Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Frederick Tabit

28 Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-To-Eat Food Sold in Johannesburg, South Africa

Authors: Hattie Hope Makumbe, Bhekisisa Dlamini, Frederick Tabit


Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important foodborne pathogens associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food. This study investigated the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in 80 RTE food sold in the formal (dairy and processed meat) and informal markets (vegetable salads, beef stew, and rice) of Johannesburg, South Africa. High Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, and E. coli counts were obtained, which ranged from 1.9-7.5 log CFU/g. Listeria monocytogenes microbial counts in the food samples ranged from 3.5-6.0 log colony forming unit per gram except in cooked rice. The Listeria monocytogenes isolates were identified using biochemical tests and confirmed with the Biolog identification system and PCR analyses. The percentage incidence for Listeria monocytogenes in ready to eat food was 12.5%. When Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations were under consideration, all disinfectants were effective against Listeria monocytogenes strains. For antimicrobial work, rates of resistance amongst the antibiotics ranged from 17-100%. Therefore, more effective preventive control strategies for Listeria monocytogenes are needed to reduce the prevalence of the pathogen in RTE food that is sold in Johannesburg.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species, ready to eat food, sanitiser efficacy

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27 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Properties of Some Selected Wild Edible Fruits Used Traditionally as a Source of Food

Authors: Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Darky Cheron Modishane, Frederick Tawi Tabit


The fruit pulp extracts of twelve selected ethnobotanical wild edible fruits from Mutale local municipality in Venda (Limpopo Province, South Africa) were investigated for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. Methanol extracts were prepared and tested against six micro-organisms (Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using the micro-dilution method, while for antioxidant activity the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method was used. Of the 12 extracts tested, Adonsonia digitata, Berchemia discolor, Manilkara mochisia, Xanthocercis zambesiaca, Landolphia kirkii and Garcinia livingstonei showed antimicrobial activity, with MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 0.4 mg/ml. Gram negative bacteria were more resistant to the extracts in comparison to Gram positive bacteria. Antioxidant activity was only detected in Adonsonia digitata extract and the IC50 (substrate concentration to produce 50% reduction) was found to be 16.18µg/ml. The cytotoxicity of the extracts that showed antimicrobial and antioxidant activities was also determined. All plant extracts tested were non-toxic against human kidney cells (HEK293), with IC50 values of >400 µg/ml. The results presented in this study provide support to some traditional uses of wild edible fruits.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, ethnobotanical, fruits

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26 Ethnic Entrepreneurships: Minority Ethnic Students in UiTM Sabah and UMS Perceptions towards Entrepreneurialism Business Interest

Authors: Lizinis Cassendra Frederick Dony, Dewi Binti Tajuddin, Jirom Jeremy Frederick Dony, Andrew Nicholas


Unemployed graduates have become among the world major concerns lately. 70% of Malaysian graduates are jobless. Due to this concerns, this paper aims to identify major factors influencing Sabah minority ethnic favorable in the entrepreneurialism business interest. Hence, extensive introductory entrepreneurship syllabus clusters development beginning from the early childhood, primary, secondary and university students. This may induce interest appeal and to develop focus group of self-employment. The study focus on 7 indicators consist of demographic profiles variable (DP), social norms (SN), attitude (A), self-efficacy (SE) and business management skills (BMS) with reference to university students’ entrepreneurial intention. This study also partially mediates the relationship between product attractiveness (PA) and the minority ethnic entrepreneurialism business interest (MEEBI), by testifying their direct and indirect relationships. Hence, this study provides new perception towards improving the graduates’ characteristic, capabilities to exploit the business opportunities in the market. Furthermore, this paper will assess the relationship with the product attractiveness(PA) as a mediator. The study encompasses on the type of Sabah minority ethnic (ME) and nature of family own business (FOB) background with the 280 samples students in UiTM Sabah and UMS. The descriptive and random sampling method of research which revealed that majority of the respondents agreed that FOB and entrepreneurship education had positively influenced the ethnic students’ involvement in the entrepreneurial process and career development either full-time or part-time basis.

Keywords: Demographic profile (DP), soci, unemployed graduates, Malaysian minority

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25 The Effect of Gender and Resources on Entrepreneurial Activity

Authors: Frederick Nyakudya


In this paper, we examine the relationship between human capital, personal wealth and social capital to explain the differential start-up rates between female and male entrepreneurs. Since our dependent variable is dichotomous, we examine the determinants of these using a maximum likelihood logit estimator. We used the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database covering the period 2006 to 2009 with 421 usable cases drawn from drawn from the Lower Layer Super Output Areas in the East Midlands in the United Kingdom. we found evidence that indicates that a female positively moderate the positive relationships between indicators of human capital, personal wealth and social capital with start-up activity. The findings have implications for programs, policies, and practices to encourage more females to engage in start-up activity.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, star-up, gender, GEM

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24 American Slavery and the Consciousness of Play

Authors: Janaka B. Lewis


“Narratives of Slavery and the Culture of Play” examines how play is discussed in early African American literature by both men and women to illustrate ways that they negotiated the hierarchy and oppression of enslavement. Reading narratives categorized as “slave narratives,” including those written by Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, and Olaudah Equiano, through the lens of play theory offers an illuminated analysis of the significance of play culture in these texts. It then reads late nineteenth-century play culture (or absence thereof) portrayed in literature as a lens for more contemporary African American oral and literary culture. These discussions of social constructions through literature bridge analyses of African American-authored texts and create a larger conversation about print media as a tool of activism and resistance. This essay also contributes to a larger body of analysis of nineteenth-century African American culture through literature.

Keywords: childhood, slavery, consciousness of play, 19th century African American culture

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23 A Study on Economic Impacts of Entrepreneurial Firms and Self-Employment: Minority Ethnics in Putatan, Penampang, Inanam, Menggatal, Uitm, Tongod, Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: Lizinis Cassendra Frederick Dony, Jirom Jeremy Frederick Dony, Andrew Nicholas, Dewi Binti Tajuddin


Starting and surviving a business is influenced by various entrepreneurship socio-economics activities. The study revealed that some of the entrepreneurs are not registered under SME but running own business as an intermediary with the private organization entrusted as “Self-Employed.” SME is known as “Small Medium Enterprise” contributes growth in Malaysia. Therefore, the entrepreneurialism business interest and entrepreneurial intention enhancing new spurring production, expanding employment opportunities, increasing productivity, promoting exports, stimulating innovation and providing new avenue in the business market place. This study has identified the unique contribution to the full understanding of complex mechanisms through entrepreneurship obstacles and education impacts on happiness and well-being to society. Moreover, “Ethnic” term has defined as a curious meaning refers to a classification of a large group of people customs implies to ancestral, racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic and cultural origins. It is a social phenomenon.1 According to Sabah data population is amounting to 2,389,494 showed the predominant ethnic group being the Kadazan Dusun (18.4%) followed by Bajau (17.3%) and Malays (15.3%). For the year 2010, data statistic immigrants population report showed the amount to 239,765 people which cover 4% of the Sabahan’s population.2 Sabah has numerous group of talented entrepreneurs. The business environment among the minority ethnics are influenced with the business sentiment competition. The literature on ethnic entrepreneurship recognizes two main type entrepreneurships: the middleman and enclave entrepreneurs. According to Adam Smith,3 there are evidently some principles disposition to admire and maintain the distinction business rank status and cause most universal business sentiments. Due to credit barriers competition, the minority ethnics are losing the business market and since 2014, many illegal immigrants have been found to be using permits of the locals to operate businesses in Malaysia.4 The development of small business entrepreneurship among the minority ethnics in Sabah evidenced based variety of complex perception and differences concepts. The studies also confirmed the effects of heterogeneity on group decision and thinking caused partly by excessive pre-occupation with maintaining cohesiveness and the presence of cultural diversity in groups should reduce its probability.5 The researchers proposed that there are seven success determinants particularly to determine the involvement of minority ethnics comparing to the involvement of the immigrants in Sabah. Although, (SMEs) have always been considered the backbone of the economy development, the minority ethnics are often categorized it as the “second-choice.’ The study showed that illegal immigrants entrepreneur imposed a burden on Sabahan social programs as well as the prison, court and health care systems. The tension between the need for cheap labor and the impulse to protect Malaysian in Sabah workers, entrepreneurs and taxpayers, among the subjects discussed in this study. This is clearly can be advantages and disadvantages to the Sabah economic development.

Keywords: entrepreneurial firms, self-employed, immigrants, minority ethnic, economic impacts

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22 Innocence Compensation: Motions to Strike and Dismiss to Forestall Financial Recovery

Authors: Myles Frederick McLellan


When errors in the criminal justice process lead to wrongful convictions and miscarriages of justice, it falls upon the State to make reparation for the egregious harms brought to innocent individuals. Of all the remedies available to seek compensation, private and public law litigation against the police and prosecution services is the most widely used. Unfortunately, all levels of court including the Supreme Court of Canada have explicitly endorsed the prospect of striking out or dismissing these claims at the outset on an expedited basis. The burden on agents of the State as defendants to succeed on motions for such relief is so low that very few actions will survive to give an innocent accused his or her day in court. This paper will be a quantitative and qualitative analysis on the occurrence and success of motions to strike and dismiss to forestall financial recovery for the damage caused when a criminal investigation and prosecution goes wrong. This paper will also include a comparative component on the private law systems at common law (e.g. USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand) with respect to the availability of a similar process to pre-emptively terminate litigation for the recovery of compensation to an innocent individual.

Keywords: compensation, innocence, miscarriages of justice, wrongful convictions

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21 An Automatic Model Transformation Methodology Based on Semantic and Syntactic Comparisons and the Granularity Issue Involved

Authors: Tiexin Wang, Sebastien Truptil, Frederick Benaben


Model transformation, as a pivotal aspect of Model-driven engineering, attracts more and more attentions both from researchers and practitioners. Many domains (enterprise engineering, software engineering, knowledge engineering, etc.) use model transformation principles and practices to serve to their domain specific problems; furthermore, model transformation could also be used to fulfill the gap between different domains: by sharing and exchanging knowledge. Since model transformation has been widely used, there comes new requirement on it: effectively and efficiently define the transformation process and reduce manual effort that involved in. This paper presents an automatic model transformation methodology based on semantic and syntactic comparisons, and focuses particularly on granularity issue that existed in transformation process. Comparing to the traditional model transformation methodologies, this methodology serves to a general purpose: cross-domain methodology. Semantic and syntactic checking measurements are combined into a refined transformation process, which solves the granularity issue. Moreover, semantic and syntactic comparisons are supported by software tool; manual effort is replaced in this way.

Keywords: automatic model transformation, granularity issue, model-driven engineering, semantic and syntactic comparisons

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20 Specialization in Biomimicry: A Rationale for a Proposed Curriculum for Structural Engineering Students

Authors: Austin Dada, Frederick Rutz, Wil Srubar


This proposed curriculum details the general concept of biomimicry in structural engineering. The interdisciplinary study of biology and structural engineering is also discussed, along with methods for effective research and study of biomimicry-related topics. Also known as synthetic biology, biomimetics, and the study of bioinspired structures, biomimicry in structural engineering is an emerging field with a wide berth of possibilities. The purpose of this proposed curriculum is to determine a suitable curriculum of study in the pursuit of a research topic regarding biomimicry within the field of structural engineering. Four main manifestations of bioinspired structures are covered in this curriculum; the creation of new biomaterials for use in construction, the use or mimicking of biological processes to determine the properties of construction materials, the use or mimicking of biological processes or biomaterials to augment the properties of construction material, and the imitation of biology through the use of conventional construction materials. Microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, and ecology are among the biology topics that are compared and integrated into the proposed structural engineering curriculum to produce a suitable specialization.

Keywords: bioinspired structures, biomimetics, biomimicry, materials science, structural engineering

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19 Internal Product Management: The Key to Achieving Digital Maturity and Business Agility for Manufacturing IT Organizations

Authors: Frederick Johnson


Product management has a long and well-established history within the consumer goods industry, despite being one of the most obscure aspects of brand management. Many global manufacturing organizations are now opting for external cloud-based Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) to replace costly and outdated monolithic MES solutions. Other global manufacturing leaders are restructuring their organizations to support human-centered values, agile methodologies, and fluid operating principles. Still, industry-leading organizations struggle to apply the appropriate framework for managing evolving external MES solutions as internal "digital products." Product management complements these current trends in technology and philosophical thinking in the market. This paper discusses the central problems associated with adopting product management processes by analyzing its traditional theories and characteristics. Considering these ideas, the article then constructs a translated internal digital product management framework by combining new and existing approaches and principles. The report concludes by demonstrating the framework's capabilities and potential effectiveness in achieving digital maturity and business agility within a manufacturing environment.

Keywords: internal product management, digital transformation, manufacturing information technology, manufacturing execution systems

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18 Investigating the Behavior of Water Shortage Indices for Performance Evaluation of a Water Resources System

Authors: Frederick N. F. Chou, Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh


The impact of water shortages has been increasingly severe as a consequence of population growth, urbanization, economic development, and climate change. The need for improvements in reliable water supply systems is urgent with the increasing living standards of regions. In this study, a suitable shortage index capable of multi-aspect description - frequency, magnitude, and duration - is adopted to more accurately describe the characteristics of a shortage situation. The values of the index were determined to cope with the increasing need for reliability. There are four reservoirs in series located on the Be River of the Dong Nai River Basin in Southern Vietnam. The primary purpose of the three upstream reservoirs is hydropower generation while the primary purpose of the fourth is water supply. A compromise between hydropower generation and water supply can be negotiated for these four reservoirs to reduce the severity of water shortages. A generalized water allocation model was applied to simulate the water supply, and hydropower generation of various management alternatives and the system’s reliability was evaluated using the adopted multiple shortage indices. Modifying management policies of water resources using data-based indexes can improve the reliability of water supply.

Keywords: cascade reservoirs, hydropower, shortage index, water supply

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17 Various Models of Quality Management Systems

Authors: Mehrnoosh Askarizadeh


People, process and IT are the most important assets of any organization. Optimal utilization of these resources has been the question of research in business for many decades. The business world have responded by inventing various methodologies that can be used for addressing problems of quality improvement, efficiency of processes, continuous improvement, reduction of waste, automation, strategy alignments etc. Some of these methodologies can be commonly called as Business Process Quality Management methodologies (BPQM). In essence, the first references to the process management can be traced back to Frederick Taylor and scientific management. Time and motion study was addressed to improvement of manufacturing process efficiency. The ideas of scientific management were in use for quite a long period until more advanced quality management techniques were developed in Japan and USA. One of the first prominent methods had been Total Quality Management (TQM) which evolved during 1980’s. About the same time, Six Sigma (SS) originated at Motorola as a separate method. SS spread and evolved; and later joined with ideas of Lean manufacturing to form Lean Six Sigma. In 1990’s due to emerging IT technologies, beginning of globalization, and strengthening of competition, companies recognized the need for better process and quality management. Business Process Management (BPM) emerged as a novel methodology that has taken all this into account and helped to align IT technologies with business processes and quality management. In this article we will study various aspects of above mentioned methods and identified their relations.

Keywords: e-process, quality, TQM, BPM, lean, six sigma, CPI, information technology, management

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16 GPRS Based Automatic Metering System

Authors: Constant Akama, Frank Kulor, Frederick Agyemang


All over the world, due to increasing population, electric power distribution companies are looking for more efficient ways of reading electricity meters. In Ghana, the prepaid metering system was introduced in 2007 to replace the manual system of reading which was fraught with inefficiencies. However, the prepaid system in Ghana is not capable of integration with online systems such as e-commerce platforms and remote monitoring systems. In this paper, we present a design framework for an automatic metering system that can be integrated with e-commerce platforms and remote monitoring systems. The meter was designed using ADE 7755 which reads the energy consumption and the reading is processed by a microcontroller connected to Sim900 General Packet Radio Service module containing a GSM chip provisioned with an Access Point Name. The system also has a billing server and a management server located at the premises of the utility company which communicate with the meter over a Virtual Private Network and GPRS. With this system, customers can buy credit online and the credit will be transferred securely to the meter. Also, when a fault is reported, the utility company can log into the meter remotely through the management server to troubleshoot the problem.

Keywords: access point name, general packet radio service, GSM, virtual private network

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15 Physics of Decision for Polling Place Management: A Case Study from the 2020 USA Presidential Election

Authors: Nafe Moradkhani, Frederick Benaben, Benoit Montreuil, Ali Vatankhah Barenji, Dima Nazzal


In the context of the global pandemic, the practical management of the 2020 presidential election in the USA was a strong concern. To anticipate and prepare for this election accurately, one of the main challenges was to confront (i) forecasts of voter turnout, (ii) capacities of the facilities and, (iii) potential configuration options of resources. The approach chosen to conduct this anticipative study consists of collecting data about forecasts and using simulation models to work simultaneously on resource allocation and facility configuration of polling places in Fulton County, Georgia’s largest county. A polling place is a dedicated facility where voters cast their ballots in elections using different devices. This article presents the results of the simulations of such places facing pre-identified potential risks. These results are oriented towards the efficiency of these places according to different criteria (health, trust, comfort). Then a dynamic framework is introduced to describe risks as physical forces perturbing the efficiency of the observed system. Finally, the main benefits and contributions resulting from this simulation campaign are presented.

Keywords: performance, decision support, simulation, artificial intelligence, risk management, election, pandemics, information system

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14 Field Trips inside Digital Game Environments

Authors: Amani Alsaqqaf, Frederick W. B. Li


Field trips are essential methods of learning in different subjects, and in recent times, there has been a reduction in the number of field trips (FTs) across all learning levels around the world. Virtual field trips (VFTs) in game environments provide FT experience based on the experiential learning theory (ELT). A conceptual framework for designing virtual field trip games (VFTGs) is developed with an aim to support game designers and educators to produce an effective FT experience where technology would enhance education. The conceptual framework quantifies ELT as an internal economy to link learning elements to game mechanics such as feedback loops which leads to facilitating VFTGs design and implementation. This study assesses the conceptual framework for designing VFTGs by investigating the possibility of applying immersive VFTGs in a secondary classroom and compare them with traditional learning that uses video clips and PowerPoint slides from the viewpoint of students’ perceived motivation, presence, and learning. The assessment is achieved by evaluating the learning performance and learner experience of a prototype VFT game, Island of Volcanoes. A quasi-experiment was conducted with 60 secondary school students. The findings of this study are that the VFTG enhanced learning performance to a better level than did the traditional way of learning, and in addition, it provided motivation and a general feeling of presence in the VFTG environment.

Keywords: conceptual framework, game-based learning, game design, virtual field trip game

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13 Racism in Drug Policies: A Report on United States Legislation

Authors: Frederick Monyepao


Crack cocaine first appeared on the scene in the form of cocaine freebasing in the late 1970s. Stockbrokers, investment bankers, rock stars, Hollywood elites, and a few pro athletes were regular users of the substance. As criminogenic factors associated with substance abuse began to surface, congress passed new legislation. The laws led to the increase of health coverage insurances and the expansion of hospitals. By the mid-1980s, crack use spread into America's inner cities among impoverished African Americans and Latinos. While substance abuse increased among minority communities, legislation pertaining to substance abuse evolved. The prison industry also expanded the number of cells available. A qualitative approach was taken, drawing from a range secondary sources for contextual analysis. This paper traces out the continued marginalisation and racist undertones towards minorities as perpetuated by certain drug policies. It was discovered that the new legislation on crack was instrumental in the largest incarcerations the United States ever faced. Drug offenders increased in prisons eightfold from 1986 to 2000. The paper concludes that American drug control policies are consistently irrational and ineffective when measured by levels of substance use and abuse. On the contrary, these policies have been successful as agents of social control in maintaining the stratification patterns of racial/ethnic minorities and women. To move beyond prohibition, radical law and policy reform may require a change in narratives on substance use.

Keywords: crack, drug policy, minorities, racism, substance abuse

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12 Physiological Roles of Relaxin on Prefertilizing Activities of Spermatozoa

Authors: A. G. Miah, U. Salma, K. Schellander


Relaxin was first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw. Previously it was considered as only the hormone of pregnant mammals due to its important roles in pregnancy and parturition. From the last decade, the physiological role of relaxin in male reproduction has been given experimental attention, and the results have made it clear that relaxin can no longer be considered strictly as only the hormone of female reproduction. The accessory glands (specially, the prostate glands) of the male reproductive system are the source of seminal relaxin, which is secreted into the seminal plasma and saturated with spermatozoa just after ejaculation. Several studies have reported that relaxin has important roles in improving motility in human sperm. Thereafter, the growing interest on relaxin has intensified efforts to investigate the role of relaxin in other sperm physiological phenomena like, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and their mediating factors associated with successful fertilization. Therefore, this review aims to provide up-to-date information about the physiological roles of relaxin in sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and their mediating factors, such as, utilization of glucose, cholesterol efflux, Ca2+-influx, intracellular cAMP and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Some studies have shown relaxin to increase the percentage of progressive motility and induce capacitation and acrosome reaction through increasing the utilization of glucose and mediating the cholesterol efflux, Ca2+-influx, intracellular cAMP and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, the review suggests that the supplementation of relaxin into the capacitating medium may contribute the possible beneficial roles in fresh and cryopreserved spermatozoal prefertilization events.

Keywords: relaxin, physiological roles, prefertilizing activities, spermatozoa

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11 Probability Sampling in Matched Case-Control Study in Drug Abuse

Authors: Surya R. Niraula, Devendra B Chhetry, Girish K. Singh, S. Nagesh, Frederick A. Connell


Background: Although random sampling is generally considered to be the gold standard for population-based research, the majority of drug abuse research is based on non-random sampling despite the well-known limitations of this kind of sampling. Method: We compared the statistical properties of two surveys of drug abuse in the same community: one using snowball sampling of drug users who then identified “friend controls” and the other using a random sample of non-drug users (controls) who then identified “friend cases.” Models to predict drug abuse based on risk factors were developed for each data set using conditional logistic regression. We compared the precision of each model using bootstrapping method and the predictive properties of each model using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Results: Analysis of 100 random bootstrap samples drawn from the snowball-sample data set showed a wide variation in the standard errors of the beta coefficients of the predictive model, none of which achieved statistical significance. One the other hand, bootstrap analysis of the random-sample data set showed less variation, and did not change the significance of the predictors at the 5% level when compared to the non-bootstrap analysis. Comparison of the area under the ROC curves using the model derived from the random-sample data set was similar when fitted to either data set (0.93, for random-sample data vs. 0.91 for snowball-sample data, p=0.35); however, when the model derived from the snowball-sample data set was fitted to each of the data sets, the areas under the curve were significantly different (0.98 vs. 0.83, p < .001). Conclusion: The proposed method of random sampling of controls appears to be superior from a statistical perspective to snowball sampling and may represent a viable alternative to snowball sampling.

Keywords: drug abuse, matched case-control study, non-probability sampling, probability sampling

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10 Synthesis of Double Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticles and Its Application in Paper-Based Chromatography

Authors: Ka Ho Yau, Jan Frederick Engels, Kwok Kei Lai, Reinhard Renneberg


Lateral flow test is a prevalent technology in various sectors such as food, pharmacology and biomedical sciences. Colloidal gold (CG) is widely used as the signalling molecule because of the ease of synthesis, bimolecular conjugation and its red colour due to intrinsic SPRE. However, the production of colloidal gold is costly and requires vigorous conditions. The stability of colloidal gold are easily affected by environmental factors such as pH, high salt content etc. Silica nanoparticles are well known for its ease of production and stability over a wide range of solvents. Using reverse micro-emulsion (w/o), silica nanoparticles with different sizes can be produced precisely by controlling the amount of water. By incorporating different water-soluble dyes, a rainbow colour of the silica nanoparticles could be produced. Conjugation with biomolecules such as antibodies can be achieved after surface modification of the silica nanoparticles with organosilane. The optimum amount of the antibodies to be labelled was determined by Bradford Assay. In this work, we have demonstrated the ability of the dye-doped silica nanoparticles as a signalling molecule in lateral flow test, which showed a semi-quantitative measurement of the analyte. The image was further analysed for the LOD=10 ng of the analyte. The working range and the linear range of the test were from 0 to 2.15μg/mL and from 0 to 1.07 μg/mL (R2=0.988) respectively. The performance of the tests was comparable to those using colloidal gold with the advantages of lower cost, enhanced stability and having a wide spectrum of colours. The positives lines can be imaged by naked eye or by using a mobile phone camera for a better quantification. Further research has been carried out in multicolour detection of different biomarkers simultaneously. The preliminary results were promising as there was little cross-reactivity being observed for an optimized system. This approach provides a platform for multicolour detection for a set of biomarkers that enhances the accuracy of diseases diagnostics.

Keywords: colorimetric detection, immunosensor, paper-based biosensor, silica

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9 An Investigative Study into Good Governance in the Non-Profit Sector in South Africa: A Systems Approach Perspective

Authors: Frederick M. Dumisani Xaba, Nokuthula G. Khanyile


There is a growing demand for greater accountability, transparency and ethical conduct based on sound governance principles in the developing world. Funders, donors and sponsors are increasingly demanding more transparency, better value for money and adherence to good governance standards. The drive towards improved governance measures is largely influenced by the need to ‘plug the leaks’, deal with malfeasance, engender greater levels of accountability and good governance and to ultimately attract further funding or investment. This is the case with the Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) in South Africa in general, and in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in particular. The paper draws from the good governance theory, stakeholder theory and systems thinking to critically examine the requirements for good governance for the NPO sector from a theoretical and legislative point and to systematically looks at the contours of governance currently among the NPOs. The paper did this through the rigorous examination of the vignettes of cases of governance among selected NPOs based in KwaZulu-Natal. The study used qualitative and quantitative research methodologies through document analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and statistical analysis from the various primary and secondary sources. It found some good cases of good governance but also found frightening levels of poor governance. There was an exponential growth of NPOs registered during the period under review, equally so there was an increase in cases of non-compliance to good governance practices. NPOs operate in an increasingly complex environment. There is contestation for influence and access to resources. Stakeholder management is poorly conceptualized and executed. Recognizing that the NPO sector operates in an environment characterized by complexity, constant changes, unpredictability, contestation, diversity and divergent views of different stakeholders, there is a need to apply legislative and systems thinking approaches to strengthen governance to withstand this turbulence through a capacity development model that recognizes these contextual and environmental challenges.

Keywords: good governance, non-profit organizations, stakeholder theory, systems theory

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8 Association between Cholesterol Levels and Atopy among Adolescents with and without Sufficient Amount of Physical Activity

Authors: Keith T. S. Tung, H. W. Tsang, Rosa S. Wong, Frederick K. Ho, Patrick Ip


Objectives: Atopic diseases are increasingly prevalent among children and adolescents, both locally and internationally. One of the possible contributing factors could be the hypercholesterolemia which leads to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and other immune cells that would eventually promote inflammatory responses, including augmentation of toll-like receptor (TLR). Meanwhile, physical activity is well known for its beneficial effects against the condition of hypercholesterolemia and incidence of atopic diseases. This study, therefore, explored whether atopic diseases were associated with increased cholesterol levels and whether physical activity habit influenced this association. Methods: This is a sub-study derived from the longitudinal cohort study which recruited a group of children at five years of age in Kindergarten 3 (K3) to investigate the long-term impact of family socioeconomic status on child development. In 2018/19, adolescents (average age: 13 years old) were asked to report their physical activity habit and history of any atopic diseases. During health assessment, peripheral blood samples were collected from the adolescents to study their lipid profile [total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol]. Regression analyses were performed to test the relationships between variables of interest. Results: Among the 315 adolescents, 99 (31.4%) reported to have allergic rhinitis. There were 45 (14.3%) with eczema, 17 (5.4%) with a food allergy, and 12 (3.8%) with asthma. Regression analyses showed that adolescents with a history of any type of atopic diseases had significantly higher total cholesterol (B=13.3, p < 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (B=7.9, p < 0.05) levels. Further subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the effect of physical activity level on the association between atopic diseases and cholesterol levels. We found stronger associations among those who did not meet the World Health Organization recommendation of at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activities each day (total cholesterol: B=15.5, p < 0.01; LDL cholesterol: B=10.4, p < 0.05). For those who met this recommendation, the associations between atopic diseases and cholesterol levels became insignificant. Conclusion: Our study results support the current research evidence on the relationship between an elevated level of cholesterol and atopic diseases. More importantly, our results provide preliminary support for the protective effect of regular exercises against elevated cholesterol level due to atopic diseases. The findings highlight the importance of a healthy lifestyle for keeping cholesterol levels in the normal range, which can bring benefits to both physical and mental health.

Keywords: atopic diseases, Chinese adolescents, cholesterol level, physical activity

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7 Exploration of the Possible Link Between Emotional Problems and Cholesterol Levels Among Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Rosa S. Wong, Keith T.S. Tung, H.W. Tsang, Frederick K. Ho, Patrick Ip


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. Evidence shows that ADHD and mood problems such as depression and anxiety often co-occur and yet not everyone with ADHD reported elevated emotional problems. Given that cholesterol is essential for healthy brain development including the regions governing emotion regulation, reports found lower cholesterol levels in patients with major depressive disorder and those with suicide attempt behavior compared to healthy subjects. This study explored whether ADHD adolescents experienced more emotional problems and whether emotional problems correlated with cholesterol levels in these adolescents. This study used a portion of data from the longitudinal cohort study which was designed to investigate the long-term impact of family socioeconomic status on child development. In 2018/19, parents of 300 adolescents (average age: 12.57+/-0.49 years) were asked to rate their children’s emotional problems and report whether their children had doctor-diagnosed psychiatric diseases. We further collected blood samples from 263 children to study their lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol). Regression analyses were performed to test the relationships between variables of interest. Among 300 children, 27 (9%) had ADHD diagnosis. Analysis based on overall sample found no association between ADHD and emotional problems, but when investigating the relationship by gender, there was a significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on emotional problems (p=0.037), with ADHD males displaying more emotional problems than ADHD females. Further analyses based on 263 children (21 with ADHD diagnosis) found significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on total cholesterol (p=0.038) and low LDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.013) after adjusting for the child’s physical disease history. Specifically, ADHD males had significantly lower total cholesterol and low lipoprotein-cholesterol levels than ADHD females. In ADHD males, more emotional problems were associated with lower LDL-cholesterol levels (B = -4.26, 95%CI (-7.46, -1.07), p=0.013). We found preliminary support for the association between more emotional problems and lower cholesterol levels in ADHD children, especially among males. Although larger prospective studies are needed to substantiate these claims, the evidence highlights the importance of healthy lifestyle to keep cholesterol levels in normal range which can have positive effects on physical and mental health.

Keywords: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cholesterol, emotional problems, adolescents

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6 Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of School-Based Internet Intervention for Alcohol Drinking Behaviours among Chinese Adolescent

Authors: Keith T. S. Tung, Frederick K. Ho, Rosa S. Wong, Camilla K. M. Lo, Wilfred H. S. Wong, C. B. Chow, Patrick Ip


Objectives: Underage drinking is an important public health problem both locally and globally. Conventional prevention/intervention relies on unidirectional knowledge transfer such as mail leaflets or health talks which showed mixed results in changing the target behaviour. Previously, we conducted a school internet-based intervention which was found to be effective in reducing alcohol use among adolescents, yet the underlying mechanisms have not been properly investigated. This study, therefore, examined the mechanisms that explain how the intervention produced a change in alcohol drinking behaviours among Chinese adolescent as observed in our previous clustered randomised controlled trial (RCT) study. Methods: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel group design. Participating schools were randomised to the Internet intervention or the conventional health education group (control) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Secondary 1–3 students of the participating schools were enrolled in this study. The Internet intervention was a web-based quiz game competition, in which participating students would answer 1,000 alcohol-related multiple-choice quiz questions. Conventional health education group received a promotional package on equivalent alcohol-related knowledge. The participants’ alcohol-related attitude, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control were self-reported before the intervention (baseline) and one month and three months after the intervention. Results: Our RCT results showed that participants in the Internet group were less likely to drink (risk ratio [RR] 0.79, p < 0.01) as well as in lesser amount (β -0.06, p < 0.05) compared to those in the control group at both post-intervention follow-ups. Within the intervention group, regression analyses showed that high quiz scorer had greater improvement in alcohol-related knowledge (β 0.28, p < 0.01) and attitude (β -0.26, p < 0.01) at 1 month after intervention, which in turn increased their perceived behavioural control against alcohol use (β 0.10 and -0.26, both p < 0.01). Attitude, compared to knowledge, was found to be a stronger contributor to the intervention effect on perceived behavioural control. Conclusions: Our internet-based intervention has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the risk of underage drinking when compared with conventional health education. Our study results further showed an attitude to be a more important factor than knowledge in changing health-related behaviour. This has an important implication for future prevention/intervention on an underage drinking problem.

Keywords: adolescents, internet-based intervention, randomized controlled trial, underage drinking

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5 Investigating the Flow Physics within Vortex-Shockwave Interactions

Authors: Frederick Ferguson, Dehua Feng, Yang Gao


No doubt, current CFD tools have a great many technical limitations, and active research is being done to overcome these limitations. Current areas of limitations include vortex-dominated flows, separated flows, and turbulent flows. In general, turbulent flows are unsteady solutions to the fluid dynamic equations, and instances of these solutions can be computed directly from the equations. One of the approaches commonly implemented is known as the ‘direct numerical simulation’, DNS. This approach requires a spatial grid that is fine enough to capture the smallest length scale of the turbulent fluid motion. This approach is called the ‘Kolmogorov scale’ model. It is of interest to note that the Kolmogorov scale model must be captured throughout the domain of interest and at a correspondingly small-time step. In typical problems of industrial interest, the ratio of the length scale of the domain to the Kolmogorov length scale is so great that the required grid set becomes prohibitively large. As a result, the available computational resources are usually inadequate for DNS related tasks. At this time in its development, DNS is not applicable to industrial problems. In this research, an attempt is made to develop a numerical technique that is capable of delivering DNS quality solutions at the scale required by the industry. To date, this technique has delivered preliminary results for both steady and unsteady, viscous and inviscid, compressible and incompressible, and for both high and low Reynolds number flow fields that are very accurate. Herein, it is proposed that the Integro-Differential Scheme (IDS) be applied to a set of vortex-shockwave interaction problems with the goal of investigating the nonstationary physics within the resulting interaction regions. In the proposed paper, the IDS formulation and its numerical error capability will be described. Further, the IDS will be used to solve the inviscid and viscous Burgers equation, with the goal of analyzing their solutions over a considerable length of time, thus demonstrating the unsteady capabilities of the IDS. Finally, the IDS will be used to solve a set of fluid dynamic problems related to flow that involves highly vortex interactions. Plans are to solve the following problems: the travelling wave and vortex problems over considerable lengths of time, the normal shockwave–vortex interaction problem for low supersonic conditions and the reflected oblique shock–vortex interaction problem. The IDS solutions obtained in each of these solutions will be explored further in efforts to determine the distributed density gradients and vorticity, as well as the Q-criterion. Parametric studies will be conducted to determine the effects of the Mach number on the intensity of vortex-shockwave interactions.

Keywords: vortex dominated flows, shockwave interactions, high Reynolds number, integro-differential scheme

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4 Examining the Independent Effects of Early Exposure to Game Consoles and Parent-Child Activities on Psychosocial Development

Authors: Rosa S. Wong, Keith T. S. Tung, Frederick K. Ho, Winnie W. Y. Tso, King-wa Fu, Nirmala Rao, Patrick Ip


As technology advances, exposures in early childhood are no longer confined to stimulations in the surrounding physical environments. Children nowadays are also subject to influences from the digital world. In particular, early access to game consoles can cause risks to child development, especially when the game is not developmentally appropriate for young children. Overstimulation is possible and could impair brain development. On the other hand, recreational parent-child activities, including outdoor activities and visits to museums, require child interaction with parents, which is beneficial for developing adaptive emotion regulation and social skills. Given the differences between these two types of exposures, this study investigated and compared the independent effects of early exposure to a game console and early play-based parent-child activities on children’s long-term psychosocial outcomes. This study used data from a subset of children (n=304, 142 male and 162 female) in the longitudinal cohort study, which studied the long-term impact of family socioeconomic status on child development. In 2012/13, we recruited a group of children at Kindergarten 3 (K3) randomly from Hong Kong local kindergartens and collected data regarding their duration of exposure to game console and recreational parent-child activities at that time. In 2018/19, we re-surveyed the parents of these children who were matriculated as Form 1 (F1) students (ages ranging from 11 to 13 years) in secondary schools and asked the parents to rate their children’s psychosocial problems in F1. Linear regressions were conducted to examine the associations between early exposures and adolescent psychosocial problems with and without adjustment for child gender and K3 family socioeconomic status. On average, K3 children spent about 42 minutes on a game console every day and had 2-3 recreational activities with their parents every week. Univariate analyses showed that more time spent on game consoles at K3 was associated with more psychosocial difficulties in F1 particularly more externalizing problems. The effect of early exposure to game console on externalizing behavior remained significant (B=0.59, 95%CI: 0.15 to 1.03, p=0.009) after adjusting for recreational parent-child activities and child gender. For recreational parent-child activities at K3, its effect on overall psychosocial difficulties became insignificant after adjusting for early exposure to game consoles and child gender. However, it was found to have significant protective effect on externalizing problems (B=-0.65, 95%CI: -1.23 to -0.07, p=0.028) even after adjusting for the confounders. Early exposure to game consoles has negative impact on children’s psychosocial health, whereas play-based parent-child activities can foster positive psychosocial outcomes. More efforts should be directed to propagate the risks and benefits of these activities and urge the parents and caregivers to replace child-alone screen time with parent-child play time in daily routine.

Keywords: early childhood, electronic device, parenting, psychosocial wellbeing

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3 The Budget Impact of the DISCERN™ Diagnostic Test for Alzheimer’s Disease in the United States

Authors: Frederick Huie, Lauren Fusfeld, William Burchenal, Scott Howell, Alyssa McVey, Thomas F. Goss


Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline that presents a substantial economic burden for patients and health insurers in the US. This study evaluates the payer budget impact of the DISCERN™ test in the diagnosis and management of patients with symptoms of dementia evaluated for AD. DISCERN™ comprises three assays that assess critical factors related to AD that regulate memory, formation of synaptic connections among neurons, and levels of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain and can provide a quicker, more accurate diagnosis than tests in the current diagnostic pathway (CDP). An Excel-based model with a three-year horizon was developed to assess the budget impact of DISCERN™ compared with CDP in a Medicare Advantage plan with 1M beneficiaries. Model parameters were identified through a literature review and were verified through consultation with clinicians experienced in diagnosis and management of AD. The model assesses direct medical costs/savings for patients based on the following categories: •Diagnosis: costs of diagnosis using DISCERN™ and CDP. •False Negative (FN) diagnosis: incremental cost of care avoidable with a correct AD diagnosis and appropriately directed medication. •True Positive (TP) diagnosis: AD medication costs; cost from a later TP diagnosis with the CDP versus DISCERN™ in the year of diagnosis, and savings from the delay in AD progression due to appropriate AD medication in patients who are correctly diagnosed after a FN diagnosis.•False Positive (FP) diagnosis: cost of AD medication for patients who do not have AD. A one-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the effect of varying key clinical and cost parameters ±10%. An additional scenario analysis was developed to evaluate the impact of individual inputs. In the base scenario, DISCERN™ is estimated to decrease costs by $4.75M over three years, equating to approximately $63.11 saved per test per year for a cohort followed over three years. While the diagnosis cost is higher with DISCERN™ than with CDP modalities, this cost is offset by the higher overall costs associated with CDP due to the longer time needed to receive a TP diagnosis and the larger number of patients who receive a FN diagnosis and progress more rapidly than if they had received appropriate AD medication. The sensitivity analysis shows that the three parameters with the greatest impact on savings are: reduced sensitivity of DISCERN™, improved sensitivity of the CDP, and a reduction in the percentage of disease progression that is avoided with appropriate AD medication. A scenario analysis in which DISCERN™ reduces the utilization for patients of computed tomography from 21% in the base case to 16%, magnetic resonance imaging from 37% to 27% and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker testing, positive emission tomography, electroencephalograms, and polysomnography testing from 4%, 5%, 10%, and 8%, respectively, in the base case to 0%, results in an overall three-year net savings of $14.5M. DISCERN™ improves the rate of accurate, definitive diagnosis of AD earlier in the disease and may generate savings for Medicare Advantage plans.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, budget, dementia, diagnosis.

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2 The Real Ambassador: How Hip Hop Culture Connects and Educates across Borders

Authors: Frederick Gooding


This paper explores how many Hip Hop artists have intentionally and strategically invoked sustainability principles of people, planet and profits as a means to create community, compensate for and cope with structural inequalities in society. These themes not only create community within one's country, but the powerful display and demonstration of these narratives create community on a global plane. Listeners of Hip Hop are therefore able to learn about the political events occurring in another country free of censure, and establish solidarity worldwide. Hip Hop therefore can be an ingenious tool to create self-worth, recycle positive imagery, and serve as a defense mechanism from institutional and structural forces that conspire to make an upward economic and social trajectory difficult, if not impossible for many people of color, all across the world. Although the birthplace of Hip Hop, the United States of America, is still predominately White, it has undoubtedly grown more diverse at a breath-­taking pace in recent decades. Yet, whether American mainstream media will fully reflect America’s newfound diversity remains to be seen. As it stands, American mainstream media is seen and enjoyed by diverse audiences not just in America, but all over the world. Thus, it is imperative that further inquiry is conducted about one of the fastest growing genres within one of the world’s largest and most influential media industries generating upwards of $10 billion annually. More importantly, hip hop, its music and associated culture collectively represent a shared social experience of significant value. They are important tools used both to inform and influence economic, social and political identity. Conversely, principles of American exceptionalism often prioritize American political issues over those of others, thereby rendering a myopic political view within the mainstream. This paper will therefore engage in an international contextualization of the global phenomena entitled Hip Hop by exploring the creative genius and marketing appeal of Hip Hop within the global context of information technology, political expression and social change in addition to taking a critical look at historically racialized imagery within mainstream media. Many artists the world over have been able to freely express themselves and connect with broader communities outside of their own borders, all through the sound practice of the craft of Hip Hop. An empirical understanding of political, social and economic forces within the United States will serve as a bridge for identifying and analyzing transnational themes of commonality for typically marginalized or disaffected communities facing similar struggles for survival and respect. The sharing of commonalities of marginalized cultures not only serves as a source of education outside of typically myopic, mainstream sources, but it also creates transnational bonds globally to the extent that practicing artists resonate with many of the original themes of (now mostly underground) Hip Hop as with many of the African American artists responsible for creating and fostering Hip Hop's powerful outlet of expression. Hip Hop's power of connectivity and culture-sharing transnationally across borders provides a key source of education to be taken seriously by academics.

Keywords: culture, education, global, hip hop, mainstream music, transnational

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1 Modern Hybrid of Older Black Female Stereotypes in Hollywood Film

Authors: Frederick W. Gooding, Jr., Mark Beeman


Nearly a century ago, the groundbreaking 1915 film ‘The Birth of a Nation’ popularized the way Hollywood made movies with its avant-garde, feature-length style. The movie's subjugating and demeaning depictions of African American women (and men) reflected popular racist beliefs held during the time of slavery and the early Jim Crow era. Although much has changed concerning race relations in the past century, American sociologist Patricia Hill Collins theorizes that the disparaging images of African American women originating in the era of plantation slavery are adaptable and endure as controlling images today. In this context, a comparative analysis of the successful contemporary film, ‘Bringing Down the House’ starring Queen Latifah is relevant as this 2004 film was designed to purposely defy and ridicule classic stereotypes of African American women. However, the film is still tied to the controlling images from the past, although in a modern hybrid form. Scholars of race and film have noted that the pervasive filmic imagery of the African American woman as the loyal mammy stereotype faded from the screen in the post-civil rights era in favor of more sexualized characters (i.e., the Jezebel trope). Analyzing scenes and dialogue through the lens of sociological and critical race theory, the troubling persistence of African American controlling images in film stubbornly emerge in a movie like ‘Bringing Down the House.’ Thus, these controlling images, like racism itself, can adapt to new social and economic conditions. Although the classic controlling images appeared in the first feature length film focusing on race relations a century ago, ‘The Birth of a Nation,’ this black and white rendition of the mammy figure was later updated in 1939 with the classic hit, ‘Gone with the Wind’ in living color. These popular controlling images have loomed quite large in the minds of international audiences, as ‘Gone with the Wind’ is still shown in American theaters currently, and experts at the British Film Institute in 2004 rated ‘Gone with the Wind’ as the number one movie of all time in UK movie history based upon the total number of actual viewings. Critical analysis of character patterns demonstrate that images that appear superficially benign contribute to a broader and quite persistent pattern of marginalization within the aggregate. This approach allows experts and viewers alike to detect more subtle and sophisticated strands of racial discrimination that are ‘hidden in plain sight’ despite numerous changes in the Hollywood industry that appear to be more voluminous and diverse than three or four decades ago. In contrast to white characters, non-white or minority characters are likely to be subtly compromised or marginalized relative to white characters if and when seen within mainstream movies, rather than be subjected to obvious and offensive racist tropes. The hybrid form of both the older Jezebel and Mammy stereotypes exhibited by lead actress Queen Latifah in ‘Bringing Down the House’ represents a more suave and sophisticated merging of past imagery ideas deemed problematic in the past as well as the present.

Keywords: African Americans, Hollywood film, hybrid, stereotypes

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