Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: map labeling

122 Characteristics and Feature Analysis of PCF Labeling among Construction Materials

Authors: Sung-mo Seo, Chang-u Chae


The Product Carbon Footprint Labeling has been run for more than four years by the Ministry of Environment and there are number of products labeled by KEITI, as for declaring products with their carbon emission during life cycle stages. There are several categories for certifying products by the characteristics of usage. Building products which are applied to a building as combined components. In this paper, current status of PCF labeling has been compared with LCI DB for data composition. By this comparative analysis, we suggest carbon labeling development.

Keywords: carbon labeling, LCI DB, building materials, life cycle assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
121 Employee Aggression, Labeling and Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Martin Popescu D. Dana Maria


The aims of this research are to broaden the study on the relationship between emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The study sample consisted in 441 Romanian employees from companies all over the country. Data has been collected through web surveys and processed with SPSS. The results indicated an average correlation between the two constructs and their sub variables, employees with a high level of emotional intelligence tend to be less aggressive. In addition, labeling was considered an individual difference which has the power to influence the level of employee aggression. A regression model was used to underline the importance of emotional intelligence together with labeling as predictors of CWB. Results have shown that this regression model enforces the assumption that labeling and emotional intelligence, taken together, predict CWB. Employees, who label themselves as victims and have a low degree of emotional intelligence, have a higher level of CWB.

Keywords: aggression, CWB, emotional intelligence, labeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
120 The Role of Food Labeling on Consumers’ Buying Decision: Georgian Case

Authors: Nugzar Todua


The paper studies the role of food labeling in order to promote healthy eating issue in Georgia. The main focus of the research is directed to consumer attitudes regarding food labeling. The methodology of the paper is based on the focus group work, as well as online and face to face surveys. The data analysis has been provided through ANOVA. The study proves that the impact of variables such as the interest, awareness, reliability, assurance and satisfaction of consumers' on buying decision, is statistically important. The study reveals that consumers’ perception regarding to food labeling is positive, but their level of knowledge and ability is rather low. It is urgent to strengthen marketing promotions strategies in the process of implementations of food security policy in Georgia.

Keywords: food labeling, buying decision, Georgian consumers, marketing research

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
119 A Supervised Face Parts Labeling Framework

Authors: Khalil Khan, Ikram Syed, Muhammad Ehsan Mazhar, Iran Uddin, Nasir Ahmad


Face parts labeling is the process of assigning class labels to each face part. A face parts labeling method (FPL) which divides a given image into its constitutes parts is proposed in this paper. A database FaceD consisting of 564 images is labeled with hand and make publically available. A supervised learning model is built through extraction of features from the training data. The testing phase is performed with two semantic segmentation methods, i.e., pixel and super-pixel based segmentation. In pixel-based segmentation class label is provided to each pixel individually. In super-pixel based method class label is assigned to super-pixel only – as a result, the same class label is given to all pixels inside a super-pixel. Pixel labeling accuracy reported with pixel and super-pixel based methods is 97.68 % and 93.45% respectively.

Keywords: face labeling, semantic segmentation, classification, face segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
118 Image Ranking to Assist Object Labeling for Training Detection Models

Authors: Tonislav Ivanov, Oleksii Nedashkivskyi, Denis Babeshko, Vadim Pinskiy, Matthew Putman


Training a machine learning model for object detection that generalizes well is known to benefit from a training dataset with diverse examples. However, training datasets usually contain many repeats of common examples of a class and lack rarely seen examples. This is due to the process commonly used during human annotation where a person would proceed sequentially through a list of images labeling a sufficiently high total number of examples. Instead, the method presented involves an active process where, after the initial labeling of several images is completed, the next subset of images for labeling is selected by an algorithm. This process of algorithmic image selection and manual labeling continues in an iterative fashion. The algorithm used for the image selection is a deep learning algorithm, based on the U-shaped architecture, which quantifies the presence of unseen data in each image in order to find images that contain the most novel examples. Moreover, the location of the unseen data in each image is highlighted, aiding the labeler in spotting these examples. Experiments performed using semiconductor wafer data show that labeling a subset of the data, curated by this algorithm, resulted in a model with a better performance than a model produced from sequentially labeling the same amount of data. Also, similar performance is achieved compared to a model trained on exhaustive labeling of the whole dataset. Overall, the proposed approach results in a dataset that has a diverse set of examples per class as well as more balanced classes, which proves beneficial when training a deep learning model.

Keywords: computer vision, deep learning, object detection, semiconductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
117 An Algorithm for the Map Labeling Problem with Two Kinds of Priorities

Authors: Noboru Abe, Yoshinori Amai, Toshinori Nakatake, Sumio Masuda, Kazuaki Yamaguchi


We consider the problem of placing labels of the points on a plane. For each point, its position, the size of its label and a priority are given. Moreover, several candidates of its label positions are prespecified, and each of such label positions is assigned a priority. The objective of our problem is to maximize the total sum of priorities of placed labels and their points. By refining a labeling algorithm that can use these priorities, we propose a new heuristic algorithm which is more suitable for treating the assigned priorities.

Keywords: map labeling, greedy algorithm, heuristic algorithm, priority

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
116 The Impact of Implementing European Quality Labeling System on the Supply Chain Performance of Food Industry: An Empirical Study of the Egyptian Traditional Food Sector

Authors: Nourhan A. Saad, Sara Elgazzar, Gehan Saleh


The food industry nowadays is becoming customer-oriented and needs faster response time to deal with food incidents. There is a deep need for good traceability systems to help the supply chain (SC) partners to minimize production and distribution of unsafe or poor quality products, which in turn will enhance the food SC performance. The current food labeling systems implemented in developing countries cannot guarantee that food is authentic, safe and of good quality. Therefore, the use of origin labels, mainly the geographical indications (GIs), allows SC partners to define quality standards and defend their products' reputation. According to our knowledge there are no studies discussed the use of GIs in developing countries. This research represents a research schema about the implementation of European quality labeling system in developing countries and its impact on enhancing SC performance. An empirical study was conducted on the Egyptian traditional food sector based on a sample of seven restaurants implementing the Med-diet labeling system. First, in-depth interviews were carried out to analyze the Egyptian traditional food SC. Then, a framework was developed to link the European quality labeling system and SC performance. Finally, a structured survey was conducted based on the applied framework to investigate the impact of Med-diet labeling system on the SC performance. The research provides an applied framework linking Med-diet quality labeling system to SC performance of traditional food sector in developing countries generally and especially in the Egyptian traditional food sector. The framework can be used as a SC performance management tool to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of food industry's SC performance.

Keywords: food supply chain, med-diet labeling system, quality labeling system, supply chain performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
115 Lane Detection Using Labeling Based RANSAC Algorithm

Authors: Yeongyu Choi, Ju H. Park, Ho-Youl Jung


In this paper, we propose labeling based RANSAC algorithm for lane detection. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been widely researched to avoid unexpected accidents. Lane detection is a necessary system to assist keeping lane and lane departure prevention. The proposed vision based lane detection method applies Canny edge detection, inverse perspective mapping (IPM), K-means algorithm, mathematical morphology operations and 8 connected-component labeling. Next, random samples are selected from each labeling region for RANSAC. The sampling method selects the points of lane with a high probability. Finally, lane parameters of straight line or curve equations are estimated. Through the simulations tested on video recorded at daytime and nighttime, we show that the proposed method has better performance than the existing RANSAC algorithm in various environments.

Keywords: Canny edge detection, k-means algorithm, RANSAC, inverse perspective mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
114 Novel Adomet Analogs as Tools for Nucleic Acids Labeling

Authors: Milda Nainyte, Viktoras Masevicius


Biological methylation is a methyl group transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) onto N-, C-, O- or S-nucleophiles in DNA, RNA, proteins or small biomolecules. The reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases (MTases), which represent more than 3 % of the proteins in the cell. As a general mechanism, the methyl group from AdoMet replaces a hydrogen atom of nucleophilic center producing methylated DNA and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). Recently, DNA methyltransferases have been used for the sequence-specific, covalent labeling of biopolymers. Two types of MTase catalyzed labeling of biopolymers are known, referred as two-step and one-step. During two-step labeling, an alkylating fragment is transferred onto DNA in a sequence-specific manner and then the reporter group, such as biotin, is attached for selective visualization using suitable chemistries of coupling. This approach of labeling is quite difficult and the chemical hitching does not always proceed at 100 %, but in the second step the variety of reporter groups can be selected and that gives the flexibility for this labeling method. In the one-step labeling, AdoMet analog is designed with the reporter group already attached to the functional group. Thus, the one-step labeling method would be more comfortable tool for labeling of biopolymers in order to prevent additional chemical reactions and selection of reaction conditions. Also, time costs would be reduced. However, effective AdoMet analog appropriate for one-step labeling of biopolymers and containing cleavable bond, required for reduction of PCR interferation, is still not known. To expand the practical utility of this important enzymatic reaction, cofactors with activated sulfonium-bound side-chains have been produced and can serve as surrogate cofactors for a variety of wild-type and mutant DNA and RNA MTases enabling covalent attachment of these chains to their target sites in DNA, RNA or proteins (the approach named methyltransferase-directed Transfer of Activated Groups, mTAG). Compounds containing hex-2-yn-1-yl moiety has proved to be efficient alkylating agents for labeling of DNA. Herein we describe synthetic procedures for the preparation of N-biotinoyl-N’-(pent-4-ynoyl)cystamine starting from the coupling of cystamine with pentynoic acid and finally attaching the biotin as a reporter group. The synthesis of the first AdoMet based cofactor containing a cleavable reporter group and appropriate for one-step labeling was developed.

Keywords: adoMet analogs, DNA alkylation, cofactor, methyltransferases

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113 Addressing the Exorbitant Cost of Labeling Medical Images with Active Learning

Authors: Saba Rahimi, Ozan Oktay, Javier Alvarez-Valle, Sujeeth Bharadwaj


Successful application of deep learning in medical image analysis necessitates unprecedented amounts of labeled training data. Unlike conventional 2D applications, radiological images can be three-dimensional (e.g., CT, MRI), consisting of many instances within each image. The problem is exacerbated when expert annotations are required for effective pixel-wise labeling, which incurs exorbitant labeling effort and cost. Active learning is an established research domain that aims to reduce labeling workload by prioritizing a subset of informative unlabeled examples to annotate. Our contribution is a cost-effective approach for U-Net 3D models that uses Monte Carlo sampling to analyze pixel-wise uncertainty. Experiments on the AAPM 2017 lung CT segmentation challenge dataset show that our proposed framework can achieve promising segmentation results by using only 42% of the training data.

Keywords: image segmentation, active learning, convolutional neural network, 3D U-Net

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
112 Label Survey in Romania: A Study on How Consumers Use Food Labeling

Authors: Gabriela Iordachescu, Mariana Cretu Stuparu, Mirela Praisler, Camelia Busila, Doina Voinescu, Camelia Vizireanu


The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumers’ degree of confidence in food labeling, how they use and understand the label and respectively food labeling elements. The label is a bridge between producers, suppliers, and consumers. It has to offer enough information in terms of public health and food safety, statement of ingredients, nutritional information, warnings and advisory statements, producing date and shelf-life, instructions for storage and preparation (if required). The survey was conducted on 500 consumers group in Romania, aged 15+, males and females, from urban and rural areas and with different graduation levels. The questionnaire was distributed face to face and online. It had single or multiple choices questions and label images for the efficiency and best understanding of the question. The law 1169/2011 applied to food products from 13 of December 2016 improved and adapted the requirements for labeling in a clear manner. The questions were divided on following topics: interest and general trust in labeling, use and understanding of label elements, understanding of the ingredient list and safety information, nutrition information, advisory statements, serving sizes, best before/use by meanings, intelligent labeling, and demographic data. Three choice selection exercises were also included. In this case, the consumers had to choose between two similar products and evaluate which label element is most important in product choice. The data were analysed using MINITAB 17 and PCA analysis. Most of the respondents trust the food label, taking into account some elements especially when they buy the first time the product. They usually check the sugar content and type of sugar, saturated fat and use the mandatory label elements and nutrition information panel. Also, the consumers pay attention to advisory statements, especially if one of the items is relevant to them or the family. Intelligent labeling is a challenging option. In addition, the paper underlines that the consumer is more careful and selective with the food consumption and the label is the main helper for these.

Keywords: consumers, food safety information, labeling, labeling nutritional information

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
111 A Fully Automated New-Fangled VESTAL to Label Vertebrae and Intervertebral Discs

Authors: R. Srinivas, K. V. Ramana


This paper presents a novel method called VESTAL to label vertebrae and inter vertebral discs. Each vertebra has certain statistical features properties. To label vertebrae and discs, a new equation to model the path of spinal cord is derived using statistical properties of the spinal canal. VESTAL uses this equation for labeling vertebrae and discs. For each vertebrae and inter vertebral discs both posterior, interior width, height are measured. The calculated values are compared with real values which are measured using venires calipers and the comparison produced 95% efficiency and accurate results. The VESTAL is applied on 50 patients 350 MR images and obtained 100% accuracy in labeling.

Keywords: spine, vertebrae, inter vertebral disc, labeling, statistics, texture, disc

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110 Image Segmentation of Visual Markers in Robotic Tracking System Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm with Connected-Component Labeling

Authors: Shu-Yu Hsu, Chen-Chien Hsu, Wei-Yen Wang


Color segmentation is a basic and simple way for recognizing the visual markers in a robotic tracking system. In this paper, we propose a new method for color segmentation by incorporating differential evolution algorithm and connected component labeling to autonomously preset the HSV threshold of visual markers. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a ROBOTIS OP2 humanoid robot is used to conduct the experiment, where five most commonly used color including red, purple, blue, yellow, and green in visual markers are given for comparisons.

Keywords: color segmentation, differential evolution, connected component labeling, humanoid robot

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109 Evaluation of Labelling Conditions, Quality Control, and Biodistribution Study of 99mTc- D-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA)

Authors: Kalimullah Khan, Samina Roohi, Mohammad Rafi, Rizwana Zahoor


Labeling of 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with 99 mTc was achieved by using tin chloride dihydrate (Sncl2.2H2O) as reducing agent. Radiochemical purity and labeling efficiency was determined by Whattman paper No.3 and instant thin layer chromatographic strips impregnated with silica gel (ITLC/SG). Labeling efficiency was dependent on many parameters such as amount of ligand, reducing agent, pH, and incubation time. Therefore, optimum conditions for maximum labeling were selected. Stability of 99 mTc- 5-ALA was also checked in fresh human serum. Tissue bio-distribution of 99 mTc-5-ALA was evaluated in Spargue Dawley rats. 5-ALA was 98% labeled with 99 mTc under optimum conditions, i.e. 100µg of 5-ALA, pH: 4, 10µg of Sncl2.2H2O and 30 minutes incubation at room temperature. 99 mTc labelled 5- ALA remained stable for 24 hours in human serum. Bio-distribution study (%ID/gm) in rats revealed that maximum accumulation of 99 mTc-5-ALA was in liver, spleen, stomach and intestine after half hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours. Significant activity in bladder and urine indicated urinary mode of excretion.

Keywords: 99mTc-ALA, aminolevulinic acid, quality control, radiopharmaceuticals

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
108 Awareness of Genetically Modified Products Among Malaysian Consumers

Authors: Muhamad Afiq Faisal, Yahaya, Mohd Faizal, Hamzah


Genetic modification technology allows scientists to alter the genetic information of a particular organism. The technology allows the production of genetically modified organism (GMO) that has the enhanced property compared to the unmodified organism. The application of such technology is not only in agriculture industry, it is now has been applied extensively in biopharmaceutical industry such as transgenic vaccines. In Malaysia, Biosafety Act 2007 has been enacted in which all GMO-based products must be labeled with adequate information before being marketed. This paper aims to determine the awareness level amongst Malaysian consumers on the GM products available in the market and the efficiency of information supplied in the GM product labeling. The result of the survey will serve as a guideline for Malaysia government agency bodies to provide comprehensive yet efficient information to consumers for the purpose of GM product labeling in the near future. In conclusion, the efficiency of information delivery plays a vital role in ensuring that the information is being conveyed clearly to Malaysian consumers during the selection process of GM products available in the market.

Keywords: genetic modification technology, genetically modified organisms, genetically modified organism products labeling, Biosafety Act 2007

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
107 Challenges and Pitfalls of Nutrition Labeling Policy in Iran: A Policy Analysis

Authors: Sareh Edalati, Nasrin Omidvar, Arezoo Haghighian Roudsari, Delaram Ghodsi, Azizollaah Zargaran


Background and aim: Improving consumer’s food choices and providing a healthy food environment by governments is one of the essential approaches to prevent non-communicable diseases and to fulfill the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The present study aimed to provide an analysis of the nutrition labeling policy as one of the main components of the healthy food environment to provide learning lessons for the country and other low and middle-income countries. Methods: Data were collected by reviewing documents and conducting semi-structured interviews with stakeholders. Respondents were selected through purposive and snowball sampling and continued until data saturation. MAXQDA software was used to manage data analysis. A deductive content analysis was used by applying the Kingdon multiple streams and the policy triangulation framework. Results: Iran is the first country in the Middle East and North Africa region, which has implemented nutrition traffic light labeling. The implementation process has gone through two phases: voluntary and mandatory. In the voluntary labeling, volunteer food manufacturers who chose to have the labels would receive an honorary logo and this helped to reduce the food-sector resistance gradually. After this phase, the traffic light labeling became mandatory. Despite these efforts, there has been poor involvement of media for public awareness and sensitization. Also, the inconsistency of nutrition traffic light colors which are based on food standard guidelines, lack of consistency between nutrition traffic light colors, the healthy/unhealthy nature of some food products such as olive oil and diet cola and the absence of a comprehensive evaluation plan were among the pitfalls and policy challenges identified. Conclusions: Strengthening the governance through improving collaboration within health and non-health sectors for implementation, more transparency of truthfulness of nutrition traffic labeling initiating with real ingredients, and applying international and local scientific evidence or any further revision of the program is recommended. Also, developing public awareness campaigns and revising school curriculums to improve students’ skills on nutrition label applications should be highly emphasized.

Keywords: nutrition labeling, policy analysis, food environment, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
106 Rapid Detection System of Airborne Pathogens

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Kei Takenaka


We developed new processes which can collect and detect rapidly airborne pathogens such as the avian flu virus for the pandemic prevention. The fluorescence antibody technique is known as one of high-sensitive detection methods for viruses, but this needs up to a few hours to bind sufficient fluorescence dyes to viruses for detection. In this paper, we developed a mist-labeling can detect substitution viruses in a short time to improve the binding rate of fluorescent dyes and substitution viruses by the micro reaction process. Moreover, we developed the rapid detection system with the above 'mist labeling'. The detection system set with a sampling bag collecting patient’s breath and a cartridge can detect automatically pathogens within 10 minutes.

Keywords: viruses, sampler, mist, detection, fluorescent dyes, microreaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
105 Semantic Differences between Bug Labeling of Different Repositories via Machine Learning

Authors: Pooja Khanal, Huaming Zhang


Labeling of issues/bugs, also known as bug classification, plays a vital role in software engineering. Some known labels/classes of bugs are 'User Interface', 'Security', and 'API'. Most of the time, when a reporter reports a bug, they try to assign some predefined label to it. Those issues are reported for a project, and each project is a repository in GitHub/GitLab, which contains multiple issues. There are many software project repositories -ranging from individual projects to commercial projects. The labels assigned for different repositories may be dependent on various factors like human instinct, generalization of labels, label assignment policy followed by the reporter, etc. While the reporter of the issue may instinctively give that issue a label, another person reporting the same issue may label it differently. This way, it is not known mathematically if a label in one repository is similar or different to the label in another repository. Hence, the primary goal of this research is to find the semantic differences between bug labeling of different repositories via machine learning. Independent optimal classifiers for individual repositories are built first using the text features from the reported issues. The optimal classifiers may include a combination of multiple classifiers stacked together. Then, those classifiers are used to cross-test other repositories which leads the result to be deduced mathematically. The produce of this ongoing research includes a formalized open-source GitHub issues database that is used to deduce the similarity of the labels pertaining to the different repositories.

Keywords: bug classification, bug labels, GitHub issues, semantic differences

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
104 Multiscale Connected Component Labelling and Applications to Scientific Microscopy Image Processing

Authors: Yayun Hsu, Henry Horng-Shing Lu


In this paper, a new method is proposed to extending the method of connected component labeling from processing binary images to multi-scale modeling of images. By using the adaptive threshold of multi-scale attributes, this approach minimizes the possibility of missing those important components with weak intensities. In addition, the computational cost of this approach remains similar to that of the typical approach of component labeling. Then, this methodology is applied to grain boundary detection and Drosophila Brain-bow neuron segmentation. These demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in the analysis of challenging microscopy images for scientific discovery.

Keywords: microscopic image processing, scientific data mining, multi-scale modeling, data mining

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103 Collect Meaningful Information about Stock Markets from the Web

Authors: Saleem Abuleil, Khalid S. Alsamara


Events represent a significant source of information on the web; they deliver information about events that occurred around the world in all kind of subjects and areas. These events can be collected and organized to provide valuable and useful information for decision makers, researchers, as well as any person seeking knowledge. In this paper, we discuss an ongoing research to target stock markets domain to observe and record changes (events) when they happen, collect them, understand the meaning of each one of them, and organize the information along with meaning in a well-structured format. By using Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) technique, we identified four factors for each event in this paper: verb of action and three roles associated with it, entity name, attribute, and attribute value. We have generated a set of rules and techniques to support our approach to analyze and understand the meaning of the events taking place in stock markets.

Keywords: natuaral language processing, Arabic language, event extraction and understanding, sematic role labeling, stock market

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102 Improvement of Ground Truth Data for Eye Location on Infrared Driver Recordings

Authors: Sorin Valcan, Mihail Gaianu


Labeling is a very costly and time consuming process which aims to generate datasets for training neural networks in several functionalities and projects. For driver monitoring system projects, the need for labeled images has a significant impact on the budget and distribution of effort. This paper presents the modifications done to an algorithm used for the generation of ground truth data for 2D eyes location on infrared images with drivers in order to improve the quality of the data and performance of the trained neural networks. The algorithm restrictions become tougher, which makes it more accurate but also less constant. The resulting dataset becomes smaller and shall not be altered by any kind of manual label adjustment before being used in the neural networks training process. These changes resulted in a much better performance of the trained neural networks.

Keywords: labeling automation, infrared camera, driver monitoring, eye detection, convolutional neural networks

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101 Supermarket Shoppers Perceptions to Genetically Modified Foods in Trinidad and Tobago: Focus on Health Risks and Benefits

Authors: Safia Hasan Varachhia, Neela Badrie, Marsha Singh


Genetic modification of food is an innovative technology that offers a host of benefits and advantages to consumers. Consumer attitudes towards GM food and GM technologies can be identified a major determinant in conditioning market force and encouraging policy makers and regulators to recognize the significance of consumer influence on the market. This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the extent of consumer awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods and its associated health risks and benefit in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. The specific objectives of this study were to (determine consumer awareness to GM foods, ascertain their perspectives on health and safety risks and ethical issues associated with GM foods and determine whether labeling of GM foods and ingredients will influence consumers’ willingness to purchase GM foods. A survey comprising of a questionnaire consisting of 40 questions, both open-ended and close-ended was administered to 240 shoppers in small, medium and large-scale supermarkets throughout Trinidad between April-May, 2015 using convenience sampling. This survey investigated consumer awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods and its associated health risks/benefits. The data was analyzed using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. One-way ANOVA investigated the effects categories of supermarkets and knowledge scores on shoppers’ awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods. Linear Regression tested whether demographic variables (category of supermarket, age of consumer, level of were useful predictors of consumer’s knowledge of GM foods). More than half of respondents (64.3%) were aware of GM foods and GM technologies, 28.3% of consumers indicated the presence of GM foods in local supermarkets and 47.1% claimed to be knowledgeable of GM foods. Furthermore, significant associations (P < 0.05) were observed between demographic variables (age, income, and education), and consumer knowledge of GM foods. Also, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between demographic variables (education, gender, and income) and consumer knowledge of GM foods. In addition, age, education, gender and income (P < 0.05) were useful predictors of consumer knowledge of GM foods. There was a contradiction as whilst 35% of consumers considered GM foods safe for consumption, 70% of consumers were wary of the unknown health risks of GM foods. About two-thirds of respondents (67.5%) considered the creation of GM foods morally wrong and unethical. Regarding GM food labeling preferences, 88% of consumers preferred mandatory labeling of GM foods and 67% of consumers specified that any food product containing a trace of GM food ingredients required mandatory GM labeling. Also, despite the declaration of GM food ingredients on food labels and the reassurance of its safety for consumption by food safety and regulatory institutions, the majority of consumers (76.1%) still preferred conventionally produced foods over GM foods. The study revealed the need to inform shoppers of the presence of GM foods and technologies, present the scientific evidence as to the benefits and risks and the need for a policy on labeling so that informed choices could be taken.

Keywords: genetically modified foods, income, labeling consumer awareness, ingredients, morality and ethics, policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
100 Consumer Knowledge of Food Quality Assurance and Use of Food Labels in Trinidad, West Indies

Authors: Daryl Clement Knutt, Neela Badrie, Marsha Singh


Quality assurance and product labelling are vital in the food and drink industry, as a tactical tool in a competitive environment. The food label is a principal marketing tool which also serves as a regulatory mechanism in the safeguarding of consumer well –being. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of consumers’ use and understanding of food labeling information and knowledge pertaining to food quality assurance systems. The study population consisted of Trinidadian adults, who were over the age of 18 (n=384). Data collection was conducted via a self-administered questionnaire, which contained 31 questions, comprising of four sections: I. socio demographic information; II. food quality and quality assurance; III. use of Labeling information; and IV. laws and regulations. Sampling was conducted at six supermarkets, in five major regions of the country over a period of three weeks in 2014. The demographic profile of the shoppers revealed that majority was female (63.6%). The gender factor and those who were concerned about the nutrient content of their food, were predictive indicators of those who read food labels. Most (93.1%) read food labels before purchase, 15.4% ‘always’; 32.5% ‘most times’ and 45.2% ‘sometimes’. Some (42%) were often satisfied with the information presented on food labels, whilst 35.7% of consumers were unsatisfied. When the respondents were questioned on their familiarity with terms ‘food quality’ and ‘food quality assurance’, 21.3% of consumers replied positively - ‘I have heard the terms and know a lot’ whilst 37% were only ‘somewhat familiar’. Consumers were mainly knowledgeable of the International Standard of Organization (ISO) (51.5%) and Good Agricultural Practices GAP (38%) as quality tools. Participants ranked ‘nutritional information’ as the number one labeling element that should be better presented, followed by ‘allergy notes’ and ‘best before date’. Females were more inclined to read labels being the household shoppers. The shoppers would like better presentation of the food labelling information so as to guide their decision to purchase a product.

Keywords: food labels, food quality, nutrition, marketing, Trinidad, Tobago

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99 Correlation Mapping for Measuring Platelet Adhesion

Authors: Eunseop Yeom


Platelets can be activated by the surrounding blood flows where a blood vessel is narrowed as a result of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the relation between platelets activation and thrombus formation. To measure platelet adhesion, this study proposes an image analysis technique. Blood samples are delivered in the microfluidic channel, and then platelets are activated by a stenotic micro-channel with 90% severity. By applying proposed correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) was estimated without labeling platelets. In order to evaluate the performance of correlation mapping on the detection of platelet adhesion, the effect of tile size was investigated by calculating 2D correlation coefficients with binary images obtained by manual labeling and the correlation mapping method with different sizes of the square tile ranging from 3 to 50 pixels. The maximum 2D correlation coefficient is observed with the optimum tile size of 5×5 pixels. As the area of the platelet adhesion increases, the platelets plug the channel and there is only a small amount of blood flows. This image analysis could provide new insights for better understanding of the interactions between platelet aggregation and blood flows in various physiological conditions.

Keywords: platelet activation, correlation coefficient, image analysis, shear rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
98 Automatic Music Score Recognition System Using Digital Image Processing

Authors: Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Zhong-Xian Peng, Li-Der Jeng


Music has always been an integral part of human’s daily lives. But, for the most people, reading musical score and turning it into melody is not easy. This study aims to develop an Automatic music score recognition system using digital image processing, which can be used to read and analyze musical score images automatically. The technical approaches included: (1) staff region segmentation; (2) image preprocessing; (3) note recognition; and (4) accidental and rest recognition. Digital image processing techniques (e.g., horizontal /vertical projections, connected component labeling, morphological processing, template matching, etc.) were applied according to musical notes, accidents, and rests in staff notations. Preliminary results showed that our system could achieve detection and recognition rates of 96.3% and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we presented an effective automated musical score recognition system that could be integrated in a system with a media player to play music/songs given input images of musical score. Ultimately, this system could also be incorporated in applications for mobile devices as a learning tool, such that a music player could learn to play music/songs.

Keywords: connected component labeling, image processing, morphological processing, optical musical recognition

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97 From Shallow Semantic Representation to Deeper One: Verb Decomposition Approach

Authors: Aliaksandr Huminski


Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) as shallow semantic parsing approach includes recognition and labeling arguments of a verb in a sentence. Verb participants are linked with specific semantic roles (Agent, Patient, Instrument, Location, etc.). Thus, SRL can answer on key questions such as ‘Who’, ‘When’, ‘What’, ‘Where’ in a text and it is widely applied in dialog systems, question-answering, named entity recognition, information retrieval, and other fields of NLP. However, SRL has the following flaw: Two sentences with identical (or almost identical) meaning can have different semantic role structures. Let consider 2 sentences: (1) John put butter on the bread. (2) John buttered the bread. SRL for (1) and (2) will be significantly different. For the verb put in (1) it is [Agent + Patient + Goal], but for the verb butter in (2) it is [Agent + Goal]. It happens because of one of the most interesting and intriguing features of a verb: Its ability to capture participants as in the case of the verb butter, or their features as, say, in the case of the verb drink where the participant’s feature being liquid is shared with the verb. This capture looks like a total fusion of meaning and cannot be decomposed in direct way (in comparison with compound verbs like babysit or breastfeed). From this perspective, SRL looks really shallow to represent semantic structure. If the key point in semantic representation is an opportunity to use it for making inferences and finding hidden reasons, it assumes by default that two different but semantically identical sentences must have the same semantic structure. Otherwise we will have different inferences from the same meaning. To overcome the above-mentioned flaw, the following approach is suggested. Assume that: P is a participant of relation; F is a feature of a participant; Vcp is a verb that captures a participant; Vcf is a verb that captures a feature of a participant; Vpr is a primitive verb or a verb that does not capture any participant and represents only a relation. In another word, a primitive verb is a verb whose meaning does not include meanings from its surroundings. Then Vcp and Vcf can be decomposed as: Vcp = Vpr +P; Vcf = Vpr +F. If all Vcp and Vcf will be represented this way, then primitive verbs Vpr can be considered as a canonical form for SRL. As a result of that, there will be no hidden participants caught by a verb since all participants will be explicitly unfolded. An obvious example of Vpr is the verb go, which represents pure movement. In this case the verb drink can be represented as man-made movement of liquid into specific direction. Extraction and using primitive verbs for SRL create a canonical representation unique for semantically identical sentences. It leads to the unification of semantic representation. In this case, the critical flaw related to SRL will be resolved.

Keywords: decomposition, labeling, primitive verbs, semantic roles

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96 Epidemiological-Anatomopathological-Immunohistochemical Profile of Gastric Cancer throughout Eastern Algeria

Authors: S. Tebibel, R. L. Bouchouka, C. Mechati, S. Messaoudi


The stomach cancer or gastric cancer is an aggressive cancer with a significant geographic disparity. The decrease in frequency is attributed to refrigeration, which has several beneficial consequences, increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of salt, which was widely used as a food preservative, and less contamination of food by carcinogenic compounds. The infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for progressive inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa usually evolving into stomach cancer in 80% of cases. Methodology: This epidemiological and analytical study concerns 65 patients (46 men and 19 women) with gastric adenocarcinomas with an average age of 56.5 years and a male predominance with a sex ratio of 2.4. Results and Discussion: In this series, the clinical symptoms are dominated by epigastralgia (72.31%), vomiting (27,69%), and slimming (24,62%). The FOGD (Oeso-Gastro Duodenal Fibroscopy) performed in the 65 patients revealed a predominance of the antro-pyloric localization in 19 cases (i.e., 29.23%) and anulcerative budding appearance in 33 subjects (50,77%). Histologically, the moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is found in 30.77% of patients, followed by well differentiated adenocarcinoma with 26.15% of patients. The immunohistochemical study revealed a positive labeling of half of the T cells by anti-CD3 AC, and a positive labeling of anti-CD20 AC in a diffuse and intense manner, with the presence of CD20-positive lymphoepithelial lesions compatible with CD20 a low grade MALT non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusion: This framework of analysis revealed some risk factors for gastric cancer, such as food, hygiene, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking and family history.

Keywords: cancer, Helicobacter pylori, immunohistochemistry, stomach

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95 SEM Detection of Folate Receptor in a Murine Breast Cancer Model Using Secondary Antibody-Conjugated, Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles

Authors: Yasser A. Ahmed, Juleen M Dickson, Evan S. Krystofiak, Julie A. Oliver


Cancer cells urgently need folate to support their rapid division. Folate receptors (FR) are over-expressed on a wide range of tumor cells, including breast cancer cells. FR are distributed over the entire surface of cancer cells, but are polarized to the apical surface of normal cells. Targeting of cancer cells using specific surface molecules such as folate receptors may be one of the strategies used to kill cancer cells without hurting the neighing normal cells. The aim of the current study was to try a method of SEM detecting FR in a murine breast cancer cell model (4T1 cells) using secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles. 4T1 cells were suspended in RPMI medium witth FR antibody and incubated with secondary antibody for fluorescence microscopy. The cells were cultured on 30mm Thermanox coverslips for 18 hours, labeled with FR antibody then incubated with secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles and processed to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The fluorescence microscopy study showed strong punctate FR expression on 4T1 cell membrane. With SEM, the labeling with gold or gold-coated magnetite conjugates showed a similar pattern. Specific labeling occurred in nanoparticle clusters, which are clearly visualized in backscattered electron images. The 4T1 tumor cell model may be useful for the development of FR-targeted tumor therapy using gold-coated magnetite nano-particles.

Keywords: cancer cell, nanoparticles, cell culture, SEM

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94 Quality Control of 99mTc-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals Using the Chromatography Strips

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Akemi Yoshida, Hirotaka Shimada


99mTc-2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) and 99mTcmercaptoacetylgylcylglycyl-glycine (MAG3 ) are heat to 368-372K and are labeled with 99mTc-pertechnetate. Quality control (QC) of 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals is performed at hospitals, using liquid chromatography, which is difficult to perform in general hospitals. We used chromatography strips to simplify QC and investigated the effects of the test procedures on quality control. In this study is 99mTc- MAG3. Solvent using chloroform + acetone + tetrahydrofuran, and the gamma counter was ARC-380CL. The changed conditions are as follows; heating temperature, resting time after labeled, and expiration year for use: which were 293, 313, 333, 353 and 372K; 15 min (293K and 372K) and 1 hour (293K); and 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively were tested. Measurement time using the gamma counter was one minute. A nuclear medical clinician decided the quality of the preparation in judging the usability of the retest agent. Two people conducted the test procedure twice, in order to compare reproducibility. The percentage of radiochemical purity (% RCP) was approximately 50% under insufficient heat treatment, which improved as the temperature and heating time increased. Moreover, the % RCP improved with time even under low temperatures. Furthermore, there was no deterioration with time after the expiration date. The objective of these tests was to determine soluble 99mTc impurities, including 99mTc-pertechnetate and the hydrolyzed-reduced 99mTc. Therefore, we assumed that insufficient heating and heating to operational errors in the labeling. It is concluded that quality control is a necessary procedure in nuclear medicine to ensure safe scanning. It is suggested that labeling is necessary to identify specifications.

Keywords: quality control, tc-99m labeled radio-pharmaceutical, chromatography strip, nuclear medicine

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93 BSYJ Promoting Homing and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells at the Retina of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Model Mice Induced by Sodium Iodate

Authors: Lina Liang, Kai Xu, Jing Zhang


Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major leading cause of visual impairment and blindness with no cure currently established. Cell replacement is discussed as a potential therapy for AMD. Besides intravitreal injection and subretinal injection, intravenous administration has been explored as an alternative route. This study is to observe the effect of BSYJ, a traditional Chinese medicine on the homing and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted via tail vein injection in an age-related macular degeneration mouse model. Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were injected with 40 mg/kg NaIO₃ to induce age-related macular degeneration model. At the second day after NaIO₃ injection, 1×10⁷ GFP labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GFP-MSCs) were transplanted via tali vein injection into the experimental mice. Then the mice were randomly divided into two groups, gavaged with either BSYJ solution (BSYJ group, n=12) or distilled water (DW group, n=12). 12 age-matched healthy C57BL/6J mice were fed regularly as normal control. At day 7, day 14, and day 28 after treatment, retina flat mounting was used to detect the homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina. Double-labeling immunofluorescence was used to determine the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Results: At 7, 14, 28 days after treatment, the numbers of GFP-MSCs detected by retina flatmount were 10.2 ± 2.5, 14.5 ± 3.4 and 18.7 ± 5.8, respectively in the distilled water group, while 15.7 ± 3.8, 32.3 ± 3.5 and 77.3 ± 6.4 in BSYJ group, the differences between the two groups were significant (p < 0.05). At 28 days after treatment, it was shown by double staining immunofluorescence that there were more GFP positive cells in the retina of BSYJ group than that of the DW group, but none of the cells expressed RPE specific genes such as RPE65 and CRALBP, or photoreceptor genes such as recoverin and rhodopsin either in BSYJ group or DW group. However, GFAP positive cells were found among the cells labeled with GFP, and the double labeling cells were much more in the BSYJ group than the distilled water group. Conclusion: BSYJ could promote homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina of age-related macular degeneration model mice induced by NaIO₃, and the differentiation towards to glial cells. Acknowledgement: National Natural Foundation of China (No: 81473736, 81674033,81973912).

Keywords: BSYJ, differentiation, homing, mesenchymal stem cells

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