Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Nora Ruiz-Ordaz

25 Utilization of Watermelon Rind Extract as Green Anti-Scalent for Cooling Water Systems

Authors: Elsayed G. Zaki, Nora A. Hamad, Hadeel G. El-Shorbagy

Abstract:

The effect of watermelon rind extract as green inhibitors for the formation of calcium sulphate scale have been investigated using conductivity measurements concurrently with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopic examinations. Mineral scales were deposited from the brine solution by cathodic polarization of the steel surface. The results show up that the anti-scaling property of the extracts could be attributed to the presence of citrulline. In solution, citrulline retards calcium sulphate precipitation via formation of a complex with the calcium cations. Thin, smooth and non adherent film formed over the steel surface, under cathodic polarization, by the deposition of the calcium- citrulline complex. The stability of the aqueous extracts with time was also investigated.

Keywords: Water Treatment, scale inhibitor, anti-scaling, green extracts

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24 The Fiscal and Macroeconomic Impacts of Reforming Energy Subsidy Policy in Malaysia

Authors: Nora Yusma Bte Mohamed Yusoff, Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract:

The rationalization of a gradual subsidies reforms plan has been set out by the Malaysian government to achieve the high-income nation target. This paper attempts to analyze the impacts of energy subsidy reform policy on fiscal deficit and macroeconomics variables in Malaysia. The Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model is employed. Three simulations based on different groups of scenarios have been developed. Importantly, the overall results indicate that removal of fuel subsidy has significantly improved the real GDP and reduced the government fiscal deficit. On the other hand, the removal of the fuel subsidy has increased most of the local commodity prices, especially energy commodities. The findings of the study could provide some imperative inputs for policy makers, especially to identify the right policy mechanism. This is especially ensures the subsidy savings from subsidy removal could be transferred back into the domestic economy in the form of infrastructure development, compensation and increases in others sector output contributions towards a sustainable economic growth.

Keywords: Energy, Reform, deficit, subsidy, CGE

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
23 Modeling and Power Control of DFIG Used in Wind Energy System

Authors: Nadia Ben Si Ali, Nadia Benalia, Nora Zerzouri

Abstract:

Wind energy generation has attracted great interests in recent years. Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) for wind turbines are largely deployed because variable-speed wind turbines have many advantages over fixed-speed generation such as increased energy capture, operation at maximum power point, improved efficiency, and power quality. This paper presents the operation and vector control of a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system where the stator is connected directly to a stiff grid and the rotor is connected to the grid through bidirectional back-to-back AC-DC-AC converter. The basic operational characteristics, mathematical model of the aerodynamic system and vector control technique which is used to obtain decoupled control of powers are investigated using the software Mathlab/Simulink.

Keywords: Power System Stability, Wind turbine, doubly fed induction generator, wind speed controller

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22 Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of New Series of Oil Sorbers Based on Maleate Esters

Authors: Nora A. Hamad, Ayman M. Atta, Adel A. H. Abdel-Rahman

Abstract:

Two malice anhydride esters were prepared using long chain aliphatic alcohols (C8H17OH and C12H25OH, 1:1 mole ratio). Three series of crosslinked homo and copolymers of maleate esters with octadecyl acrylate and acrylic acid were prepared respectively through suspension copolymerization. The monomers were mixed with 0.02 Wt% of BP initiator, PVA 1% (170 ml for each 100g of monomers) and different weight ratios of DVB crosslinked (1% and 4%) in cyclohexane. The prepared crosslinked homo and copolymers were characterized by SEM, TGA and FTIR spectroscopic analyses. The prepared polymers were coated onto poly (ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET). The effect of copolymerization feed composition, crosslinker wt% and reaction media or solvent on swelling properties of crosslinked polymers were studied through the oil absorption tests in toluene and 10% of diluted crude oil with toluene.

Keywords: acrylic acid, crosslinked copolymers, maleate ester, poly(ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET), oil absorbency, octadecyl acrylat

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21 Antifungal Lactobacilli Affect Mycelium Morphology and Protect Apricot Juice against Mold Spoilage

Authors: Nora Laref, Bettache Guessas

Abstract:

Preservation of foods mainly depends on delaying or inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria is one of the technological properties researched. The antifungal activity was screened with overlay method of six strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LB54, LB52, LB51, LB20, LB24 Lactobacillus farciminis LB53) isolated from silage, camel milk and carrot against Aspergillus sp. Lactobacillus plantarum and farciminis inhibit spore germination and mycelia growth of Aspergillus sp., the production of antifungal compounds by these strains was detectable after 4h of incubation at 30°C and show total inhibition after 24h in liquid media, but in solid media showed a good inhibition after 96h of incubation, these compounds cause malformations in the thalle, conidiophore and conidia. These strains could be used as agents of biopreservation since have the ability to retard Aspergillus sp., growth in apricot juice with and without sugar conserved in refrigerator but not in bread.

Keywords: Lactobacillus, Biopreservation, antifungal substances, aspergillus

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20 Electronic Properties Study of Ni/MgO Nanoparticles by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

Authors: Ouafek Nora, Keghouche Nassira, Dehdouh Heider, Untidt Carlos

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A lot of knowledge has been accumulated on the metal clusters supported on oxide surfaces because of their multiple applications in microelectronics, heterogeneous catalysis, and magnetic devices. In this work, the surface state of Ni / MgO has been studied by XPS (X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The samples were prepared by impregnation with ion exchange Ni²⁺ / MgO, followed by either a thermal treatment in air (T = 100 -350 ° C) or a gamma irradiation (dose 100 kGy, 25 kGy dose rate h -1). The obtained samples are named after impregnation NMI, NMR after irradiation, and finally NMC(T) after calcination at the temperature T (T = 100-600 °C). A structural study by XRD and HRTEM reveals the presence of nanoscaled Ni-Mg intermetallic phases (Mg₂Ni, MgNi₂, and Mg₆Ni) and magnesium hydroxide. Mg(OH)₂ in nanometric range (2- 4 nm). Mg-Ni compounds are of great interest in energy fields (hydrogen storage…). XPS spectra show two Ni2p peaks at energies of about 856.1 and 861.9 eV, indicating that the nickel is primarily in an oxidized state on the surface. The shift of the main peak relative to the pure NiO (856.1 instead of 854.0 eV) suggests that in addition to oxygen, nickel is engaged in another link with magnesium. This is in agreement with the O1s spectra which present an overlap of peaks corresponds to NiO and MgO, at a calcination temperature T ≤ 300 °C.

Keywords: XRD, XPS, nanoparticules, Ni-MgO

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19 The Significant Effect of Wudu’ and Zikr in the Controlling of Emotional Pressure Using Biofeedback Emwave Technique

Authors: Mohd Anuar Awang Idris, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab, Nora Yusma Mohamed Yusoff

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Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr are amongst some of the spiritual tools which may help an individual control his mind, emotion and attitude. These tools are deemed to be able to deliver a positive impact on an individual’s psychophysiology. The main objective of this research is to determine the effects of Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr therapy using the biofeedback emWave application and technology. For this research, 13 students were selected as samples from the students’ representative body at the University Tenaga National, Malaysia. The DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) questionnaire was used to help with the assessment and measurement of each student’s ability in controlling his or her emotions before and after the therapies. The biofeedback emWave technology was utilized to monitor the student’s psychophysiology level. In addition, the data obtained from the Heart rate variability (HRV) test have also been used to affirm that Wudu’ and Zikr had had significant impacts on the student’s success in controlling his or her emotional pressure.

Keywords: Psychophysiology, emotion, biofeedback EmWave, wudu’, zikr

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18 CSRFDtool: Automated Detection and Prevention of a Reflected Cross-Site Request Forgery

Authors: Alaa A. Almarzuki, Nora A. Farraj, Aisha M. Alshiky, Omar A. Batarfi

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The number of internet users is dramatically increased every year. Most of these users are exposed to the dangers of attackers in one way or another. The reason for this lies in the presence of many weaknesses that are not known for native users. In addition, the lack of user awareness is considered as the main reason for falling into the attackers’ snares. Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) has placed in the list of the most dangerous threats to security in OWASP Top Ten for 2013. CSRF is an attack that forces the user’s browser to send or perform unwanted request or action without user awareness by exploiting a valid session between the browser and the server. When CSRF attack successes, it leads to many bad consequences. An attacker may reach private and personal information and modify it. This paper aims to detect and prevent a specific type of CSRF, called reflected CSRF. In a reflected CSRF, a malicious code could be injected by the attackers. This paper explores how CSRF Detection Extension prevents the reflected CSRF by checking browser specific information. Our evaluation shows that the proposed solution succeeds in preventing this type of attack.

Keywords: Attacks, CSRF, CSRF detection extension, attackers

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17 The Effect of Teaching Science Strategies Curriculum and Evaluating on Developing the Efficiency of Academic Self in Science and the Teaching Motivation for the Student Teachers of the Primary Years

Authors: Amani M. Al-Hussan

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The current study aimed to explore the effects of science teaching strategies course (CURR422) on developing academic self efficacy and motivation towards teaching it in female primary classroom teachers in College of Education in Princess Nora Bint AbdulRahman University. The study sample consisted (48) female student teachers. To achieve the study aims, the researcher designed two instruments: Academic Self Efficacy Scale & Motivation towards Teaching Science Scale while maintaining the validity and reliability of these instruments.. Several statistical procedures were conducted i.e. Independent Sample T-test, Eta Square, Cohen D effect size. The results reveal that there were statistically significant differences between means of pre and post test for the sample in favor of post test. For academic self efficacy scale, Eta square was 0.99 and the effect size was 27.26. While for the motivation towards teaching science scale, Eta was 0.99 and the effect size was 51.72. These results indicated high effects of independent variable on the dependent variable.

Keywords: Evaluation, Motivation, achievement, academic self efficiency, primary classroom teacher, science teaching strategies course

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16 Control of Spoilage Fungi by Lactobacilli

Authors: Laref Nora, Guessas Bettache

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a major potential to be used in biopreservation methods because they are safe to consume (GRAS: generally regarded as safe) and they naturally occurring microflora of many foods. The preservative action of LAB is due to several antimicrobial metabolites, including lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins, carbon dioxide, diacetyl, and reuterin. Several studies have focused on the antifungal activity compounds from natural sources for biopreservation in alternatives to chemical use. LAB has an antifungal activity which may inhibit food spoilage fungi. Lactobacillus strains isolated from silage prepared in our laboratory by fermentation of grass in anaerobic condition were screened for antifungal activity with overlay assay against Aspergillus spp. The antifungal compounds were originated from organic acids; inhibitory activity did not change after treatment with proteolytic enzymes. Lactobacillus strains were able also to inhibit Trichoderma spp, Penicillium spp, Fusarium roseum, and Stemphylim spp by confrontation assay. The inhibitory activity could be detected against the mould Aspergillus spp in the apricot juice but not in a bakery product. These antifungal compounds have the potential to be used as food biopreservation to inhibit conidia germination, and mycelia growth of spoilage fungi depending on food type, pH of food especially in heat, and cold processed foods.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, Lactobacillus, antifungal activity, aspergillus

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15 Debate between Breast Milk and Formula Milk in Nutritional Value

Authors: Nora Alkharji, Wafa Fallatah

Abstract:

Introduction: One of the major issues to consider when is deciding on what to feed a baby is the quality of the food itself. Whilst commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative to breast milk, and even contain some vitamins and nutrients, most major medical organizations consider breastfeeding the best nutritional option for babies. Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is one of the first decisions expectant parents will make. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is in agreement with other organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Dietetic Association (ADA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) in recommending breastfeeding as the best nutrition for babies and best suited for a baby's digestive system. In addition, breastfeeding helps in the combatting of infections, prevention of allergies, and protection against various chronic conditions. The decision to breastfeed or formula feed one’s baby is a very personal one. However, certain points need to be clarified regarding the nutritional value of breastfeeding versus formula feeding to allow for informed decision-making. Methodology: -A formal debate about whether to breastfeed or formula feed babies as the better choice. -There will be two debaters, both lactation consultants -Arguments will be based on evidence-based medicine -Duration period of debated: 45 min Result: Clarification and heightened awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding. Conclusion: This debate will make the choice between breastfeeding or formula feeding a relatively easy one to make by both health worker and parents.

Keywords: Nutritional, comparison, breastmilk, formula milk

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14 Control Power in Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine with SVM Control Inverter

Authors: Zerzouri Nora, Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia

Abstract:

This paper presents a grid-connected wind power generation scheme using Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). This can supply power at constant voltage and constant frequency with the rotor speed varying. This makes it suitable for variable speed wind energy application. The DFIG system consists of wind turbine, asynchronous wound rotor induction generator, and inverter with Space Vector Modulation (SVM) controller. In which the stator is connected directly to the grid and the rotor winding is in interface with rotor converter and grid converter. The use of back-to-back SVM converter in the rotor circuit results in low distortion current, reactive power control and operate at variable speed. Mathematical modeling of the DFIG is done in order to analyze the performance of the systems and they are simulated using MATLAB. The simulation results for the system are obtained and hence it shows that the system can operate at variable speed with low harmonic current distortion. The objective is to track and extract maximum power from the wind energy system and transfer it to the grid for useful work.

Keywords: Wind Energy conversion systems, space vector modulation, doubly fed induction generator, distortion harmonics

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13 Comparative Safety Performance Evaluation of Profiled Deck Composite Slab from the Use of Slope-Intercept and Partial Shear Methods

Authors: Izian Abd. Karim, Kachalla Mohammed, Nora Farah Abd Aznieta Aziz, Law Teik Hua

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The economic use and ease of construction of profiled deck composite slab is marred with the complex and un-economic strength verification required for the serviceability and general safety considerations. Beside these, albeit factors such as shear span length, deck geometries and mechanical frictions greatly influence the longitudinal shear strength, that determines the ultimate strength of profiled deck composite slab, and number of methods available for its determination; partial shear and slope-intercept are the two methods according to Euro-code 4 provision. However, the complexity associated with shear behavior of profiled deck composite slab, the use of these methods in determining the load carrying capacities of such slab yields different and conflicting values. This couple with the time and cost constraint associated with the strength verification is a source of concern that draws more attentions nowadays, the issue is critical. Treating some of these known shear strength influencing factors as random variables, the load carrying capacity violation of profiled deck composite slab from the use of the two-methods defined according to Euro-code 4 are determined using reliability approach, and comparatively studied. The study reveals safety values from the use of m-k method shows good standing compared with that from the partial shear method.

Keywords: composite slab, first order reliability method, longitudinal shear, partial shear connection, slope-intercept

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12 Livable City as a New Approach for Sustainable Urban Planning

Authors: Nora Mohammed Rehan Hussien

Abstract:

Cities all over the world face daunting urban challenges that have increased in scope in recent years. The biggest challenge includes issues of urban planning, housing, safety aspects, scarcity of land for development and traffic congestion. So every city in the world aspires to adopt the strategy of ‘Livable City’ which guarantees the cities urbanization manner that preserves the environment, and achieve the greatest benefit from the resources and achieve a good standard of living. Essentially, a livable city should possess basic yet unique attributes to welcome people from all strata of society without marginalizing any particular group. Most of these cities began to move towards sustainability and livability to enhance quality and performance of urban services, to reduce costs and resources consumption, to engage more affectivity and actively with its citizens, and to describe the quality of life and the characteristics of cities that make them livable. From here came the idea of the research which is creating ‘A framework of livable and sustainable city’ as a sustainable approach that must follow to achieve the principle of sustainable livability. From this point of view the research deals with one of the most successful case studies all over the world in’ livable cities system’ (Vienna) to know how to explore and understand the issues and challenges in becoming a full- livable and creative city through analyzing the criteria, principles and strategy of livable city then deducing the framework towards this concept. Finally, it suggests a set of recommendations help for applying the concept of livable city.

Keywords: Sustainability, Quality of Life, Sustainable City, livability & livable city

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11 Isolation of a Bacterial Community with High Removal Efficiencies of the Insecticide Bendiocarb

Authors: Eusebio A. Jiménez-Arévalo, Deifilia Ahuatzi-Chacón, Juvencio Galíndez-Mayer, Cleotilde Juárez-Ramírez, Nora Ruiz-Ordaz

Abstract:

Bendiocarb is a known toxic xenobiotic that presents acute and chronic risks for freshwater invertebrates and estuarine and marine biota; thus, the treatment of water contaminated with the insecticide is of concern. In this paper, a bacterial community with the capacity to grow in bendiocarb as its sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated by enrichment techniques in batch culture, from samples of a composting plant located in the northeast of Mexico City. Eight cultivable bacteria were isolated from the microbial community, by PCR amplification of 16 rDNA; Pseudoxanthomonas spadix (NC_016147.2, 98%), Ochrobacterium anthropi (NC_009668.1, 97%), Staphylococcus capitis (NZ_CP007601.1, 99%), Bosea thiooxidans. (NZ_LMAR01000067.1, 99%), Pseudomonas denitrificans. (NC_020829.1, 99%), Agromyces sp. (NZ_LMKQ01000001.1, 98%), Bacillus thuringiensis. (NC_022873.1, 97%), Pseudomonas alkylphenolia (NZ_CP009048.1, 98%). NCBI accession numbers and percentage of similarity are indicated in parentheses. These bacteria were regarded as the isolated species for having the best similarity matches. The ability to degrade bendiocarb by the immobilized bacterial community in a packed bed biofilm reactor, using as support volcanic stone fragments (tezontle), was evaluated. The reactor system was operated in batch using mineral salts medium and 30 mg/L of bendiocarb as carbon and nitrogen source. With this system, an overall removal efficiency (ηbend) rounding 90%, was reached.

Keywords: biodegradation, biofilm reactor, bendiocarb, carbamate insecticide

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10 Effects of Exhaust Gas Emitted by the Fleet on Public Health in the Region of Annaba (Algeria): Ecotoxicological Test on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

Authors: Aouissi Nora, Meksem Leila

Abstract:

This work focused on the study of air pollution generated by the transport sector in the region of Annaba. Our study is based on two parts: the first one concerns an epidemiological investigation in the area of Annaba situated in the east Algerian coast, which deals with the development of the fleet and its impact on public health. To get a more precise idea of the impact of road traffic on public health, we consulted the computing center office of the National Social Insurance Fund. The information we were given by this office refers to the number of reported asthma and heart disease after medical examination during the period 2006-2010. The second part was devoted to the study of the toxicity of exhaust gases on some physical and biochemical parameters of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). After germination and three-leaf stage, the pots are placed in a box of volume (0,096 m3) having an input which is linked directly to the exhaust pipe of a truck, and an outlet to prevent asphyxiation plant. The experience deals with 30 pots: 10 pots are exposed for 5 minutes to exhaust smoke; the other 10 are exposed for 15 minutes, and the remaining 10 for 30 minutes. The epidemiological study shows that the levels of pollutants emitted by the fleet are responsible for the increase of people respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. As for biochemical analyses of vegetation, they clearly show the toxicity of pollutants emitted by the exhaust gases, with an increase in total protein, proline and stimulation of detoxification enzyme (catalase).

Keywords: Biochemistry, Air Pollution, Epidemiology, Toxicity

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9 Concurrent Micronutrient Deficiencies in Lactating Mothers and Their Infants 6-23 Months of Age in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Rural Ethiopia

Authors: Kedir Teji Roba, Thomas P. O’Connor, Tefera Belachew, Nora M. O’Brien

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Micronutrient deficiencies of ferritin, zinc and haemoglobin are prevalent among the mothers and their infants in developing countries. But little attention has been given to these vulnerable groups. No study has been done on co-existence of the deficiencies among lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants in two different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected from 162 lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants (aged 6-23 months) who were living in two different agro-ecological zones. The data were collected via a structured interview, anthropometric measurements, and blood test for Zinc, ferritin and anaemia. Correlation and Chi square test were used to determine the association among nutritional status and agro ecological zones. Results: Iron deficiency was found in 44.4% of the infants and 19.8% of the mothers. Zinc deficiency was found in 72.2% of the infants and 67.3% of the mothers. Of the study subject 52.5% of the infants and 19.1% of the mothers were anaemic, and 29.6% of the infants and 10.5% of the mothers had iron deficiency anaemia. Among the mothers with iron deficiency, 81.2% and 56.2% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron respectively. Similarly, among the zinc deficient mothers, 75.2% and 45.3% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron. There was a strong correlation between the micronutrient status of the mothers and the infants on status of ferritin, zinc and anaemia (P < 0.001). There is also statistically significant association between micronutrient deficiency and agro-ecological zones among the mothers (p < 0.001) but not with their infants. Deficiency in one, two, or three, micronutrients was observed in 48.1%, 16.7% and 9.9% of the mothers and 35.8%, 29.0%, and 23.5%, of their infants respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that iron and zinc deficiencies are the prevalent micronutrient deficiencies among the lactating mothers and their infants, with variation of the magnitude across the agro-ecological zones. This finding calls for a need to design effective preventive public health nutrition programs to address both the mothers’ and their infants’ needs.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Agroecology, zinc, anaemia, ferritin/iron

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8 Alternative Water Resources and Brominated Byproducts

Authors: Nora Kuiper, Candace Rowell, Hugues Preud'Homme, Basem Shomar

Abstract:

As the global dependence on seawater desalination as a primary drinking water resource increases, a unique class of secondary pollutants is emerging. The presence of bromide salts in seawater may result in increased levels of bromine and brominated byproducts in drinking water. The State of Qatar offers a unique setting to study these pollutants and their impacts on consumers as the country is 100% dependent on seawater desalination to supply municipal tap water and locally produced bottled water. Tap water (n=115) and bottled water (n=62) samples were collected throughout the State of Qatar and analyzed for a suite of inorganic and organic compounds, including 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with an emphasis on brominated byproducts. All VOC identification and quantification was completed using a Bruker Scion GCMSMS with static headspace technologies. A risk survey tool was used to collect information regarding local consumption habits, health outcomes and perception of water sources for adults and children. This study is the first of its kind in the country. Dibromomethane, bromoform, and bromobenzene were detected in 61%, 88% and 2%, of the drinking water samples analyzed. The levels of dibromomethane ranged from approximately 100-500 ng/L and the concentrations of bromoform ranged from approximately 5-50 µg/L. Additionally, bromobenzene concentrations were 60 ng/L. The presence of brominated compounds in drinking water is a public health concern specific to populations using seawater as a feed water source and may pose unique risks that have not been previously studied. Risk assessments are ongoing to quantify the risks associated with prolonged consumption of disinfection byproducts; specifically the risks of brominated trihalomethanes as the levels of bromoform found in Qatar’s drinking water reach more than 60% of the US EPA’s Maximum Contaminant Level of all THMs.

Keywords: Desalination, Risk Assessment, brominated byproducts, trihalomethanes

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7 Effect of Yogurt on Blood and Liver Lipids Lavel in Rats

Authors: Nora Mohammed Al-Kehayez

Abstract:

This present investigation was performed to study the effect of low fat yogurt on serum and liver lipids profile of male albino rats (weighing 100 g+or- 5 gram) when fed balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets and given yogurt ad libitum compared with control groups. Rats were divided into 4 groups, each group contains 6 rats. The groups of rats were fed as follows: Group(1) was fed balanced diet + water(control). Group(2) was fed balanced diet + low fat yogurt. Group(3) was fed high fat high cholesterol diet + water(Control). Group(4) was fed high fat high cholesterol diet + low fat yogurt. The obtained results could be summarized as follows: When rats were given low fat yogurt and fed balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets a significantly greater weight gains resulted in comparison with the control groups given water instead of yogurt. The data on the weights of liver and heart expressed' as percentage increased the body weight in case of rats which were fed balanced diet with low fat yogurt while in case of rats which were fed high fat high cholesterol diet with low fat yogurt the increment scenes to be less. Results of serum cholesterol levels in serum of rats were given balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets and consuming low fat yogurt was showed a significant reduction values. However the low fat yogurt produced the highest significant decrease values. The values of serum cholesterol go hand in hand with serum lipoprotein fractions in rats given low fat yogurt with both balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets. An increase of high density lipoprotein HDL-C and a decrease of low density lipoprotein LDL-C values were obtained. When rats ingested low fat yogurt a significant decrease in serum and liver triglycerides content was obtained wether with balanced or high fat high cholesterol diets. Rats consuming high fat high cholesterol diets with water showed a significant increase in liver total lipids, total cholesterol and phospholipides levels in comparison with the same liver parameters in rats given balanced diet with water. Supplement with low fat yogurt significantly suppressed these effects.

Keywords: rats, yogurt, lipids profile, albino

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6 Effect of Papaverine on Developmental Neurotoxicity: Neurosphere as in vitro Model

Authors: Mohammed Y. Elsherbeny, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Hossam Fareed, Nora Mohammed

Abstract:

Background: Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) entails the toxic effects imparted by various chemicals on brain during the early childhood when human brains are vulnerable during this period. DNT study in vivo cannot determine the effect of the neurotoxins, as it is not applicable, so using the neurosphere cells of lab animals as an alternative is applicable and time saving. Methods: Cell culture: Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from rat embryos’ brain. The cortices were aseptically dissected out and the tissues were triturated. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle. The supernatant was then transferred to a fresh tube and centrifuged. The pellet was placed in Hank’s balanced salt solution and cultured as free-floating neurospheres in proliferation medium. Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal in differentiation medium and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. Chemical Exposure: Neurospheres were treated for 2 weeks with papaverine in proliferation medium. Proliferation analyses: Spheres were cultured. After 0, 4, 5, 11 and 14 days, sphere size was determined by software analyses (CellProfiler, version 2.1; Broad Institute). Diameter of each neurosphere was measured and exported to excel file further to statistical analysis. Viability test: Trypsin-EDTA solution was added to neurospheres to dissociate neurospheres into single cells suspension, then viability evaluated by the Trypan Blue exclusion test. Result: As regards proliferation analysis and percentage of viable cells of papaverin treated groups: There was no significant change in cells proliferation compared to control at 0, 4, 5, 11 and 14 days with concentrations 1, 5 and 10 µM of papaverine, but there is a significant change in cell viability compared to control after 1 week and 2 weeks with the same concentrations of papaverine. Conclusion: Papaverine has toxic effect on viability of neural cell, not on their proliferation, so it may produce focal neural lesions not growth morphological changes.

Keywords: developmental neurotoxicity, neurotoxin, papaverine, neuroshperes

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5 Architectural Design Strategies and Visual Perception of Contemporary Spatial Design

Authors: Nora Geczy

Abstract:

In today’s architectural practice, during the process of designing public, educational, healthcare and cultural space, human-centered architectural designs helping spatial orientation, safe space usage and the appropriate spatial sequence of actions are gaining increasing importance. Related to the methodology of designing public buildings, several scientific experiments in spatial recognition, spatial analysis and spatial psychology with regard to the components of space producing mental and physiological effects have been going on at the Department of Architectural Design and the Interdisciplinary Student Workshop (IDM) at the Széchenyi István University, Győr since 2013. Defining the creation of preventive, anticipated spatial design and the architectural tools of spatial comfort of public buildings and their practical usability are in the limelight of our research. In the experiments applying eye-tracking cameras, we studied the way public spaces are used, especially concentrating on the characteristics of spatial behaviour, orientation, recognition, the sequence of actions, and space usage. Along with the role of mental maps, human perception, and interaction problems in public spaces (at railway stations, galleries, and educational institutions), we analyzed the spatial situations influencing psychological and ergonomic factors. We also analyzed the eye movements of the experimental subjects in dynamic situations, in spatial procession, using stairs and corridors. We monitored both the consequences and the distorting effects of the ocular dominance of the right eye on spatial orientation; we analyzed the gender-based differences of women and men’s orientation, stress-inducing spaces, spaces affecting concentration and the spatial situation influencing territorial behaviour. Based on these observations, we collected the components of creating public interior spaces, which -according to our theory- contribute to the optimal usability of public spaces. We summed up our research in criteria for design, including 10 points. Our further goals are testing design principles needed for optimizing orientation and space usage, their discussion, refinement, and practical usage.

Keywords: Architecture, Visual Perception, eye-tracking, human-centered spatial design, public interior spaces

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4 Artificial Habitat Mapping in Adriatic Sea

Authors: Annalisa Gaetani, Anna Nora Tassetti, Gianna Fabi

Abstract:

The hydroacoustic technology is an efficient tool to study the sea environment: the most recent advancement in artificial habitat mapping involves acoustic systems to investigate fish abundance, distribution and behavior in specific areas. Along with a detailed high-coverage bathymetric mapping of the seabed, the high-frequency Multibeam Echosounder (MBES) offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of fish aggregation, combining its ability to detect at the same time the seafloor and the water column. Surveying fish schools distribution around artificial structures, MBES allows to evaluate how their presence modifies the biological natural habitat overtime in terms of fish attraction and abundance. In the last years, artificial habitat mapping experiences have been carried out by CNR-ISMAR in the Adriatic sea: fish assemblages aggregating at offshore gas platforms and artificial reefs have been systematically monitored employing different kinds of methodologies. This work focuses on two case studies: a gas extraction platform founded at 80 meters of depth in the central Adriatic sea, 30 miles far from the coast of Ancona, and the concrete and steel artificial reef of Senigallia, deployed by CNR-ISMAR about 1.2 miles offshore at a depth of 11.2 m . Relating the MBES data (metrical dimensions of fish assemblages, shape, depth, density etc.) with the results coming from other methodologies, such as experimental fishing surveys and underwater video camera, it has been possible to investigate the biological assemblage attracted by artificial structures hypothesizing which species populate the investigated area and their spatial dislocation from these artificial structures. Processing MBES bathymetric and water column data, 3D virtual scenes of the artificial habitats have been created, receiving an intuitive-looking depiction of their state and allowing overtime to evaluate their change in terms of dimensional characteristics and depth fish schools’ disposition. These MBES surveys play a leading part in the general multi-year programs carried out by CNR-ISMAR with the aim to assess potential biological changes linked to human activities on.

Keywords: artificial habitat mapping, fish assemblages, hydroacustic technology, multibeam echosounder

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3 Biofuels from Hybrid Poplar: Using Biochemicals and Wastewater Treatment as Opportunities for Early Adoption

Authors: Kevin W. Zobrist, Patricia A. Townsend, Nora M. Haider

Abstract:

Advanced Hardwood Biofuels Northwest (AHB) is a consortium funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to research the potential for a system to produce advanced biofuels (jet fuel, diesel, and gasoline) from hybrid poplar in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. An Extension team was established as part of the project to examine community readiness and willingness to adopt hybrid as a purpose-grown bioenergy crop. The Extension team surveyed key stakeholder groups, including growers, Extension professionals, policy makers, and environmental groups, to examine attitudes and concerns about growing hybrid poplar for biofuels. The surveys found broad skepticism about the viability of such a system. The top concern for most stakeholder groups was economic viability and the availability of predictable markets. Growers had additional concerns stemming from negative past experience with hybrid poplar as an unprofitable endeavor for pulp and paper production. Additional barriers identified included overall land availability and the availability of water and water rights for irrigation in dry areas of the region. Since the beginning of the project, oil and natural gas prices have plummeted due to rapid increases in domestic production. This has exacerbated the problem with economic viability by making biofuels even less competitive than fossil fuels. However, the AHB project has identified intermediate market opportunities to use poplar as a renewable source for other biochemicals produced by petroleum refineries, such as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and ethylene. These chemicals can be produced at a lower cost with higher yields and higher, more-stable prices. Despite these promising market opportunities, the survey results suggest that it will still be challenging to induce growers to adopt hybrid poplar. Early adopters will be needed to establish an initial feedstock supply for a budding industry. Through demonstration sites and outreach events to various stakeholder groups, the project attracted interest from wastewater treatment facilities, since these facilities are already growing hybrid poplar plantations for applying biosolids and treated wastewater for further purification, clarification, and nutrient control through hybrid poplar’s phytoremediation capabilities. Since these facilities are already using hybrid poplar, selling the wood as feedstock for a biorefinery would be an added bonus rather than something requiring a high rate of return to compete with other crops and land uses. By holding regional workshops and conferences with wastewater professionals, AHB Extension has found strong interest from wastewater treatment operators. In conclusion, there are several significant barriers to developing a successful system for producing biofuels from hybrid poplar, with the largest barrier being economic viability. However, there is potential for wastewater treatment facilities to serve as early adopters for hybrid poplar production for intermediate biochemicals and eventually biofuels.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, biofuels, biochemicals, hybrid poplar

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2 Isolation and Transplantation of Hepatocytes in an Experimental Model

Authors: Inas Raafat, Azza El Bassiouny, Waldemar L. Olszewsky, Nagui E. Mikhail, Mona Nossier, Nora E. I. El-Bassiouni, Mona Zoheiry, Houda Abou Taleb, Noha Abd El-Aal, Ali Baioumy, Shimaa Attia

Abstract:

Background: Orthotopic liver transplantation is an established treatment for patients with severe acute and end-stage chronic liver disease. The shortage of donor organs continues to be the rate-limiting factor for liver transplantation throughout the world. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising treatment for several liver diseases and can, also, be used as a "bridge" to liver transplantation in cases of liver failure. Aim of the work: This study was designed to develop a highly efficient protocol for isolation and transplantation of hepatocytes in experimental Lewis rat model to provide satisfactory guidelines for future application on humans.Materials and Methods: Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver by double perfusion technique and bone marrow cells were isolated by centrifugation of shafts of tibia and femur of donor Lewis rats. Recipient rats were subjected to sub-lethal dose of irradiation 2 days before transplantation. In a laparotomy operation the spleen was injected by freshly isolated hepatocytes and bone marrow cells were injected intravenously. The animals were sacrificed 45 day latter and splenic sections were prepared and stained with H & E, PAS AFP and Prox1. Results: The data obtained from this study showed that the double perfusion technique is successful in separation of hepatocytes regarding cell number and viability. Also the method used for bone marrow cells separation gave excellent results regarding cell number and viability. Intrasplenic engraftment of hepatocytes and live tissue formation within the splenic tissue were found in 70% of cases. Hematoxylin and eosin stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed sheets and clusters of cells among the splenic tissues. Periodic Acid Schiff stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed clusters of hepatocytes with intensely stained pink cytoplasmic granules denoting the presence of glycogen. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-α-fetoprotein antibody showed brownish cytoplasmic staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of AFP. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-Prox1 showed brownish nuclear staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of Prox1 gene on these cells. Also, positive expression of Prox1 gene was detected on lymphocytes aggregations in the spleens. Conclusions: Isolation of liver cells by double perfusion technique using collagenase buffer is a reliable method that has a very satisfactory yield regarding cell number and viability. The intrasplenic route of transplantation of the freshly isolated liver cells in an immunocompromised model was found to give good results regarding cell engraftment and tissue formation. Further studies are needed to assess function of engrafted hepatocytes by measuring prothrombin time, serum albumin and bilirubin levels.

Keywords: Transplantation, Lewis rats, hepatocytes, BMCs, AFP, Prox1

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1 Microbes at Work: An Assessment on the Use of Microbial Inoculants in Reforestation and Rehabilitation of the Forest Ancestral Land of Magbukun Aytas of Morong, Bataan, Philippines

Authors: Harold M. Carag, April Charmaine D. Camacho, Girlie Nora A. Abrigo, Florencia G. Palis, Ma. Larissa Lelu P. Gata

Abstract:

A technology impact assessment on the use of microbial inoculants in the reforestation and rehabilitation of forest ancestral lands of the Magbukün Aytas in Morong, Bataan was conducted. This two-year rainforestation technology aimed to determine the optimum condition for the improvement of seedling survival rate in the nursery and in the field to hasten the process of forest regeneration of Magbukün Ayta’s ancestral land. A combination of qualitative methods (key informant interviews, focus groups and participant observation), participated by the farmers who were directly involved in the project, community men and women, the council of elders and the project staff, was employed to complete this impact assessment. The recorded data were transcribed, and the accounts were broadly categorized on the following aspects: social (gender, institutional, anthropological), economic and environmental. The Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) framework was primarily used for the impact analysis while the Harvard Analytical Framework was specifically used for the gender impact analysis. Through this technology, a wildling nursery with more than one thousand seedlings was successfully established and served as a good area for the healthy growth of seedlings that would be planted in the forest. Results showed that this technology affected positively and negatively the various gender roles present in the community although household work remained to be the women’s responsibility. The technology introduced directly added up to the workload done by the men and women (preparing and applying fertilizer, making pots etc.) but this, in turn, provided ways to increase their sources of livelihood. The gender roles that were already present were further strengthened after the project and men remained to be in control. The technology or project in turn also benefited from the already present roles since they no longer have to assign things to them, the execution of the various roles was smoothly executed. In the anthropological aspect, their assigned task to manage the nursery was an easy responsibility because of their deep connection to the environment and their fear and beliefs on ‘engkato’ and ‘anito’ was helpful in guarding the forest. As the cultural value of these trees increases, their mindset of safeguarding the forest also heightens. Meanwhile, the welfare of the whole tribe is the ultimate determinant of the swift entry of projects. The past institutions brought ephemeral reliefs on the subsistence of the Magbukün Aytas. These were good ‘conditioning’ factors for the adoption of the technology of the project. As an attempt to turn away from the dependent of harmful chemical, the project’s way of introducing organic inputs was slowly gaining popularity in the community. Economically, the project was able to provide additional income to the farmers. However, the slow mode of payment dismayed other farmers and abandoned their roles. Lastly, major environmental effects weren’t that much observed after the application of the technology. The minor effects concentrated more on the improved conditions of the soil and water in the community. Because of the introduced technology, soil conditions became more favorable specifically for the species that were planted. The organic fertilizers used were in turn not harmful for the residents living in Sitio Kanawan. There were no human diseases caused by the technology. The conservation of the biodiversity of the forest is clearly the most evident long-term result of the project.

Keywords: Reforestation, Impact Assessment, ancestral lands, microbial inculants

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