Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Kazuaki Yamaguchi

32 An Algorithm for the Map Labeling Problem with Two Kinds of Priorities

Authors: Noboru Abe, Yoshinori Amai, Toshinori Nakatake, Sumio Masuda, Kazuaki Yamaguchi

Abstract:

We consider the problem of placing labels of the points on a plane. For each point, its position, the size of its label and a priority are given. Moreover, several candidates of its label positions are prespecified, and each of such label positions is assigned a priority. The objective of our problem is to maximize the total sum of priorities of placed labels and their points. By refining a labeling algorithm that can use these priorities, we propose a new heuristic algorithm which is more suitable for treating the assigned priorities.

Keywords: map labeling, greedy algorithm, heuristic algorithm, priority

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31 Establishment of a Thermostable Newcastle Disease Vaccine Candidate Strain and Its Adaptation to Vero Cells

Authors: Humayun Kabir, Amirul Hasan, Yu Miyaoka, Makiko Yamaguchi, Chisaki Kadota, Kazuaki Takehara

Abstract:

From field isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Japan, one avirulent strain, APMV/northern pintail/Japan/Aomori/2003 (dk-Aomori/03, NDV 261), was selected for its excellent thermostability, and the strain was heat-treated at 56℃ temperatures for 30 min with each passage into Vero cells to maintain thermostability and to adapt Vero cells. After serial 20 passages in Vero cells, it was named NDV Vero20. When growth curves were tested in Vero cells, NDV Vero20 grew well to compare the original NDV261. The HN gene was sequenced, and found motifs that show thermostability. The intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) test score was 0. The thermostability of the virus was confirmed by storing it at different temperatures, including at 37°C. When susceptible chicks were inoculated with NDV Vero20 through eye drops, induced adequate levels of antibody were measured using a serum neutralization test. The results showed that NDV Vero20, a vaccine candidate strain is thermostable, Vero cell adapted, and has immunogenic potential, which would make as an alternative to the traditional embryonated chicken eggs-based vaccine.

Keywords: Newcastle disease virus, thermostability, vaccine, Vero cell adaptability

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30 Rheological and Self-Healing Properties of Poly (Vinyl Butyral)

Authors: Sunatda Arayachukiat, Shogo Nobukawa, Masayuki Yamaguchi

Abstract:

A new self-healing material was developed utilizing molecular entanglements for poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) containing plasticizers. It was found that PVB shows autonomic self-healing behavior even below the glass transition temperature Tg because of marked molecular motion at surface. Moreover, the plasticizer addition enhances the chain mobility, leading to good healing behavior.

Keywords: Poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB), rheological properties, self-healing behaviour, molecular diffusion

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29 Acoustic Finite Element Analysis of a Slit Model with Consideration of Air Viscosity

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

In very narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change due to the air viscosity. We have developed a new Finite Element Method (FEM) that includes the effects of air viscosity for modeling a narrow sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing FEM for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results for several three-dimensional slit models using the proposed FEM are validated against existing calculation methods.

Keywords: simulation, FEM, air viscosity, slit

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28 Relevance to Transformation Desire at Venetian Masks

Authors: Yoko Katsumata, Takashi Horikoshi, Noriaki Fukuzumi, Shoji Yamaguchi

Abstract:

This study examined some positive sensations that caused human to experience an intense feeling or sensitivity from Venetian Masks. We surveyed 102 Japanese university students (male; 85, female; 17) about their sensitivity impressions toward Venetian Masks using sensitivity questionnaire. We used questionnaires to examine the relevance to transformation desire at Venetian masks by means of correlation analysis. The positive correlation coefficient was observed between sensitivity impressions and transformation desire.

Keywords: Venetian Masks, sensitivity impression, transformation desire, Japan

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27 FEM Analysis of an Occluded Ear Simulator with Narrow Slit Pathway

Authors: Manabu Sasajima, Takao Yamaguchi, Yoshio Koike, Mitsuharu Watanabe

Abstract:

This paper discusses the propagation of sound waves in air, specifically in narrow rectangular pathways of an occluded-ear simulator for acoustic measurements. In narrow pathways, both the speed of sound and the phase of the sound waves are affected by the damping of the air viscosity. Herein, we propose a new finite-element method (FEM) that considers the effects of the air viscosity. The method was developed as an extension of existing FEMs for porous, sound-absorbing materials. The results of a numerical calculation for a three-dimensional ear-simulator model using the proposed FEM were validated by comparing with theoretical lumped-parameter modeling analysis and standard values.

Keywords: ear simulator, FEM, simulation, viscosity

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26 Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa, Takao Yamaguchi

Abstract:

High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy for designers. In this report, the outline of this tool and an analysis example applied to floor mat are introduced.

Keywords: automobile, acoustics, porous material, transfer matrix method

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25 Finite Element Method Analysis of Occluded-Ear Simulator and Natural Human Ear Canal

Authors: M. Sasajima, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Hu, Y. Koike

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the propagation of sound in the narrow pathways of an occluded-ear simulator typically used for the measurement of insert-type earphones. The simulator has a standardized frequency response conforming to the international standard (IEC60318-4). In narrow pathways, the speed and phase of sound waves are modified by viscous air damping. In our previous paper, we proposed a new finite element method (FEM) to consider the effects of air viscosity in this type of audio equipment. In this study, we will compare the results from the ear simulator FEM model, and those from a three dimensional human ear canal FEM model made from computed tomography images, with the measured frequency response data from the ear canals of 18 people.

Keywords: ear simulator, FEM, viscosity, human ear canal

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24 3D Plant Growth Measurement System Using Deep Learning Technology

Authors: Kazuaki Shiraishi, Narumitsu Asai, Tsukasa Kitahara, Sosuke Mieno, Takaharu Kameoka

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to facilitate productivity advances in agriculture. To accomplish this, we developed an automatic three-dimensional (3D) recording system for growth of field crops that consists of a number of inexpensive modules: a very low-cost stereo camera, a couple of ZigBee wireless modules, a Raspberry Pi single-board computer, and a third generation (3G) wireless communication module. Our system uses an inexpensive Web stereo camera in order to keep total costs low. However, inexpensive video cameras record low-resolution images that are very noisy. Accordingly, in order to resolve these problems, we adopted a deep learning method. Based on the results of extended period of time operation test conducted without the use of an external power supply, we found that by using Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network method, our system could achieve a balance between the competing goals of low-cost and superior performance. Our experimental results showed the effectiveness of our system.

Keywords: 3D plant data, automatic recording, stereo camera, deep learning, image processing

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23 Secure Bio Semantic Computing Scheme

Authors: Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Phillip C. Y. Sheu, Ryo Fujita, Shigeo Tsujii

Abstract:

In this paper, the secure BioSemantic Scheme is presented to bridge biological/biomedical research problems and computational solutions via semantic computing. Due to the diversity of problems in various research fields, the semantic capability description language (SCDL) plays and important role as a common language and generic form for problem formalization. SCDL is expected the essential for future semantic and logical computing in Biosemantic field. We show several example to Biomedical problems in this paper. Moreover, in the coming age of cloud computing, the security problem is considered to be crucial issue and we presented a practical scheme to cope with this problem.

Keywords: biomedical applications, private information retrieval (PIR), semantic capability description language (SCDL), semantic computing

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22 Excitation Experiments of a Cone Loudspeaker and Vibration-Acoustic Analysis Using FEM

Authors: Y. Hu, X. Zhao, T. Yamaguchi, M. Sasajima, Y. Koike

Abstract:

To focus on the vibration mode of a cone loudspeaker, which acts as an electroacoustic transducer, excitation experiments were performed using two types of loudspeaker units: one employing an impulse hammer and the other a sweep signal. The on-axis sound pressure frequency properties of the loudspeaker were evaluated, and the characteristic properties of the loudspeakers were successfully determined in both excitation experiments. Moreover, under conditions identical to the experiment conditions, a coupled analysis of the vibration-acoustics of the cone loudspeaker was performed using an acoustic analysis software program that considers the impact of damping caused by air viscosity. The result of sound pressure frequency properties with the numerical analysis are the most closely match that measured in the excitation experiments over a wide range of frequency bands.

Keywords: anechoic room, finite element method, impulse hammer, loudspeaker, reverberation room, sweep signal

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21 BECOME: Body Experience-Based Co-Operation between Juveniles through Mutually Excited Team Gameplay

Authors: Tsugunosuke Sakai, Haruya Tamaki, Ryuichi Yoshida, Ryohei Egusa, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki, Fusako Kusunoki, Miki Namatame, Masanori Sugimoto, Hiroshi Mizoguchi

Abstract:

We aim to develop a full-body interaction game that could let children cooperate and interact with other children in small groups. As the first step for our aim, the objective of the full-body interaction game developed in this study is to make interaction between children. The game requires two children to jump together with the same timing. We let children experience the game and answer the questionnaires. The children using several strategies to coordinate the timing of their jumps were observed. These included shouting time, watching each other, and jumping in a constant rhythm as if they were skipping rope. In this manner, we observed the children playing the game while cooperating with each other. The results of a questionnaire to evaluate the proposed interactive game indicate that the jumping game was a very enjoyable experience in which the participants could immerse themselves. Therefore, the game enabled children to experience cooperation with others by using body movements.

Keywords: children, cooperation, full-body interaction game, kinect sensor

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20 Quantum Statistical Mechanical Formulations of Three-Body Problems via Non-Local Potentials

Authors: A. Maghari, V. M. Maleki

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a quantum statistical mechanical formulation from our recently analytical expressions for partial-wave transition matrix of a three-particle system. We report the quantum reactive cross sections for three-body scattering processes 1 + (2,3)-> 1 + (2,3) as well as recombination 1 + (2,3) -> 2 + (3,1) between one atom and a weakly-bound dimer. The analytical expressions of three-particle transition matrices and their corresponding cross-sections were obtained from the three-dimensional Faddeev equations subjected to the rank-two non-local separable potentials of the generalized Yamaguchi form. The equilibrium quantum statistical mechanical properties such partition function and equation of state as well as non-equilibrium quantum statistical properties such as transport cross-sections and their corresponding transport collision integrals were formulated analytically. This leads to obtain the transport properties, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient of a moderate dense gas.

Keywords: statistical mechanics, nonlocal separable potential, three-body interaction, faddeev equations

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19 Optimization of Loudspeaker Part Design Parameters by Air Viscosity Damping Effect

Authors: Yue Hu, Xilu Zhao, Takao Yamaguchi, Manabu Sasajima, Yoshio Koike, Akira Hara

Abstract:

This study optimized the design parameters of a cone loudspeaker as an example of high flexibility of the product design. We developed an acoustic analysis software program that considers the impact of damping caused by air viscosity. In sound reproduction, it is difficult to optimize each parameter of the loudspeaker design. To overcome the limitation of the design problem in practice, this study presents an acoustic analysis algorithm to optimize the design parameters of the loudspeaker. The material character of cone paper and the loudspeaker edge were the design parameters, and the vibration displacement of the cone paper was the objective function. The results of the analysis showed that the design had high accuracy as compared to the predicted value. These results suggested that although the parameter design is difficult, with experience and intuition, the design can be performed easily using the optimized design found with the acoustic analysis software.

Keywords: air viscosity, design parameters, loudspeaker, optimization

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18 Optimization of a Cone Loudspeaker Parameter of Design Parameters by Analysis of a Narrow Acoustic Sound Pathway

Authors: Yue Hu, Xilu Zhao, Takao Yamaguchi, Manabu Sasajima, Yoshio Koike, Akira Hara

Abstract:

This study tried optimization of design parameter of a cone loudspeaker unit as an example of the high flexibility of the products design. We developed an acoustic analysis software program that considers the impact of damping caused by air viscosity. In sound reproduction, it is difficult to each design the parameter of the loudspeaker. To overcome the limitation of the design problem in practice, this paper proposes a new an acoustic analysis algorithm to optimize design the parameter of the loudspeaker. The material character of cone paper and the loudspeaker edge was the design parameter, and the vibration displacement of the cone paper was the objective function. The results of the analysis were compared with the predicted value. They had high accuracy to the predicted value. These results suggest that, though the parameter design is difficult by experience and intuition, it can be performed comparatively easily using the optimization design by the developed acoustic analysis software.

Keywords: air viscosity, loudspeaker, cone paper, edge, optimization

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17 Concrete Performance Evaluation of Coarse Aggregate Replacement by Civil Construction Waste

Authors: Juliane P. De Oliveira, Carlos H. Dos Santos, Marcia Shoji, Maria E. C. Ferreira, Natalia U. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

The construction sector is considered a major generator of environmental impacts due to the high consumption of natural resources and waste generation. Thus, this article aims to evaluate the performance of a concrete produced by the partial and total replacement of natural coarse aggregate by recycled coarse aggregate, derived from the concrete residue of buildings and demolitions. The study was made by comparing the compressive strength and absorption of three different concrete traces, keeping the water/cement factor of 0.60 and changing only the proportions of recycled coarse aggregate between 0%, 50% and 100%. Traces 50% and 100% obtained good results by comparing the actual specific mass, because the material used is lighter to the natural coarse aggregate. It was concluded that the concrete produced with recycled aggregates, even with inferior results, can be used where it is not needed a structural function, giving an adequate destination to the construction and demolition waste and consequently reducing the extraction and consumption of natural resources.

Keywords: green concrete, recycled aggregate, recycling, sustainable development

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16 Bibliometric Analysis of the Research Progress on Graphene Inks from 2008 to 2018

Authors: Jean C. A. Sousa, Julio Cesar Maciel Santos, Andressa J. Rubio, Edneia A. S. Paccola, Natália U. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

A bibliometric analysis in the Web of Science database was used to identify overall scientific results of graphene inks to date (2008 to 2018). The objective of this study was to evaluate the evolutionary tendency of graphene inks research and to identify its aspects, aiming to provide data that can guide future work. The contributions of different researches, languages, thematic categories, periodicals, place of publication, institutes, funding agencies, articles cited and applications were analyzed. The results revealed a growing number of annual publications, of 258 papers found, 107 were included because they met the inclusion criteria. Three main applications were identified: synthesis and characterization, electronics and surfaces. The most relevant research on graphene inks has been summarized in this article, and graphene inks for electronic devices presented the most incident theme according to the research trends during the studied period. It is estimated that this theme will remain in evidence and will contribute to the direction of future research in this area.

Keywords: bibliometric, coating, nanomaterials, scientometrics

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15 Research Trends on Magnetic Graphene for Water Treatment: A Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: J. C. M. Santos, J. C. A. Sousa, A. J. Rubio, L. S. Soletti, F. Gasparotto, N. U. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

Magnetic graphene has received widespread attention for their capability of water and wastewater treatment, which has been attracted many researchers in this field. A bibliometric analysis based on the Web of Science database was employed to analyze the global scientific outputs of magnetic graphene for water treatment until the present time (2012 to 2017), to improve the understanding of the research trends. The publication year, place of publication, institutes, funding agencies, journals, most cited articles, distribution outputs in thematic categories and applications were analyzed. Three major aspects analyzed including type of pollutant, treatment process and composite composition have further contributed to revealing the research trends. The most relevant research aspects of the main technologies using magnetic graphene for water treatment were summarized in this paper. The results showed that research on magnetic graphene for water treatment goes through a period of decline that might be related to a saturated field and a lack of bibliometric studies. Thus, the result of the present work will lead researchers to establish future directions in further studies using magnetic graphene for water treatment.

Keywords: composite, graphene oxide, nanomaterials, scientometrics

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14 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, M. Sasajima, C. Yuan, S. Maruyama, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita

Abstract:

This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: dynamic response, nonlinear impact response, finite element analysis, numerical analysis

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13 Clinical Utility of Salivary Cytokines for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Washizuka

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of salivary cytokines for the screening of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. We carried out a case-control study, including 19 children with ADHD and 17 healthy children (controls). A multiplex bead array immunoassay was used to conduct a multi-analysis of 27 different salivary cytokines. Six salivary cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL12p70, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were significantly associated with the presence of ADHD (p < 0.05). An informative salivary cytokine panel was developed using VEGF by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 0.251). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that assessment of a panel using VEGF showed “good” capability for discriminating between ADHD patients and controls (area under the curve: 0.778). ADHD has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex, due to reduced VEGF levels. Our study highlights the possibility of utilizing differential salivary cytokine levels for point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in children with ADHD.

Keywords: cytokine, saliva, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, child

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12 An Equivalent Circuit Model Approach for Battery Pack Simulation in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Powertrain

Authors: Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka

Abstract:

The progressing need for powertrain electrification calls for more accurate and reliable simulation models. A battery pack serves as the most vital component for energy storage in an electrified powertrain. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) do not behave the same way as they age, and there are several environmental factors that account for the degradation of the battery on a system level. Therefore, in this work, a battery model was proposed to study the state of charge (SOC) variation and the internal dynamic changes that contribute to aging and performance degradation in HEV batteries. An equivalent circuit battery model (ECM) is built using MATLAB Simulink to investigate the output characteristics of the lithium-ion battery. The ECM comprises of circuit elements like a voltage source, a series resistor and a parallel RC network connected in series. A parameter estimation study is conducted on the ECM to study the dependencies of the circuit elements with the state of charge (SOC) and the terminal voltage of the battery. The battery model is extended to simulate the temperature dependence of the individual battery cell and the battery pack with the environment. The temperature dependence model accounts for the heat loss due to internal resistance build up in the battery pack during charging, discharging, and due to atmospheric temperature. The model was validated for a lithium-ion battery pack with an independent drive cycle showing a voltage accuracy of 4% and SOC accuracy of about 2%.

Keywords: battery model, hybrid electric vehicle, lithium-ion battery, thermal model

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11 Design and Assessment of Traffic Management Strategies for Improved Mobility on Major Arterial Roads in Lahore City

Authors: N. Ali, S. Nakayama, H. Yamaguchi, M. Nadeem

Abstract:

Traffic congestion is a matter of prime concern in developing countries. This can be primarily attributed due to poor design practices and biased allocation of resources based on political will neglecting the technical feasibilities in infrastructure design. During the last decade, Lahore has expanded at an unprecedented rate as compared to surrounding cities due to more funding and resource allocation by the previous governments. As a result of this, people from surrounding cities and areas moved to the Lahore city for better opportunities and quality of life. This migration inflow inherited the city with an increased population yielding the inefficiency of the existing infrastructure to accommodate enhanced traffic demand. This leads to traffic congestion on major arterial roads of the city. In this simulation study, a major arterial road was selected to evaluate the performance of the five intersections by changing the geometry of the intersections or signal control type. Simulations were done in two software; Highway Capacity Software (HCS) and Synchro Studio and Sim Traffic Software. Some of the traffic management strategies that were employed include actuated-signal control, semi-actuated signal control, fixed-time signal control, and roundabout. The most feasible solution for each intersection in the above-mentioned traffic management techniques was selected with the least delay time (seconds) and improved Level of Service (LOS). The results showed that Jinnah Hospital Intersection and Akbar Chowk Intersection improved 92.97% and 92.67% in delay time reduction, respectively. These results can be used by traffic planners and policy makers for decision making for the expansion of these intersections keeping in mind the traffic demand in future years.

Keywords: traffic congestion, traffic simulation, traffic management, congestion problems

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10 Detection of Temporal Change of Fishery and Island Activities by DNB and SAR on the South China Sea

Authors: I. Asanuma, T. Yamaguchi, J. Park, K. J. Mackin

Abstract:

Fishery lights on the surface could be detected by the Day and Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP). The DNB covers the spectral range of 500 to 900 nm and realized a higher sensitivity. The DNB has a difficulty of identification of fishing lights from lunar lights reflected by clouds, which affects observations for the half of the month. Fishery lights and lights of the surface are identified from lunar lights reflected by clouds by a method using the DNB and the infrared band, where the detection limits are defined as a function of the brightness temperature with a difference from the maximum temperature for each level of DNB radiance and with the contrast of DNB radiance against the background radiance. Fishery boats or structures on islands could be detected by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the polar orbit satellites using the reflected microwave by the surface reflecting targets. The SAR has a difficulty of tradeoff between spatial resolution and coverage while detecting the small targets like fishery boats. A distribution of fishery boats and island activities were detected by the scan-SAR narrow mode of Radarsat-2, which covers 300 km by 300 km with various combinations of polarizations. The fishing boats were detected as a single pixel of highly scattering targets with the scan-SAR narrow mode of which spatial resolution is 30 m. As the look angle dependent scattering signals exhibits the significant differences, the standard deviations of scattered signals for each look angles were taken into account as a threshold to identify the signal from fishing boats and structures on the island from background noise. It was difficult to validate the detected targets by DNB with SAR data because of time lag of observations for 6 hours between midnight by DNB and morning or evening by SAR. The temporal changes of island activities were detected as a change of mean intensity of DNB for circular area for a certain scale of activities. The increase of DNB mean intensity was corresponding to the beginning of dredging and the change of intensity indicated the ending of reclamation and following constructions of facilities.

Keywords: day night band, SAR, fishery, South China Sea

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9 Bactericidal Efficacy of Quaternary Ammonium Compound on Carriers with Food Additive Grade Calcium Hydroxide against Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli

Authors: M. Shahin Alam, Satoru Takahashi, Mariko Itoh, Miyuki Komura, Mayuko Suzuki, Natthanan Sangsriratanakul, Kazuaki Takehara

Abstract:

Cleaning and disinfection are key components of routine biosecurity in livestock farming and food processing industry. The usage of suitable disinfectants and their proper concentration are important factors for a successful biosecurity program. Disinfectants have optimum bactericidal and virucidal efficacies at temperatures above 20°C, but very few studies on application and effectiveness of disinfectants at low temperatures have been done. In the present study, the bactericidal efficacies of food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)), quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and their mixture, were investigated under different conditions, including time, organic materials (fetal bovine serum: FBS) and temperature, either in suspension or in carrier test. Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli, which are the most prevalent gram negative bacteria in commercial poultry housing and food processing industry, were used in this study. Initially, we evaluated these disinfectants at two different temperatures (4°C and room temperature (RT) (25°C ± 2°C)) and 7 contact times (0, 5 and 30 sec, 1, 3, 20 and 30 min), with suspension tests either in the presence or absence of 5% FBS. Secondly, we investigated the bactericidal efficacies of these disinfectants by carrier tests (rubber, stainless steel and plastic) at same temperatures and 4 contact times (30 sec, 1, 3, and 5 min). Then, we compared the bactericidal efficacies of each disinfectant within their mixtures, as follows. When QAC was diluted with redistilled water (dW2) at 1: 500 (QACx500) to obtain the final concentration of didecyl-dimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) of 200 ppm, it could inactivate Salmonella Infantis within 5 sec at RT either with or without 5% FBS in suspension test; however, at 4°C it required 30 min in presence of 5% FBS. FdCa(OH)2 solution alone could inactivate bacteria within 1 min both at RT and 4°C even with 5% FBS. While FdCa(OH)2 powder was added at final concentration 0.2% to QACx500 (Mix500), the mixture could inactivate bacteria within 30 sec and 5 sec, respectively, with or without 5% FBS at 4°C. The findings from the suspension test indicated that low temperature inhibited the bactericidal efficacy of QAC, whereas Mix500 was effective, regardless of short contact time and low temperature, even with 5% FBS. In the carrier test, single disinfectant required bit more time to inactivate bacteria on rubber and plastic surfaces than on stainless steel. However, Mix500 could inactivate S. Infantis on rubber, stainless steel and plastic surfaces within 30 sec and 1 min, respectively, at RT and 4°C; but, for E. coli, it required only 30 sec at both temperatures. So, synergistic effects were observed on different carriers at both temperatures. For a successful enhancement of biosecurity during winter, the disinfectants should be selected that could have short contact times with optimum efficacy against the target pathogen. The present study findings help farmers to make proper strategies for application of disinfectants in their livestock farming and food processing industry.

Keywords: carrier, food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)₂), quaternary ammonium compound, synergistic effects

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8 Focus on the Bactericidal Efficacies of Alkaline Agents in Solid and the Required Time for Bacterial Inactivation

Authors: Hakimullah Hakim, Chiharu Toyofuku, Mari Ota, Mayuko Suzuki, Miyuki Komura, Masashi Yamada, Md. Shahin Alam, Natthanan Sangsriratanakul, Dany Shoham, Kazuaki Takehara

Abstract:

Disinfectants and their application are essential part of infection control strategies and enhancement of biosecurity at farms, worldwide. Alkaline agents are well known for their strong and long term antimicrobial capacities and most frequently are applied at farms for control and prevention of biological hazards. However, inadequate information regarding such materials’ capacities to inactivate pathogens and their improper applications fail farmers to achieve the mentioned goal. Thus, this requires attention to further evaluate their efficacies, under different conditions and in different ways. Here in this study we evaluated bactericidal efficacies of food additive grade of calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2) powder derived from natural calcium carbonates obtained from limestone (Fine Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), and bioceramic powder (BCX) derived from chicken feces at pH 13 (NMG environmental development Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), for their efficacies to inactivate bacteria in feces. [Materials & Methods] Chicken feces were inoculated by 100 µl Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in falcon tubes, individually, then FdCa(OH)2 or BCX powders were individually added to make final concentration of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) in total weight of 0.5g, followed by properly mixing and incubating at room temperature for certain periods of time, in a dark place. Afterwards, 10 ml 1M Tris-HCl (pH 7.2) was added onto them to reduce their pH, in order to stop powders’ activities and to harvest the remained viable bacteria, whereas using normal medium or dW2 to recover bacteria increases the mixture pH, and as a result bacteria would be inactivated soon; therefore, the latter practice brings about incorrect and misleading results. Samples were then inoculated on DHL agar plates in order to calculate colony forming units (CFU)/ml of viable bacteria. [Results and Discussion] FdCa(OH)2 powder at 10% and 5% required 3 hr and 6 hr exposure times, respectively, while BCX powder at 20% concentrations required 6 hr exposure time to kill the mentioned bacteria in feces down to lower than detectable level (≤ 3.6 log10 CFU/ml). This study confirmed capacities of FdCa(OH)2 and BCX powders to inactivate bacteria in feces, and both materials are environment friendly materials, with no risk to human or animal’s health. This finding helps farmers to properly apply alkaline agents in appropriate concentrations and exposure times in their farms, in order to prevent and control infectious diseases outbreaks and to enhance biosecurity. Finally, this finding may help farmers to implement better strategies for infections control in their livestock farms.

Keywords: bacterial inactivation, bioceramic, biosecurity at livestock farms, chicken feces

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7 Artificial Neural Network Approach for Vessel Detection Using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band

Authors: Takashi Yamaguchi, Ichio Asanuma, Jong G. Park, Kenneth J. Mackin, John Mittleman

Abstract:

In this paper, vessel detection using the artificial neural network is proposed in order to automatically construct the vessel detection model from the satellite imagery of day/night band (DNB) in visible infrared in the products of Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP).The goal of our research is the establishment of vessel detection method using the satellite imagery of DNB in order to monitor the change of vessel activity over the wide region. The temporal vessel monitoring is very important to detect the events and understand the circumstances within the maritime environment. For the vessel locating and detection techniques, Automatic Identification System (AIS) and remote sensing using Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery have been researched. However, each data has some lack of information due to uncertain operation or limitation of continuous observation. Therefore, the fusion of effective data and methods is important to monitor the maritime environment for the future. DNB is one of the effective data to detect the small vessels such as fishery ships that is difficult to observe in AIS. DNB is the satellite sensor data of VIIRS on Suomi-NPP. In contrast to SAR images, DNB images are moderate resolution and gave influence to the cloud but can observe the same regions in each day. DNB sensor can observe the lights produced from various artifact such as vehicles and buildings in the night and can detect the small vessels from the fishing light on the open water. However, the modeling of vessel detection using DNB is very difficult since complex atmosphere and lunar condition should be considered due to the strong influence of lunar reflection from cloud on DNB. Therefore, artificial neural network was applied to learn the vessel detection model. For the feature of vessel detection, Brightness Temperature at the 3.7 μm (BT3.7) was additionally used because BT3.7 can be used for the parameter of atmospheric conditions.

Keywords: artificial neural network, day/night band, remote sensing, Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, vessel detection, Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite

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6 UKIYO-E: User Knowledge Improvement Based on Youth Oriented Entertainment, Art Appreciation Support by Interacting with Picture

Authors: Haruya Tamaki, Tsugunosuke Sakai, Ryuichi Yoshida, Ryohei Egusa, Shigenori Inagaki, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Fusako Kusunoki, Miki Namatame, Masanori Sugimoto, Hiroshi Mizoguchi

Abstract:

Art appreciation is important as part of children education. Art appreciation can enrich sensibility and creativity. To enrich sensibility and creativity, the children have to learning knowledge of picture such as social and historical backgrounds and author intention. High learning effect can acquire by actively learning. In short, it is important that encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively. It is necessary that children feel like interest to encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively. In a general art museum, comments on pictures are done through writing. Thus, we expect that this method cannot arouse the interest of the children in pictures, because children feel like boring. In brief, learning about the picture information is difficult. Therefore, we are developing an art-appreciation support system that will encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively by children feel like interest. This system uses that Interacting with Pictures to learning of the knowledge about pictures. To Interacting with Pictures, children have to utterance by themselves. We expect that will encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively by Interacting with Pictures. To more actively learning, children can choose who talking with by information that location and movement of the children. This system must be able to acquire real-time knowledge of the location, movement, and voice of the children. We utilize the Microsoft’s Kinect v2 sensor and its library, namely, Kinect for Windows SDK and Speech Platform SDK v11 for this purpose. By using these sensor and library, we can determine the location, movement, and voice of the children. As the first step of this system, we developed ukiyo-e game that use ukiyo-e to appreciation object. Ukiyo-e is a traditional Japanese graphic art that has influenced the western society. Therefore, we believe that the ukiyo-e game will be appreciated. In this study, we applied talking to pictures to learn information about the pictures because we believe that learning information about the pictures by talking to the pictures is more interesting than commenting on the pictures using only texts. However, we cannot confirm if talking to the pictures is more interesting than commenting using texts only. Thus, we evaluated through EDA measurement whether the user develops an interest in the pictures while talking to them using voice recognition or by commenting on the pictures using texts only. Hence, we evaluated that children have interest to picture while talking to them using voice recognition through EDA measurement. In addition, we quantitatively evaluate that enjoyed this game or not and learning information about the pictures for primary schoolchildren. In this paper, we summarize these two evaluation results.

Keywords: actively learning, art appreciation, EDA, Kinect V2

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5 Charged Amphiphilic Polypeptide Based Micelle Hydrogel Composite for Dual Drug Release

Authors: Monika Patel, Kazuaki Matsumura

Abstract:

Synthetic hydrogels, with their unique properties such as porosity, strength, and swelling in aqueous environment, are being used in many fields from food additives to regenerative medicines, from diagnostic and pharmaceuticals to drug delivery systems (DDS). But, hydrogels also have some limitations in terms of homogeneity of drug distribution and quantity of loaded drugs. As an alternate, polymeric micelles are extensively used as DDS. With the ease of self-assembly, and distinct stability they remarkably improve the solubility of hydrophobic drugs. However, presently, combinational therapy is the need of time and so are systems which are capable of releasing more than one drug. And it is one of the major challenges towards DDS to control the release of each drug independently, which simple DDS cannot meet. In this work, we present an amphiphilic polypeptide based micelle hydrogel composite to study the dual drug release for wound healing purposes using Amphotericin B (AmpB) and Curcumin as model drugs. Firstly, two differently charged amphiphilic polypeptide chains were prepared namely, poly L-Lysine-b-poly phenyl alanine (PLL-PPA) and poly Glutamic acid-b-poly phenyl alanine (PGA-PPA) through ring opening polymerization of amino acid N-carboxyanhydride. These polymers readily self-assemble to form micelles with hydrophobic PPA block as core and hydrophilic PLL/PGA as shell with an average diameter of about 280nm. The thus formed micelles were loaded with the model drugs. The PLL-PPA micelle was loaded with curcumin and PGA-PPA was loaded with AmpB by dialysis method. Drug loaded micelles showed a slight increase in the mean diameter and were fairly stable in solution and lyophilized forms. For forming the micelles hydrogel composite, the drug loaded micelles were dissolved and were cross linked using genipin. Genipin uses the free –NH2 groups in the PLL-PPA micelles to form a hydrogel network with free PGA-PPA micelles trapped in between the 3D scaffold formed. Different composites were tested by changing the weight ratios of the both micelles and were seen to alter its resulting surface charge from positive to negative with increase in PGA-PPA ratio. The composites with high surface charge showed a burst release of drug in initial phase, were as the composites with relatively low net charge showed a sustained release. Thus the resultant surface charge of the composite can be tuned to tune its drug release profile. Also, while studying the degree of cross linking among the PLL-PPA particles for effect on dual drug release, it was seen that as the degree of crosslinking increases, an increase in the tendency to burst release the drug (AmpB) is seen in PGA-PPA particle, were as on the contrary the PLL-PPA particles showed a slower release of Curcumin with increasing the cross linking density. Thus, two different pharmacokinetic profile of drugs were seen by changing the cross linking degree. In conclusion, a unique charged amphiphilic polypeptide based micelle hydrogel composite for dual drug delivery. This composite can be finely tuned on the basis of need of drug release profiles by changing simple parameters such as composition, cross linking and pH.

Keywords: amphiphilic polypeptide, dual drug release, micelle hydrogel composite, tunable DDS

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4 Obtainment of Systems with Efavirenz and Lamellar Double Hydroxide as an Alternative for Solubility Improvement of the Drug

Authors: Danilo A. F. Fontes, Magaly A. M.Lyra, Maria L. C. Moura, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Salvana P. M. Costa, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Larissa A. Rolim, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Ping I. Lee, Severino Alves-Júnior, José L. Soares-Sobrinho, Pedro J. Rolim-Neto

Abstract:

Efavirenz (EFV) is a first-choice drug in antiretroviral therapy with high efficacy in the treatment of infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). EFV has low solubility in water resulting in a decrease in the dissolution rate and, consequently, in its bioavailability. Among the technological alternatives to increase solubility, the Lamellar Double Hydroxides (LDH) have been applied in the development of systems with poorly water-soluble drugs. The use of analytical techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) allowed the elucidation of drug interaction with the lamellar compounds. The objective of this work was to characterize and develop the binary systems with EFV and LDH in order to increase the solubility of the drug. The LDH-CaAl was synthesized by the method of co-precipitation from salt solutions of calcium nitrate and aluminum nitrate in basic medium. The systems EFV-LDH and their physical mixtures (PM) were obtained at different concentrations (5-60% of EFV) using the solvent technique described by Takahashi & Yamaguchi (1991). The characterization of the systems and the PM’s was performed by XRD techniques, IR, DSC and dissolution test under non-sink conditions. The results showed improvements in the solubility of EFV when associated with LDH, due to a possible change in its crystal structure and formation of an amorphous material. From the DSC results, one could see that the endothermic peak at 173°C, temperature that correspond to the melting process of EFZ in the crystal form, was present in the PM results. For the EFZ-LDH systems (with 5, 10 and 30% of drug loading), this peak was not observed. XRD profiles of the PM showed well-defined peaks for EFV. Analyzing the XRD patterns of the systems, it was found that the XRD profiles of all the systems showed complete attenuation of the characteristic peaks of the crystalline form of EFZ. The IR technique showed that, in the results of the PM, there was the appearance of one band and overlap of other bands, while the IR results of the systems with 5, 10 and 30% drug loading showed the disappearance of bands and a few others with reduced intensity. The dissolution test under non-sink conditions showed that systems with 5, 10 and 30% drug loading promoted a great increase in the solubility of EFV, but the system with 10% of drug loading was the only one that could keep substantial amount of drug in solution at different pHs.

Keywords: Efavirenz, Lamellar Double Hydroxides, Pharmaceutical Techonology, Solubility

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3 A Development of a Simulation Tool for Production Planning with Capacity-Booking at Specialty Store Retailer of Private Label Apparel Firms

Authors: Erika Yamaguchi, Sirawadee Arunyanrt, Shunichi Ohmori, Kazuho Yoshimoto

Abstract:

In this paper, we suggest a simulation tool to make a decision of monthly production planning for maximizing a profit of Specialty store retailer of Private label Apparel (SPA) firms. Most of SPA firms are fabless and make outsourcing deals for productions with factories of their subcontractors. Every month, SPA firms make a booking for production lines and manpower in the factories. The booking is conducted a few months in advance based on a demand prediction and a monthly production planning at that time. However, the demand prediction is updated month by month, and the monthly production planning would change to meet the latest demand prediction. Then, SPA firms have to change the capacities initially booked within a certain range to suit to the monthly production planning. The booking system is called “capacity-booking”. These days, though it is an issue for SPA firms to make precise monthly production planning, many firms are still conducting the production planning by empirical rules. In addition, it is also a challenge for SPA firms to match their products and factories with considering their demand predictabilities and regulation abilities. In this paper, we suggest a model for considering these two issues. An objective is to maximize a total profit of certain periods, which is sales minus costs of production, inventory, and capacity-booking penalty. To make a better monthly production planning at SPA firms, these points should be considered: demand predictabilities by random trends, previous and next month’s production planning of the target month, and regulation abilities of the capacity-booking. To decide matching products and factories for outsourcing, it is important to consider seasonality, volume, and predictability of each product, production possibility, size, and regulation ability of each factory. SPA firms have to consider these constructions and decide orders with several factories per one product. We modeled these issues as a linear programming. To validate the model, an example of several computational experiments with a SPA firm is presented. We suppose four typical product groups: basic, seasonal (Spring / Summer), seasonal (Fall / Winter), and spot product. As a result of the experiments, a monthly production planning was provided. In the planning, demand predictabilities from random trend are reduced by producing products which are different product types. Moreover, priorities to produce are given to high-margin products. In conclusion, we developed a simulation tool to make a decision of monthly production planning which is useful when the production planning is set every month. We considered the features of capacity-booking, and matching of products and factories which have different features and conditions.

Keywords: capacity-booking, SPA, monthly production planning, linear programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 437