Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4401

Search results for: millimeter wave communication

4401 Optical Heterodyning of Injection-Locked Laser Sources: A Novel Technique for Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation

Authors: Subal Kar, Madhuja Ghosh, Soumik Das, Antara Saha

Abstract:

A novel technique has been developed to generate ultra-stable millimeter-wave signal by optical heterodyning of the output from two slave laser (SL) sources injection-locked to the sidebands of a frequency modulated (FM) master laser (ML). Precise thermal tuning of the SL sources is required to lock the particular slave laser frequency to the desired FM sidebands of the ML. The output signals from the injection-locked SL when coherently heterodyned in a fast response photo detector like high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), extremely stable millimeter-wave signal having very narrow line width can be generated. The scheme may also be used to generate ultra-stable sub-millimeter-wave/terahertz signal.

Keywords: FM sideband injection locking, master-slave injection locking, millimetre-wave signal generation, optical heterodyning

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
4400 Impairments Correction of Six-Port Based Millimeter-Wave Radar

Authors: Dan Ohev Zion, Alon Cohen

Abstract:

In recent years, the presence of short-range millimeter-wave radar in civil application has increased significantly. Autonomous driving, security, 3D imaging and high data rate communication systems are a few examples. The next challenge is the integration inside small form-factor devices, such as smartphones (e.g. gesture recognition). The main challenge is implementation of a truly low-power, low-complexity high-resolution radar. The most popular approach is the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar, with an analog multiplication front-end. In this paper, we present an approach for adaptive estimation and correction of impairments of such front-end, specifically implemented using the Six-Port Device (SPD) as the multiplier element. The proposed algorithm was simulated and implemented on a 60 GHz radar lab prototype.

Keywords: radar, FMCW Radar, IQ mismatch, six port

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
4399 Ankh Key Broadband Array Antenna for 5G Applications

Authors: Noha M. Rashad, W. Swelam, M. H. Abd ElAzeem

Abstract:

A simple design of array antenna is presented in this paper, supporting millimeter wave applications which can be used in short range wireless communications such as 5G applications. This design enhances the use of V-band, according to IEEE standards, as the antenna works in the 70 GHz band with bandwidth more than 11 GHz and peak gain more than 13 dBi. The design is simulated using different numerical techniques achieving a very good agreement.

Keywords: 5G technology, array antenna, microstrip, millimeter wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
4398 Design of a Phemt Buffer Amplifier in Mm-Wave Band around 60 GHz

Authors: Maryam Abata, Moulhime El Bekkali, Said Mazer, Catherine Algani, Mahmoud Mehdi

Abstract:

One major problem of most electronic systems operating in the millimeter wave band is the signal generation with a high purity and a stable carrier frequency. This problem is overcome by using the combination of a signal with a low frequency local oscillator (LO) and several stages of frequency multipliers. The use of these frequency multipliers to create millimeter-wave signals is an attractive alternative to direct generation signal. Therefore, the isolation problem of the local oscillator from the other stages is always present, which leads to have various mechanisms that can disturb the oscillator performance, thus a buffer amplifier is often included in oscillator outputs. In this paper, we present the study and design of a buffer amplifier in the mm-wave band using a 0.15μm pHEMT from UMS foundry. This amplifier will be used as a part of a frequency quadrupler at 60 GHz.

Keywords: Mm-wave band, local oscillator, frequency quadrupler, buffer amplifier

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4397 Channel Estimation Using Deep Learning for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces-Assisted Millimeter Wave Systems

Authors: Ting Gao, Mingyue He

Abstract:

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are expected to be an important part of next-generation wireless communication networks due to their potential to reduce the hardware cost and energy consumption of millimeter Wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology. However, owing to the lack of signal processing abilities of the RIS, the perfect channel state information (CSI) in RIS-assisted communication systems is difficult to acquire. In this paper, the uplink channel estimation for mmWave systems with a hybrid active/passive RIS architecture is studied. Specifically, a deep learning-based estimation scheme is proposed to estimate the channel between the RIS and the user. In particular, the sparse structure of the mmWave channel is exploited to formulate the channel estimation as a sparse reconstruction problem. To this end, the proposed approach is derived to obtain the distribution of non-zero entries in a sparse channel. After that, the channel is reconstructed by utilizing the least-squares (LS) algorithm and compressed sensing (CS) theory. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed channel estimation scheme is superior to existing solutions even in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments.

Keywords: channel estimation, reconfigurable intelligent surface, wireless communication, deep learning

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4396 Substrate Coupling in Millimeter Wave Frequencies

Authors: Vasileios Gerakis, Fontounasios Christos, Alkis Hatzopoulos

Abstract:

A study of the impact of metal guard rings on the coupling between two square metal pads is presented. The structure is designed over a bulk silicon substrate with epitaxial layer, so the coupling through the substrate is also involved. A lightly doped profile is adopted and is simulated by means of an electromagnetic simulator for various pad distances and different metal layers, assuming a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology. The impact of various guard ring design (geometrical) parameters is examined. Furthermore, the increase of isolation (resulting in reduction of the noise coupling) between the pads by cutting the ring, or by using multiple rings, is also analyzed. S parameters are used to compare the various structures.

Keywords: guard rings, metal pad coupling, millimeter wave frequencies, substrate noise,

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
4395 Millimeter-Wave Silicon Power Amplifiers for 5G Wireless Communications

Authors: Kyoungwoon Kim, Cuong Huynh, Cam Nguyen

Abstract:

Exploding demands for more data, faster data transmission speed, less interference, more users, more wireless devices, and better reliable service-far exceeding those provided in the current mobile communications networks in the RF spectrum below 6 GHz-has led the wireless communication industry to focus on higher, previously unallocated spectrums. High frequencies in RF spectrum near (around 28 GHz) or within the millimeter-wave regime is the logical solution to meet these demands. This high-frequency RF spectrum is of increasingly important for wireless communications due to its large available bandwidths that facilitate various applications requiring large-data high-speed transmissions, reaching up to multi-gigabit per second, of vast information. It also resolves the traffic congestion problems of signals from many wireless devices operating in the current RF spectrum (below 6 GHz), hence handling more traffic. Consequently, the wireless communication industries are moving towards 5G (fifth generation) for next-generation communications such as mobile phones, autonomous vehicles, virtual reality, and the Internet of Things (IoT). The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) proved on 14th July 2016 three frequency bands for 5G around 28, 37 and 39 GHz. We present some silicon-based RFIC power amplifiers (PA) for possible implementation for 5G wireless communications around 28, 37 and 39 GHz. The 16.5-28 GHz PA exhibits measured gain of more than 34.5 dB and very flat output power of 19.4±1.2 dBm across 16.5-28 GHz. The 25.5/37-GHz PA exhibits gain of 21.4 and 17 dB, and maximum output power of 16 and 13 dBm at 25.5 and 37 GHz, respectively, in the single-band mode. In the dual-band mode, the maximum output power is 13 and 9.5 dBm at 25.5 and 37 GHz, respectively. The 10-19/23-29/33-40 GHz PA has maximum output powers of 15, 13.3, and 13.8 dBm at 15, 25, and 35 GHz, respectively, in the single-band mode. When this PA is operated in dual-band mode, it has maximum output powers of 11.4/8.2 dBm at 15/25 GHz, 13.3/3 dBm at 15/35 GHz, and 8.7/6.7 dBm at 25/35 GHz. In the tri-band mode, it exhibits 8.8/5.4/3.8 dBm maximum output power at 15/25/35 GHz. Acknowledgement: This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # 6-241-2-102 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors

Keywords: Microwaves, Millimeter waves, Power Amplifier, Wireless communications

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
4394 Hybrid Precoder Design Based on Iterative Hard Thresholding Algorithm for Millimeter Wave Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Ameni Mejri, Moufida Hajjaj, Salem Hasnaoui, Ridha Bouallegue

Abstract:

The technology advances have most lately made the millimeter wave (mmWave) communication possible. Due to the huge amount of spectrum that is available in MmWave frequency bands, this promising candidate is considered as a key technology for the deployment of 5G cellular networks. In order to enhance system capacity and achieve spectral efficiency, very large antenna arrays are employed at mmWave systems by exploiting array gain. However, it has been shown that conventional beamforming strategies are not suitable for mmWave hardware implementation. Therefore, new features are required for mmWave cellular applications. Unlike traditional multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems for which only digital precoders are essential to accomplish precoding, MIMO technology seems to be different at mmWave because of digital precoding limitations. Moreover, precoding implements a greater number of radio frequency (RF) chains supporting more signal mixers and analog-to-digital converters. As RF chain cost and power consumption is increasing, we need to resort to another alternative. Although the hybrid precoding architecture has been regarded as the best solution based on a combination between a baseband precoder and an RF precoder, we still do not get the optimal design of hybrid precoders. According to the mapping strategies from RF chains to the different antenna elements, there are two main categories of hybrid precoding architecture. Given as a hybrid precoding sub-array architecture, the partially-connected structure reduces hardware complexity by using a less number of phase shifters, whereas it sacrifices some beamforming gain. In this paper, we treat the hybrid precoder design in mmWave MIMO systems as a problem of matrix factorization. Thus, we adopt the alternating minimization principle in order to solve the design problem. Further, we present our proposed algorithm for the partially-connected structure, which is based on the iterative hard thresholding method. Through simulation results, we show that our hybrid precoding algorithm provides significant performance gains over existing algorithms. We also show that the proposed approach reduces significantly the computational complexity. Furthermore, valuable design insights are provided when we use the proposed algorithm to make simulation comparisons between the hybrid precoding partially-connected structure and the fully-connected structure.

Keywords: alternating minimization, hybrid precoding, iterative hard thresholding, low-complexity, millimeter wave communication, partially-connected structure

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4393 Analysis and Design of Dual-Polarization Antennas for Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: Vladimir Veremey

Abstract:

The paper describes the design and simulation of dual-polarization antennas that use the resonance and radiating properties of the H00 mode of metal open waveguides. The proposed antennas are formed by two orthogonal slots in a finite conducting ground plane. The slots are backed by metal screens connected to the ground plane forming open waveguides. It has been shown that the antenna designs can be efficiently used in mm-wave bands. The antenna single mode operational bandwidth is higher than 10%. The antenna designs are very simple and low-cost. They allow flush installation and can be efficiently used in various communication and remote sensing devices on fast moving carriers. Mutual coupling between antennas of the proposed design is very low. Thus, multiple antenna structures with proposed antennas can be efficiently employed in multi-band and in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

Keywords: antenna, antenna arrays, Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO), millimeter wave bands, slot antenna, flush installation, directivity, open waveguide, conformal antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
4392 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama

Abstract:

We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: semiconductor laser, optical feedback, modulation, harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 535
4391 Octagon Shaped Wearable Antenna for Band at 4GHz

Authors: M. Khazini, M.Damou, Z. Souar

Abstract:

In this paper, octagon antenna ultra wideband (UWB) low band wearable antenna designs have been proposed for in-body to on-body communication channel of wireless. Single element antenna, dual elements, are designed and compared in free space and in body proximity. Conformal design has been focused. Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is a material that has gained attention as a potential high-performance microwave substrate and packaging material. This investigation uses several methods to determine the electrical properties of LCP for millimeter-wave frequencies.

Keywords: ultra wideband, wearable antenna, slot antenna, liquid crystal polymer (LCP), CST studio

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
4390 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang

Abstract:

This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

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4389 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

Abstract:

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

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4388 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave energy conversion, wave-rotor interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
4387 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: Swati Sharma, R. P. Sharma

Abstract:

We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: solar wind, turbulence, dispersive alfven wave

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4386 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in North West Libya

Authors: M. S. Agha, A. M. Eshahiry, S. A. Aldabbar, Z. M. Alshahri

Abstract:

The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles causing signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the North West region of Libya (Al-Khoms). The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza station, Al-Khoms center station, Al-Khoms gateway station) for determining the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change. Dust particles are collected along the region of the study, to measure the particle size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and chemically analyze the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The results show that humidity and dust, antenna height and the visibility affect both attenuation and phase shift; in which, a few considerations must be taken into account in the communication power budget.

Keywords: : Attenuation, scattering, transmission loss.

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
4385 A FE-Based Scheme for Computing Wave Interaction with Nonlinear Damage and Generation of Harmonics in Layered Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos

Abstract:

A Finite Element (FE) based scheme is presented for quantifying guided wave interaction with Localised Nonlinear Structural Damage (LNSD) within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The through-thickness mode-shape of the structure is obtained through a wave and finite element method. This is applied in a time domain FE simulation in order to generate time harmonic excitation for a specific wave mode. Interaction of the wave with LNSD within the system is computed through an element activation and deactivation iteration. The scheme is validated against experimental measurements and a WFE-FE methodology for calculating wave interaction with damage. Case studies for guided wave interaction with crack and delamination are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed method in classifying and identifying damage.

Keywords: layered structures, nonlinear ultrasound, wave interaction with nonlinear damage, wave finite element, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
4384 Case-Wise Investigation of Body-Wave Propagation in a Cross-Anisotropic Soil Exhibiting Inhomogeneity along Depth

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishawakarma, Tapas Ranjan Panihari

Abstract:

The article investigates the propagation behavior of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in a continuously inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic material, where the material properties such as Young's moduli, shear modulus, and density vary as an arbitrary continuous function of depth. In the considered model, Hook's law, strain-displacement relations along with equilibrium equations have been used to derive the governing equation. The mathematical formulation of this physical problem gives rise to an eigenvalue problem with displacement components as fundamental variables. This leads to achieving the closed-form expressions for quasi-wave velocities of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in the considered framework. These characteristics of wave propagation along with the above-stated variation have been scrutinized based on their numerical results. This parametric study reveals that wave velocity remarkably fluctuates as the magnitude of inhomogeneity parameters increases and decreases. The prominent effect has been shown depicting the dependence of wave velocity on the degree of material anisotropy. The influence of phase angle and depth of the medium has been remarkably established. The present study may facilitate the theoretical foundation and practical application in the field of earthquake source mechanisms.

Keywords: cross-anisotropic, inhomogeneity, P-wave, SH-wave, SV-wave, shear modulus, Young’s modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
4383 Wave Energy: Efficient Conversion of the Big Waves

Authors: Md. Moniruzzaman

Abstract:

The energy of ocean waves across a large part of the earth is inexhaustible. The whole world will benefit if this endless energy can be used in an easy way. The coastal countries will easily be able to meet their own energy needs. The purpose of this article is to use the infinite energy of the ocean wave in a simple way. i.e. a method of efficient use of wave energy. The paper starts by discussing various forces acting on a floating object and, afterward, about the method. And then a calculation for a 73.39MW hydropower from the tidal wave. Used some sketches/pictures. Finally, the conclusion states the possibilities and advantages.

Keywords: anchor, electricity, floating object, pump, ship city, wave energy

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4382 Experimental Investigation for the Overtopping Wave Force of the Vertical Breakwater

Authors: Jin Song Gui, Han Li, Rui Jin Zhang, Heng Jiang Cai

Abstract:

There is a large deviation between the measured wave power at the vertical breast wall and the calculated one according to current specification in the case of overtopping. In order to investigate the reasons for the deviation, the wave forces of vertical breast wall under overtopping conditions have been measured through physical model experiment and compared with the calculated results. The effect of water depth, period and the wave height on the wave forces of the vertical breast wall have been also investigated. The distribution of wave pressure under different wave actions was tested based on the force sensor which is installed in the vertical breakwater. By comparing and analyzing the measured values and norms calculated values, the applicability of the existing norms recommended method were discussed and a reference for the design of vertical breakwater was provided. Experiment results show that with the decrease of the water depth, the gap is growing between the actual wave forces and the specification values, and there are no obvious regulations between these two values with the variation of period while wave force greatly reduces with the overtopping reducing. The amount of water depth and wave overtopping has a significant impact on the wave force of overtopping section while the period has no obvious influence on the wave force. Finally, some favorable recommendations for the overtopping wave force design of the vertical breakwater according to the model experiment results are provided.

Keywords: overtopping wave, physical model experiment, vertical breakwater, wave forces

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4381 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi

Abstract:

It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

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4380 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng

Abstract:

Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: pore pressure, 3D wave model, seabed liquefaction, pipeline

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4379 Numerical Investigation of Wave Run-Up on Curved Dikes

Authors: Suba Periyal Subramaniam, Babette Scheres, Altomare Corrado, Holger Schuttrumpf

Abstract:

Due to the climatic change and the usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coast worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in planning and design of a coastal structure. The coastal dike lines are bent either due to geological characteristics or due to influence of anthropogenic activities. The effect of the curvature of coastal dikes on wave run-up and overtopping is not yet investigated. The scope of this research is to find the effects of the dike curvature on wave run-up by employing numerical model studies for various dike opening angles. Numerical simulation is carried out using DualSPHysics, a meshless method, and OpenFOAM, a mesh-based method. The numerical results of the wave run-up on a curved dike and the wave transformation process for various opening angles, wave attacks, and wave parameters will be compared and discussed. This research aims to contribute a more precise analysis and understanding the influence of the curvature in the dike line and thus ensuring a higher level of protection in the future development of coastal structures.

Keywords: curved dikes, DualSPHysics, OpenFOAM, wave run-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
4378 Near Shore Wave Manipulation for Electricity Generation

Authors: K. D. R. Jagath-Kumara, D. D. Dias

Abstract:

The sea waves carry thousands of GWs of power globally. Although there are a number of different approaches to harness offshore energy, they are likely to be expensive, practically challenging and vulnerable to storms. Therefore, this paper considers using the near shore waves for generating mechanical and electrical power. It introduces two new approaches, the wave manipulation and using a variable duct turbine, for intercepting very wide wave fronts and coping with the fluctuations of the wave height and the sea level, respectively. The first approach effectively allows capturing much more energy yet with a much narrower turbine rotor. The second approach allows using a rotor with a smaller radius but captures energy of higher wave fronts at higher sea levels yet preventing it from totally submerging. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach, the paper contains a description and the simulation results of a scale model of a wave manipulator. Then, it includes the results of testing a physical model of the manipulator and a single duct, axial flow turbine, in a wave flume in the laboratory. The paper also includes comparisons of theoretical predictions, simulation results and wave flume tests with respect to the incident energy, loss in wave manipulation, minimal loss, brake torque and the angular velocity.

Keywords: near-shore sea waves, renewable energy, wave energy conversion, wave manipulation

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4377 Turbulence Modeling and Wave-Current Interactions

Authors: A. C. Bennis, F. Dumas, F. Ardhuin, B. Blanke

Abstract:

The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high-resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: numerical modeling, wave-current interactions, turbulence modeling, rip currents

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
4376 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in West North Libya

Authors: M. S. Agha, A. M. Eshahiry, S. A. Aldabbar, Z. M. Alshahri

Abstract:

The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles by way of signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents the effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the west north region of Libya (Al-Khoms), experimental procedure to study the effects mentioned above. The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza stations, Al-Khoms center stations, Al-Khoms gateway stations) to determining of the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change which coverage in the studied region, it is required to collect the dust particles carried out by the wind, measure the particles size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and carry chemical analysis of the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The result showed that effect of the humidity and dust, the antenna height, the visibility, on the complex permittivity effects both attenuation and phase shift, there is some consideration that has to be taken into account in the communication power budget.

Keywords: attenuation, de-polarization, scattering, transmission loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
4375 A Vertical-Axis Unidirectional Rotor with Nested Blades for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

In the present work, development of a new vertical-axis unidirectional wave rotor is reported. The wave rotor is a key component of a wave energy converter (WEC), which harvests energy from ocean waves. Differing from the huge majority of WEC designs that perform reciprocating motions (heaving up and down, swaying back and forth, etc.), our wave rotor performs unidirectional rotation about a vertical axis when directly exposed in waves. The unidirectional feature of the rotor makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency. The vertical axis arrangement of the rotor makes the rotor insensitive to the wave propagation direction. The rotor employs blades with a cross-section in an airfoil shape and a span curled into a semi-oval shape. Two sets of blades, with one nested inside the other, constitute the rotor. In waves, water particles perform an omnidirectional motion that constantly changes in both spatial and temporal domains. The blade nesting permits a compact rotor configuration that ‘sees’ a relatively uniform local flow in the spatial domain. The rotor was experimentally tested in simulated waves in a wave flume under various conditions. The testing results show a promising unidirectional rotor that is capable of extracting energy from waves at a capture width ratio of 0.08 to 0.15, depending on detailed wave conditions.

Keywords: unidirectional, vertical axis, wave energy converter, wave rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
4374 Performance Evaluation of a Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Antenna Using Circularly Polarized Elements

Authors: Rawad Asfour, Salam Khamas, Edward A. Ball

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the design of an mm-wave phased array. To date, linear polarization is adapted in the reported designs of phased arrays. However, linear polarization faces several well-known challenges. As such, an advanced design for phased array antennas is required that offers circularly polarized (CP) radiation. A feasible solution for achieving CP phased array antennas is proposed using open-circular loop antennas. To this end, a 3-element circular loop phased array antenna is designed to operate at 28GHz. In addition, the array ability to control the direction of the main lobe is investigated. The results show that the highest achievable field of view (FOV) is 100°, i.e., 50° to the left and 50° to the right-hand side directions. The results are achieved with a CP bandwidth of 15%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a high broadside gain of circa 11 dBi can be achieved for the steered beam. Besides, a radiation efficiency of 97 % can also be achieved based on the proposed design.

Keywords: loop antenna, phased array, beam steering, wide bandwidth, circular polarization, CST

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4373 A Comparative Study on Optimized Bias Current Density Performance of Cubic ZnB-GaN with Hexagonal 4H-SiC Based Impatts

Authors: Arnab Majumdar, Srimani Sen

Abstract:

In this paper, a vivid simulated study has been made on 35 GHz Ka-band window frequency in order to judge and compare the DC and high frequency properties of cubic ZnB-GaN with the existing hexagonal 4H-SiC. A flat profile p+pnn+ DDR structure of impatt is chosen and is optimized at a particular bias current density with respect to efficiency and output power taking into consideration the effect of mobile space charge also. The simulated results obtained reveals the strong potentiality of impatts based on both cubic ZnB-GaN and hexagonal 4H-SiC. The DC-to-millimeter wave conversion efficiency for cubic ZnB-GaN impatt obtained is 50% with an estimated output power of 2.83 W at an optimized bias current density of 2.5×108 A/m2. The conversion efficiency and estimated output power in case of hexagonal 4H-SiC impatt obtained is 22.34% and 40 W respectively at an optimum bias current density of 0.06×108 A/m2.

Keywords: cubic ZnB-GaN, hexagonal 4H-SiC, double drift impatt diode, millimetre wave, optimised bias current density, wide band gap semiconductor

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4372 Determination of Optimum Fin Wave Angle and Its Effect on the Performance of an Intercooler

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Seyyed Amin Hakim, Nahid Taherian

Abstract:

Fins play an important role in increasing the efficiency of compact shell and tube heat exchangers by increasing heat transfer. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimum fin wave angle, as one of the geometric parameters affecting the efficiency of the heat exchangers. To this end, finite volume method is used to model and simulate the flow in heat exchanger. In this study, computational fluid dynamics simulations of wave channel are done. The results show that the wave angle affects the temperature output of the heat exchanger.

Keywords: fin wave angle, tube, intercooler, optimum, performance

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