mg C/L of the phenolic mixture, obtaining and ENH4+ of 100%, YNO3- and qN-NH4+ 0.62 ± 0.006 and 0.13 ± 0.004 respectively, while the qN-NO3- was 0.49 ± 0.007. Moreover, with the increase of the phenolic concentrations (10-160 mg C/L) and the number of cycles the nitrifying consortium was able to oxidize the ammonia with ENH4+ of 100 % and YNO3- close to 1. However a decrease in the values of the nitrification specific rates and increase in the oxidation in phenolic compounds (70 to 94%) were observed. Finally, in the presence of 320 mg C/L, the nitrifying consortium was able to simultaneously oxidize the ammonia (ENH4+= 100%) and the phenolic mixture (p-cresol>phenol>m-cresol>o-cresol) being the o-cresol the most recalcitrant compound. In all the experiments the use of a SBR allowed a respiratory adaptation of the consortium to oxidize the phenolic mixture achieving greater adaptation of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) than in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB).

Keywords: cresol, inhibition, nitrification, phenol, sequencing batch reactor

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563 Causal Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Information Transparency: A Simultaneous Equations Approach

Authors: Maali Kachouri, Anis Jarboui

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We focus on the causal relationship between governance and information transparency as well as interrelation among the various governance mechanisms. This paper employs a simultaneous equations approach to show this relationship in the Tunisian context. Based on an 8-year dataset, our sample covers 28 listed companies over 2006-2013. Our findings suggest that internal and external governance mechanisms are interdependent. Moreover, in order to analyze the causal effect between information transparency and governance mechanisms, we found evidence that information transparency tends to increase good corporate governance practices.

Keywords: simultaneous equations approach, transparency, causal relationship, corporate governance

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562 Degradation of EE2 by Different Consortium of Enriched Nitrifying Activated Sludge

Authors: Pantip Kayee

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17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a recalcitrant micropollutant which is found in small amounts in municipal wastewater. But these small amounts still adversely affect for the reproductive function of aquatic organisms. Evidence in the past suggested that full-scale WWTPs equipped with nitrification process enhanced the removal of EE2 in the municipal wastewater. EE2 has been proven to be able to be transformed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) via co-metabolism. This research aims to clarify the EE2 degradation pattern by different consortium of ammonia oxidizing microorganism (AOM) including AOA (ammonia oxidizing archaea) and investigate contribution between the existing ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and new synthesized AOM. The result showed that AOA or AOB of N. oligotropha cluster in enriched nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) from 2mM and 5mM, commonly found in municipal WWTPs, could degrade EE2 in wastewater via co-metabolism. Moreover, the investigation of the contribution between the existing ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and new synthesized AOM demonstrated that the new synthesized AMO enzyme may perform ammonia oxidation rather than the existing AMO enzyme or the existing AMO enzyme may has a small amount to oxidize ammonia.

Keywords: 17α-ethinylestradiol, nitrification, ammonia oxidizing bacteria, ammonia oxidizing archaea

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561 Sequential and Simultaneous Mixed Emotion Experiences for Self or Another Person in Adolescence

Authors: Burkitt E., Watling D., Cocks F.

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There is growing evidence to suggest that young children and adults experience opposite valence mixed emotions in various simultaneous ways which vary in intensity for two emotions over an experience. Models of mixed emotion do not specify types of simultaneous experiences across adolescent populations. This study examined types of simultaneous mixed emotion experiences for the first time in adolescence. It also examined the impacts of high and low-intensity emotion pairs on types of mixed emotion experiences using an Analogue Emotion Scale (AES) which permits the graphical mapping of opposite valence emotions across an event duration. 163 participants were randomly allocated to two age groups (12 years, 5 months-16 years, 9 months vs. 16 years, 10 months-18 years, 8 months) across two conditions considering their own (n=83) or another adolescent’s (n= 80) experience divided equally for high (n=80) or low (n= 83) intensity mixed emotion experiences. Findings showed that children experienced mixed emotions both sequentially and simultaneously. In particular older adolescents recorded that others experience emotions in a more sequential manner, while they themselves would experience emotions in a highly simultaneous way. Emotion experience was different depending on the intensity of the emotion pair and age group. Findings are discussed in relation to an evaluative space model of mixed emotion and extended developmental models of emotion processing. Applications of the AES with adolescent populations are considered.

Keywords: adolescence, mixed emotions, graphing, AES

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560 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid

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Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, distillation, carvi seeds

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559 Microalgae Bacteria Granules, an Alternative Technology to the Conventional Wastewater Treatment: Structural and Metabolic Characterization

Authors: M. Nita-Lazar, E. Manea, C. Bumbac, A. Banciu, C. Stoica

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The population and economic growth have generated a significant new number of pollutant compounds which have to be degraded before reaching the environment. The wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been the last barrier between the domestic and/or industrial wastewaters and the environment. At present, the conventional WWTPs have very high operational costs, most of them linked to the aeration process (60-65% from total energy costs related to wastewater treatment). In addition, they have had a low efficiency in pollutants removal such as pharmaceutical and other resilient anthropogenic compounds. In our study, we have been focused on new wastewater treatment strategies to enhance the efficiency of pollutants removal and decrease the wastewater treatment operational costs. The usage of mixed microalgae-bacteria granules technology generated high efficiency and low costs by a better harvesting and less expensive aeration. The intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria have been characterized by the structure of the population community to their metabolic relationships. The results, obtained by microscopic studies, showed well-organized and stratified microalgae-bacteria granules where bacteria have been enveloped in the microalgal structures. Moreover, their population community structure has been modulated as well as their nitrification, denitrification processes (analysis based on qPCR genes expression) by the type of the pollutant compounds and amounts. In conclusion, the understanding and modulation of intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria could be an economical and technological viable alternative to the conventional wastewater treatment. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by grant PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0865 from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation CNCS/CCCDI-UEFISCDI.

Keywords: activated sludge, bacteria, granules, microalgae

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558 Disposable PANI-CeO2 Sensor for the Electrocatalytic Simultaneous Quantification of Amlodipine and Nebivolol

Authors: Nimisha Jadon, Rajeev Jain, Swati Sharma

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A chemically modified carbon paste sensor has been developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine (AML) and nebivolol (NBV). Carbon paste electrode (CPE) was fabricated by the addition of Gr/PANI-CeO2. Gr/PANI-CeO2/CPE has achieved excellent electrocatalytic activity and sensitivity. AML and NBV exhibited oxidation peaks at 0.70 and 0.90 V respectively on Gr/ PANI-CeO2/CPE. The linearity range of AML and NBV was 0.1 to 1.6 μgmL-1 in BR buffer (pH 8.0). The Limit of detection (LOD) was 20.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 30.0 ngmL-1 for NBV and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 80.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 100 ngmL-1 for NBV respectively. These analyses were also determined in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum and good recovery was obtained for the developed method.

Keywords: amlodipine, nebivolol, square wave voltammetry, carbon paste electrode, simultaneous quantification

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557 Non-Local Simultaneous Sparse Unmixing for Hyperspectral Data

Authors: Fanqiang Kong, Chending Bian

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Sparse unmixing is a promising approach in a semisupervised fashion by assuming that the observed pixels of a hyperspectral image can be expressed in the form of linear combination of only a few pure spectral signatures (end members) in an available spectral library. However, the sparse unmixing problem still remains a great challenge at finding the optimal subset of endmembers for the observed data from a large standard spectral library, without considering the spatial information. Under such circumstances, a sparse unmixing algorithm termed as non-local simultaneous sparse unmixing (NLSSU) is presented. In NLSSU, the non-local simultaneous sparse representation method for endmember selection of sparse unmixing, is used to finding the optimal subset of endmembers for the similar image patch set in the hyperspectral image. And then, the non-local means method, as a regularizer for abundance estimation of sparse unmixing, is used to exploit the abundance image non-local self-similarity. Experimental results on both simulated and real data demonstrate that NLSSU outperforms the other algorithms, with a better spectral unmixing accuracy.

Keywords: hyperspectral unmixing, simultaneous sparse representation, sparse regression, non-local means

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
556 Conservation Agriculture under Mediterranean Climate: Effects on below and Above-Ground Processes during Wheat Cultivation

Authors: Vasiliki Kolake, Christos Kavalaris, Sofia Megoudi, Maria Maxouri, Panagiotis A. Karas, Aris Kyparissis, Efi Levizou

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Conservation agriculture (CA), is a production system approach that can tackle the challenges of climate change mainly through facilitating carbon storage into the soil and increasing crop resilience. This is extremely important for the vulnerable Mediterranean agroecosystems, which already face adverse environmental conditions. The agronomic practices used in CA, i.e. permanent soil cover and no-tillage, result in reduced soil erosion and increased soil organic matter, preservation of water and improvement of quality and fertility of the soil in the long-term. Thus the functional characteristics and processes of the soil are considerably affected by the implementation of CA. The aim of the present work was to assess the effects of CA on soil nitrification potential and mycorrhizal colonization about the above-ground production in a wheat field. Two adjacent but independent field sites of 1.5ha each were used (Thessaly plain, Central Greece), comprising the no-till and conventional tillage treatments. The no-tillage site was covered by residues of the previous crop (cotton). Potential nitrification and the nitrate and ammonium content of the soil were measured at two different soil depths (3 and 15cm) at 20-days intervals throughout the growth period. Additionally, the leaf area index (LAI) was monitored at the same time-course. The mycorrhizal colonization was measured at the commencement and end of the experiment. At the final harvest, total yield and plant biomass were also recorded. The results indicate that wheat yield was considerably favored by CA practices, exhibiting a 42% increase compared to the conventional tillage treatment. The superior performance of the CA crop was also depicted in the above-ground plant biomass, where a 26% increase was recorded. LAI, which is considered a reliable growth index, did not show statistically significant differences between treatments throughout the growth period. On the contrary, significant differences were recorded in endomycorrhizal colonization one day before the final harvest, with CA plants exhibiting 20% colonization, while the conventional tillage plants hardly reached 1%. The on-going analyses of potential nitrification measurements, as well as nitrate and ammonium determination, will shed light on the effects of CA on key processes in the soil. These results will integrate the assessment of CA impact on certain below and above-ground processes during wheat cultivation under the Mediterranean climate.

Keywords: conservation agriculture, LAI, mycorrhizal colonization, potential nitrification, wheat, yield

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555 Analysis and Design of Simultaneous Dual Band Harvesting System with Enhanced Efficiency

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry, Jean-François Bousquet

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This paper presents an enhanced efficiency simultaneous dual band energy harvesting system for wireless body area network. A bulk biasing is used to enhance the efficiency of the adapted rectifier design to reduce Vth of MOSFET. The presented circuit harvests the radio frequency (RF) energy from two frequency bands: 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. It is designed with TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology and high quality factor dual matching network to boost the input voltage. Full circuit analysis and modeling is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate a harvester with an efficiency of 23% at 1 GHz and 46% at 2.4 GHz at an input power as low as -30 dBm.

Keywords: energy harvester, simultaneous, dual band, CMOS, differential rectifier, voltage boosting, TSMC 65nm

Procedia PDF Downloads 292