Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 604

Search results for: lipid raft

604 Critical Role of Lipid Rafts in Influenza a Virus Binding to Host Cell

Authors: Dileep Kumar Verma, Sunil Kumar Lal

Abstract:

Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Influenza A Virus (IAV) surface protein hemagglutinin is known to play an important role in viral attachment to the host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Selective nature of Influenza A virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding has been explored in depth. However, the detailed mechanism of IAV binding to host cell membrane and entry into the host remains elusive. In the present study we investigated the role of lipid rafts in early life cycle events of IAV. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol by Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin. Using GM1, a well-known lipid raft marker, we were able to observe co-localization of IAV on lipid rafts on the host cell membrane. This experiment suggests a direct involvement of lipid rafts in the initiation of the IAV life cycle. Upon disruption of lipid rafts by Methyl-b-cyclodextrin, we observed a significant reduction in IAV binding on the host cell surface indicating a significant decrease in virus attachment to coherent membrane rafts. Our results provide proof that host lipid rafts and their constituents play an important role in the adsorption of IAV. This study opens a new avenues in IAV virus-host interactions to combat infection at a very early steps of the viral lifecycle.

Keywords: lipid raft, adsorption, cholesterol, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, GM1

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603 Host Cell Membrane Lipid Rafts Are Required for Influenza A Virus Adsorption to Host Cell Surface

Authors: Dileep K. Verma, Sunil K. Lal

Abstract:

Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Previous studies suggest that influenza hemagglutinin is essential for viral attachment to host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Studies also reported selective nature of Influenza virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding. However, the detailed mechanism of Influenza A Virus (IAV) binding to host cell membrane and entry inside the host remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated if host membrane lipid rafts play any significant role in early life cycle events of influenza A virus. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol and Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin was used to remove membrane cholesterol. We observed co-localization of Influenza A Virus to lipid rafts by visualization of known lipid raft marker GM1 on host cell membrane. Co-localization suggest direct involvement of these micro-domain in initiation of IAV life cycle. We found significant reduction in influenza A virus adsorption in raft disrupted target host cells indicating poor binding and attachment in absence of coherent membrane rafts. Taken together, the results of present study provide evidence for critical involvement of host lipid rafts and its constituents in adsorption process of Influenza A Virus and suggests crucial involvement in other early events of IAV life cycle. The present study opens a new domain to study influenza virus-host interaction and to combat flu at the very early steps of viral life cycle.

Keywords: lipid raft, adsorption, cholesterol, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, GM1

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602 Development of Interaction Factors Charts for Piled Raft Foundation

Authors: Abdelazim Makki Ibrahim, Esamaldeen Ali

Abstract:

This study aims at analysing the load settlement behavior and predict the bearing capacity of piled raft foundation a series of finite element models with different foundation configurations and stiffness were established. Numerical modeling is used to study the behavior of the piled raft foundation due to the complexity of piles, raft, and soil interaction and also due to the lack of reliable analytical method that can predict the behavior of the piled raft foundation system. Simple analytical models are developed to predict the average settlement and the load sharing between the piles and the raft in piled raft foundation system. A simple example to demonstrate the applications of these charts is included.

Keywords: finite element, pile-raft foundation, method, PLAXIS software, settlement

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601 Effect of Boundary Retaining Walls Properties on the Raft Foundations Behaviour

Authors: Mohamed Hussein

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of boundary retaining walls properties on the behavior of the raft foundation. Commercial software program Sap2000 was used in this study. The soil was presented as continuous media (follows the Winkler assumption). Shell elements were employed to model the raft plate. A parametric study has been carried out to examine the effect of boundary retaining walls properties on the behavior of raft plate. These parameters namely, height of the boundary retaining walls, thickness of the boundary retaining walls, flexural rigidity of raft plate, bearing capacity of supporting soil and the earth pressure of boundary soil. The main results which were obtained from this study are positive, negative bending moment, shear stress and deflection in raft plate, where these parameters are considered the main parameters used in design of raft foundation. It was concluded that the boundary retaining walls have a significant effect on the straining actions in raft plate.

Keywords: Sap2000, boundary retaining walls, raft foundations, Winkler model, flexural rigidity

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600 Optimum Design of Piled-Raft Systems

Authors: Alaa Chasib Ghaleb, Muntadher M. Abbood

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This paper presents a study of the problem of the optimum design of piled-raft foundation systems. The study has been carried out using a hypothetic problem and soil investigations of six sites locations in Basrah city to evaluate the adequacy of using the piled-raft foundation concept. Three dimensional finite element analysis method has been used, to perform the structural analysis. The problem is optimized using Hooke and Jeeves method with the total weight of the foundation as objective function and each of raft thickness, piles length, number of piles and piles diameter as design variables. It is found that the total and differential settlement decreases with increasing the raft thickness, the number of piles, the piles length, and the piles diameter. Finally parametric study for load values, load type and raft dimensions have been studied and the results have been discussed.

Keywords: Hooke and Jeeves, optimum design, piled-raft, foundations

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599 Full-Scale Test of a Causeway Embankment Supported by Raft-Aggregate Column Foundation on Soft Clay Deposit

Authors: Tri Harianto, Lawalenna Samang, St. Hijraini Nur, Arwin

Abstract:

Recently, a port development is constructed in Makassar city, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Makassar city is located in lowland area that dominated by soft marine clay deposit. A two kilometers causeway construction was built which is situated on the soft clay layer. In order to investigate the behavior of causeway embankment, a full-scale test was conducted of high embankment built on a soft clay deposit. The embankment with 3,5 m high was supported by two types of reinforcement such as raft and raft-aggregate column foundation. Since the ground was undergoing consolidation due to the preload, the raft and raft-aggregate column foundations were monitored in order to analyze the vertical ground movement by inducing the settlement of the foundation. In this study, two types of foundation (raft and raft-aggregate column) were tested to observe the effectiveness of raft-aggregate column compare to raft foundation in reducing the settlement. The settlement monitored during the construction stage by using the settlement plates, which is located in the center and toe of the embankment. Measurements were taken every day for each embankment construction stage (4 months). In addition, an analytical calculation was conducted in this study to compare the full-scale test result. The result shows that the raft-aggregate column foundation significantly reduces the settlement by 30% compared to the raft foundation. A raft-aggregate column foundation also reduced the time period of each loading stage. The Good agreement of analytical calculation compared to the full-scale test result also found in this study.

Keywords: full-scale, preloading, raft-aggregate column, soft clay

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598 Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Strip Piled-Raft Embedded in Soft Clay

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hosseinzade

Abstract:

Settlement and bearing capacity of a piled raft are the two important issues for the foundations of the structures built on coastal areas from the geotechnical engineering point of view. Strip piled raft as a load carrying system could be used to reduce the possible extensive consolidation settlements and improve bearing capacity of structures in soft ground. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of strip piled raft embedded in soft clay. The efficiency of bearing capacity of strip piled raft foundation is evaluated numerically in two cases: in first case, the cap is placed directly on the ground surface and in the second, the cap is placed above the ground. Regarding to the fact that the geotechnical parameters of the soft clay are considered at low level, low bearing capacity is expected. The length, diameter and axe-to-axe distance of piles are the parameters which varied in this research to find out how they affect the bearing capacity. Results indicate that increasing the length and the diameter of the piles increase the bearing capacity. The complementary results will be presented in the final version of the paper.

Keywords: soft clay, strip piled raft, bearing capacity, settlement

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597 Dynamic Response of Structure-Raft-Pile-Soil with Respect to System Frequency

Authors: B. Razmi, F. Rafiee, M. Baziar, A. Saeedi Azizkandi

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In the present research, a series of 3-D finite element numerical modeling was performed to study the effect of system frequency and excitation specifications on the internal forces of the piled raft (PR) system in a dry sand layer. The results of numerical simulations were first compared with those associated with centrifuge tests. The natural frequency of superstructure, modeled on the piled raft foundation, was smaller than the natural frequency of the fixed-base super-structure. This difference was greater for super-structures with higher frequencies. In PR systems, the excitation with a frequency close to the system frequency produced the largest responses. Furthermore, based on the results of presented numerical analyses, ignoring the interactions and characteristics of all components of a pile-raft-structure, may lead to highly uneconomical design.

Keywords: centrifuge test, excitation frequency, natural frequency of super-structure, piled raft foundation, 3-D finite element model

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596 High-Frequency Monitoring Results of a Piled Raft Foundation under Wind Loading

Authors: Laurent Pitteloud, Jörg Meier

Abstract:

Piled raft foundations represent an efficient and reliable technique for transferring high vertical and horizontal loads to the subsoil. Piled raft foundations were success­fully implemented for several high-rise buildings world­wide over the last decades. For the structural design of this foundation type the stiffnesses of both the piles and the raft have to be deter­mined for the static (e.g. dead load, live load) and the dynamic load cases (e.g. earthquake). In this context the question often arises, to which proportion wind loads are to be considered as dynamic loads. Usually a piled raft foundation has to be monitored in order to verify the design hypotheses. As an additional benefit, the analysis of this monitoring data may lead to a better under­standing of the behaviour of this foundation type for future projects in similar subsoil conditions. In case the measurement frequency is high enough, one may also draw conclusions on the effect of wind loading on the piled raft foundation. For a 41-storey office building in Basel, Switzerland, the preliminary design showed that a piled raft foundation was the best solution to satisfy both design requirements, as well as economic aspects. A high-frequency monitoring of the foundation including pile loads, vertical stresses under the raft, as well as pore water pressures was performed over 5 years. In windy situations the analysis of the measure­ments shows that the pile load increment due to wind consists of a static and a cyclic load term. As piles and raft react with different stiffnesses under static and dynamic loading, these measure­ments are useful for the correct definition of stiffnesses of future piled raft foundations. This paper outlines the design strategy and the numerical modelling of the aforementioned piled raft foundation. The measurement results are presented and analysed. Based on the findings, comments and conclusions on the definition of pile and raft stiffnesses for vertical and wind loading are proposed.

Keywords: design, dynamic, foundation, monitoring, pile, raft, wind load

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595 Potential Risks of Using Disconnected Composite Foundation Systems in Active Seismic Zones

Authors: Mohamed ElMasry, Ahmad Ragheb, Tareq AbdelAziz, Mohamed Ghazy

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Choosing the suitable infrastructure system is becoming more challenging with the increase in demand for heavier structures contemporarily. This is the case where piled raft foundations have been widely used around the world to support heavy structures without extensive settlement. In the latter system, piles are rigidly connected to the raft, and most of the load goes to the soil layer on which the piles are bearing. In spite of that, when soil profiles contain thicker soft clay layers near the surface, or at relatively shallow depths, it is unfavorable to use the rigid piled raft foundation system. Consequently, the disconnected piled raft system was introduced as an alternative approach for the rigidly connected system. In this system, piles are disconnected from the raft using a cushion of soil, mostly of a granular interlayer. The cushion is used to redistribute the stresses among the piles and the subsoil. Piles are also used to stiffen the subsoil, and by this way reduce the settlement without being rigidly connected to the raft. However, the seismic loading effect on such disconnected foundation systems remains a problem, since the soil profiles may include thick clay layers which raise risks of amplification of the dynamic earthquake loads. In this paper, the effects of seismic behavior on the connected and disconnected piled raft systems are studied through a numerical model using Midas GTS NX Software. The study concerns the soil-structure interaction and the expected behavior of the systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each foundation approach are studied, and a comparison between the results are presented to show the effects of using disconnected piled raft systems in highly seismic zones. This was done by showing the excitation amplification in each of the foundation systems.

Keywords: soil-structure interaction, disconnected piled-raft, risks, seismic zones

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594 Barclays Bank Zambia: Considerations for Raft Foundation Design on Dolomite Land

Authors: Yashved Serhun, Kim A. Timm

Abstract:

Barclays Bank has identified the need for a head office building in Lusaka, Zambia, and construction of a 7200 m2 three-storey reinforced concrete office building with a structural steel roof is currently underway. A unique characteristic of the development is that the building footprint is positioned on dolomitic land. Dolomite rock has the tendency to react with and breakdown in the presence of slightly acidic water, including rainwater. This leads to a potential for subsidence and sinkhole formation. Subsidence and the formation of sinkholes beneath a building can be detrimental during both the construction and operational phases. This paper outlines engineering principles which were considered during the structural design of the raft foundation for the Barclays head office building. In addition, this paper includes multidisciplinary considerations and the impact of these on the structural engineering design of the raft foundation. By ensuring that the design of raft foundations on dolomitic land incorporates the requirements of all disciplines and relevant design codes during the design process, the risk associated with subsidence and sinkhole formation can be effectively mitigated during the operational phase of the building.

Keywords: dolomite, dolomitic land, raft foundation, structural engineering design

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593 Finite Element Analysis of Raft Foundation on Various Soil Types under Earthquake Loading

Authors: Qassun S. Mohammed Shafiqu, Murtadha A. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

The design of shallow foundations to withstand different dynamic loads has given considerable attention in recent years. Dynamic loads may be due to the earthquakes, pile driving, blasting, water waves, and machine vibrations. But, predicting the behavior of shallow foundations during earthquakes remains a difficult task for geotechnical engineers. A database for dynamic and static parameters for different soils in seismic active zones in Iraq is prepared which has been collected from geophysical and geotechnical investigation works. Then, analysis of a typical 3-D soil-raft foundation system under earthquake loading is carried out using the database. And a parametric study has been carried out taking into consideration the influence of some parameters on the dynamic behavior of the raft foundation, such as raft stiffness, damping ratio as well as the influence of the earthquake acceleration-time records. The results of the parametric study show that the settlement caused by the earthquake can be decreased by about 72% with increasing the thickness from 0.5 m to 1.5 m. But, it has been noticed that reduction in the maximum bending moment by about 82% was predicted by decreasing the raft thickness from 1.5 m to 0.5 m in all sites model. Also, it has been observed that the maximum lateral displacement, the maximum vertical settlement and the maximum bending moment for damping ratio 0% is about 14%, 20%, and 18% higher than that for damping ratio 7.5%, respectively for all sites model.

Keywords: shallow foundation, seismic behavior, raft thickness, damping ratio

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592 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

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Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

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591 Evaluation of Stone Column Behavior Strengthened Circular Raft Footing under Static Load

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

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Stone columns have been widely employing to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

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590 Seismic Evaluation of Connected and Disconnected Piled Raft Foundations

Authors: Ali Fallah Yeznabad, Mohammad H. Baziar, Alireza Saedi Azizkandi

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Rafts may be used when a low bearing capacity exists underneath the foundation and may be combined by piles in some special circumstances; such as to reduce settlements or high groundwater to control buoyancy. From structural point of view, these piles could be both connected or disconnected from the raft and are to be classified as Piled Rafts (PR) or Disconnected Piled Rafts (DPR). Although the researches about the behavior of piled rafts subjected to vertical loading is really extensive, in the context of dynamic load and earthquake loading, the studies are very limited. In this study, to clarify these foundations’ performance under dynamic loading, series of Shaking Table tests have been performed. The square raft and four piles in connected and disconnected configurations were used in dry silica sand and the model was experimented using a shaking table under 1-g conditions. Moreover, numerical investigation using finite element software have been conducted to better understand the differences and advantages. Our observations demonstrates that in connected Piled Rafts piles have to bear greater amount of moment in their upper parts, however this moments are approximately 40% lower in disconnected piled rafts in the same conditions and loading. Considering the Rafts’ lateral movement which be of crucial importance in foundations performance evaluation, connected piled rafts show much better performance with about 30% less lateral movement. Further, it was observed on confirmed both through laboratory tests and numerical analysis, that adding the superstructure over the piled raft foundation the raft separates from the soil and it significantly increases rocking of the raft which was observed to be the main reason of increase in piles’ moments under superstructure interaction with the foundation.

Keywords: Piled Rafts (PR), Disconnected Piled Rafts (DPR), dynamic loading, shaking table, seismic performance

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589 Effect of Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on Growth and Lipid Production from Mixotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Thidarat Papone, Mutiyaporn Puangbut

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Mixotrophic cultivation of the isolated freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 in batch shake flask for biomass and lipid productions, different concentration of glucose as carbon substrate, different nitrogen source and concentrations were investigated. Using 1.0g/L of NaNO3 as nitrogen source, the maximum biomass yield of 10.04g/L with biomass productivity of 1.673g/L d was obtained using 40g/L glucose, while a biomass of 7.09, 8.55 and 9.45g/L with biomass productivity of 1.182, 1.425 and 1.575g/L d were found at 20, 30 and 50g/L glucose, respectively. The maximum lipid yield of 3.99g/L with lipid productivity of 0.665g/L d was obtained when 40g/L glucose was used. Lipid yield of 1.50, 3.34 and 3.66g/L with lipid productivity of 0.250, 0.557 and 0.610g/L d were found when using the initial concentration of glucose at 20, 30 and 50g/L, respectively. Process product yield (YP/S) of 0.078, 0.119, 0.158 and 0.094 were observed when glucose concentration was 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, respectively. The results obtained from the study shows that mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 is a desirable cultivation process for microbial lipid and biomass production.

Keywords: mixotrophic cultivation, microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

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588 Performance Analysis of Air-Tunnel Heat Exchanger Integrated into Raft Foundation

Authors: Chien-Yeh Hsu, Yuan-Ching Chiang, Zi-Jie Chien, Sih-Li Chen

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In this study, a field experiment and performance analysis of air-tunnel heat exchanger integrated with water-filled raft foundation of residential building were performed. In order to obtain better performance, conventional applications of air-tunnel inevitably have high initial cost or issues about insufficient installation space. To improve the feasibility of air tunnel heat exchanger in high-density housing, an integrated system consisting of air pipes immersed in the water-filled raft foundation was presented, taking advantage of immense amount of water and relatively stable temperature in raft foundation of building. The foundation-integrated air tunnel was applied to a residential building located in Yilan, Taiwan, and its thermal performance was measured in the field experiment. The results indicated that the cooling potential of integrated system was close to the potential of soil-based EAHE at 2 m depth or deeper. An analytical model based on thermal resistance method was validated by measurement results, and was used to carry out the dimensioning of foundation-integrated air tunnel. The discrepancies between calculated value and measured data were less than 2.7%. In addition, the return-on-investment with regard to thermal performance and economics of the application was evaluated. Because the installation for air tunnel is scheduled in the building foundation construction, the utilization of integrated system spends less construction cost compare to the conventional earth-air tunnel.

Keywords: air tunnel, ground heat exchanger, raft foundation, residential building

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587 Total Lipid of Mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Authors: Azlin S Azmi, Mus’ab Zainal, Sarina Sulaiman, Azura Amid, Zaki Zainudin

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Microalgae lipid is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this work was to study growth factors affecting marine mutant Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002) for high lipid production. Four growth factors were investigated; nitrogen-phosporus-potassium (NPK) concentration, light intensity, temperature and NaNO3 concentration on mutant strain growth and lipid production were studied. Design Expert v8.0 was used to design the experimental and analyze the data. The experimental design selected was Min-Run Res IV which consists of 12 runs and the response surfaces measured were specific growth rate and lipid concentration. The extraction of lipid was conducted by chloroform/methanol solvents system. Based on the study, mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 gave the highest specific growth rate of 0.0014 h-1 at 0% NPK, 2500 lux, 40oC and 0% NaNO3. On the other hand, the highest lipid concentration was obtained at 0% NPK, 3500 lux, 30°C and 1% NaNO3.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, lipid, mutant, marine Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002), specific growth rate

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586 Protein and Lipid Extraction from Microalgae with Ultrasound Assisted Osmotic Shock Method

Authors: Nais Pinta Adetya, H. Hadiyanto

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Microalgae has a potential to be utilized as food and natural colorant. The microalgae components consists of three main parts, these are lipid, protein, and carbohydrate. Crucial step in producing lipid and protein from microalgae is extraction. Microalgae has high water level (70-90%), it causes drying process of biomass needs much more energy and also has potential to distract lipid and protein from microalgae. Extraction of lipid from wet biomass is able to take place efficiently with cell disruption of microalgae by osmotic shock method. In this study, osmotic shock method was going to be integrated with ultrasound to maximalize the extraction yield of lipid and protein from wet biomass Spirulina sp. with osmotic shock method assisted ultrasound. This study consisted of two steps, these were osmotic shock process toward wet biomass and ultrasound extraction assisted. NaCl solution was used as osmotic agent, with the variation of concentrations were 10%, 20%, and 30%. Extraction was conducted in 40°C for 20 minutes with frequency of ultrasound wave was 40kHz. The optimal yield of protein (2.7%) and (lipid 38%) were achieved at 20% osmotic agent concentration.

Keywords: extraction, lipid, osmotic shock, protein, ultrasound

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585 Cell Biomass and Lipid Productivities of Meyerella planktonica under Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Growth Conditions

Authors: Rory Anthony Hutagalung, Leonardus Widjaja

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Microalgae Meyerella planktonica is a potential biofuel source because it can grow in bulk in either autotrophic or heterotrophic condition. However, the quantitative growth of this algal type is still low as it tends to precipitates on the bottom. Beside, the lipid concentration is still low when grown in autotrophic condition. In contrast, heterotrophic condition can enhance the lipid concentration. The combination of autotrophic condition and agitation treatment was conducted to increase the density of the culture. On the other hand, a heterotrophic condition was set up to raise the lipid production. A two-stage experiment was applied to increase the density at the first step and to increase the lipid concentration in the next step. The autotrophic condition resulted higher density but lower lipid concentration compared to heterotrophic one. The agitation treatment produced higher density in both autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. The two-stage experiment managed to enhance the density during the autotrophic stage and the lipid concentration during the heterotrophic stage. The highest yield was performed by using 0.4% v/v glycerol as a carbon source (2.9±0.016 x 106 cells w/w) attained 7 days after the heterotrophic stage began. The lipid concentration was stable starting from day 7.

Keywords: agitation, glycerol, heterotrophic, lipid productivity, Meyerella planktonica

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584 Lipid Nanoparticles for Spironolactone Delivery: Physicochemical Characteristics, Stability and Invitro Release

Authors: H. R. Kelidari, M. Saeedi, J. Akbari, K. Morteza-Semnani, H. Valizadeh

Abstract:

Spironolactoe (SP) a synthetic steroid diuretic is a poorly water-soluble drug with a low and variable oral bioavailability. Regarding to the good solubility of SP in lipid materials, SP loaded Solid lipid nanoparticles (SP-SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carrier (SP-SLNs) were thus prepared in this work for accelerating dissolution of this drug. The SP loaded NLC with stearic acid (SA) as solid lipid and different Oleic Acid (OA) as liquid lipid content and SLN without OA were prepared by probe ultrasonication method. With increasing the percentage of OA from 0 to 30 wt% in SLN/NLC, the average size and zeta potential of nanoparticles felled down and entrapment efficiency (EE %) rose dramatically. The obtained micrograph particles showed pronounced spherical shape. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) measurements indicated that the presence of OA reduced the melting temperature and melting enthalpy of solid lipid in NLC structure. The results reflected good long-term stability of the nanoparticles and the measurements show that the particle size remains lower in NLC compare to SLN formulations, 6 months after production. Dissolution of SP-SLN and SP-NLC was about 5.1 and 7.2 times faster than raw drugs in 120 min respectively. These results indicated that the SP loaded NLC containing 70:30 solid lipid to liquid lipid ratio is a suitable carrier of SP with improved drug EE and steady drug release properties.

Keywords: drug release, lipid nanoparticles, spironolactone, stability

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583 Time-Course Lipid Accumulation and Transcript Analyses of Lipid Biosynthesis Gene of Chlorella sp.3 under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Swati Dubey, Mukta Singh, R. P. Singh

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The freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. is alluring considerable interest as a source for biofuel production due to its fast growth rate and high lipid content. Under nitrogen limited conditions, they can accumulate significant amounts of lipids. Thus, it is important to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of their lipid metabolism. In this study under nitrogen limited conditions, regular pattern of growth characteristics lipid accumulation and gene expression analysis of key regulatory genes of lipid biosynthetic pathway were carried out in microalgae Chlorella sp 3. Our results indicated that under nitrogen limited conditions there is a significant increase in the lipid content and lipid productivity, achieving 44.21±2.64 % and 39.34±0.66 mg/l/d at the end of the cultivation, respectively. Time-course transcript patterns of lipid biosynthesis genes i.e. acetyl coA carboxylase (accD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (dgat) showed that during late log phase of microalgae Chlorella sp.3 both the genes were significantly up regulated as compared to early log phase. Moreover, the transcript level of the dgat gene is two-fold higher than the accD gene. The results suggested that both the genes responded sensitively to the nitrogen limited conditions during the late log stage, which proposed their close relevance to lipid biosynthesis. Further, this transcriptome data will be useful for engineering microalgae species by targeting these genes for genetic modification to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

Keywords: biofuel, gene, lipid, microalgae

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582 Papaya Leaf in Broiler Chicken Feed Reducing Lipid Peroxidation of Meat

Authors: M. Ebrahimi, E. Maroufyan, M. Shakeri, E. Oskoueian, A. F Soleimani, Y. M. Goh

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Lipid peroxidation is a main reason of low quality in meat and meat products. The free radical chain reaction is the major process of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical and hydroperoxyl radical are the main starter of the chain reaction. Papaya leaf contains several secondary metabolites which can be used as a potential antioxidant in broiler feed. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of papaya leaf to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of breast meat of broiler chicken. The results showed that supplementation of papaya leaf at 5%, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the lipid peroxidation compared to control group. The supplementation of papaya leaf prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the broiler breast meat significantly (p < 0.05) after different storage periods. Papaya leaf reduced the lipid oxidation of meat during storage with strong free radical-scavenging ability. In conclusion, supplementation of papaya leaf in broiler diet to have high quality meat is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, papaya leaf, breast meat, lipid peroxidation

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581 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Mahigir

Abstract:

Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased. 

Keywords: finite element analysis, harmonic loading, settlement, stone column

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580 Topical Delivery of Griseofulvin via Lipid Nanoparticles

Authors: Yann Jean Tan, Hui Meng Er, Choy Sin Lee, Shew Fung Wong, Wen Huei Lim

Abstract:

Griseofulvin is a long standing fungistatic agent against dermatophytosis. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks such as poor and highly variable bio availability, long duration of treatment, systemic side effects and drug interactions. Targeted treatment for the superficial skin infection, dermatophytosis via topical route could be beneficial. Nevertheless, griseofulvin is only available in the form of oral preparation. Hence, it generates interest in developing a topical formulation for griseofulvin, by using lipid nano particle as the vehicle. Lipid nanoparticle is a submicron colloidal carrier with a core that is solid in nature (lipid). It has combined advantages of various traditional carriers and is a promising vehicle for topical delivery. The griseofulvin loaded lipid nano particles produced using high pressure homogenization method were characterized and investigated for its skin targeting effect in vitro. It has a mean particle size of 179.8±4.9 nm with polydispersity index of 0.306±0.011. Besides, it showed higher skin permeation and better skin targeting effect compared to the griseofulvin suspension.

Keywords: lipid nanoparticles, griseofulvin, topical, dermatophytosis

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579 Spinach Lipid Extract as an Alternative Flow Aid for Fat Suspensions

Authors: Nizaha Juhaida Mohamad, David Gray, Bettina Wolf

Abstract:

Chocolate is a material composite with a high fraction of solid particles dispersed in a fat phase largely composed of cocoa butter. Viscosity properties of chocolate can be manipulated by the amount of fat - increased levels of fat lead to lower viscosity. However, a high content of cocoa butter can increase the cost of the chocolate and instead surfactants are used to manipulate viscosity behaviour. Most commonly, lecithin and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) are used. Lecithin is a natural lipid emulsifier which is based on phospholipids while PGPR is a chemically produced emulsifier which based on the long continuous chain of ricinoleic acid. Lecithin and PGPR act to lower the viscosity and yield stress, respectively. Recently, natural lipid emulsifiers based on galactolipid as the functional ingredient have become of interest. Spinach lipid is found to have a high amount of galactolipid, specifically MGDG and DGDG. The aim of this research is to explore the influence of spinach lipid in comparison with PGPR and lecithin on the rheological properties of sugar/oil suspensions which serve as chocolate model system. For that purpose, icing sugar was dispersed from 40%, 45% and 50% (w/w) in oil which has spinach lipid at concentrations from 0.1 – 0.7% (w/w). Based on viscosity at 40 s-1 and yield value reported as shear stress measured at 5 s-1, it was found that spinach lipid shows viscosity reducing and yield stress lowering effects comparable to lecithin and PGPR, respectively. This characteristic of spinach lipid demonstrates great potential for it to act as single natural lipid emulsifier in chocolate.

Keywords: chocolate viscosity, lecithin, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), spinach lipid

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578 Case Study: Hybrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall System Built on Basal Reinforced Raft

Authors: S. Kaymakçı, D. Gündoğdu, H. Özçelik

Abstract:

The truck park of a warehouse for a chain of supermarket was going to be constructed on a poor ground. Rather than using a piled foundation, the client was convinced that a ground improvement using a reinforced foundation raft also known as “basal reinforcement” shall work. The retaining structures supporting the truck park area were designed using a hybrid structure made up of the Terramesh® Wall System and MacGrid™ high strength geogrids. The total wall surface area is nearly 2740 sq.m , reaching a maximum height of 13.00 meters. The area is located in the first degree seismic zone of Turkey and the design seismic acceleration is high. The design of walls has been carried out using pseudo-static method (limit equilibrium) taking into consideration different loading conditions using Eurocode 7. For each standard approach stability analysis in seismic condition were performed. The paper presents the detailed design of the reinforced soil structure, basal reinforcement and the construction methods; advantages of using such system for the project are discussed.

Keywords: basal reinforcement, geogrid, reinforced soil raft, reinforced soil wall, soil reinforcement

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577 An Analytical Study on the Effect of Chronic Liver Disease Severity and Etiology on Lipid Profiles

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Venkateswaran A. R., Bharat Narasimhan, Ratnakar Kini S., Kani Sheikh M., Prem Kumar K., Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Arun Murugan, Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal, Amit Soni

Abstract:

Background and Aims: The liver is integral to lipid metabolism, and a compromise in its function leads to perturbations in these pathways. In this study, we hope to determine the correlation between CLD severity and its effect on lipid parameters. We also look at the etiology-specific effects on lipid levels. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 250 patients with cirrhosis compared to 250 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Severity assessment of CLD using MELD and Child-Pugh scores was performed and etiological details collected. A questionnaire was used to obtain patient demographic details and lastly, a fasting lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, Triglycerides and VLDL) was obtained. Results: All components of the lipid profile declined linearly with increasing severity of CLD as determined by MELD and Child-Pugh scores. Lipid levels were clearly lower in CLD patients as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, preliminary analysis indicated that CLD of different etiologies had differential effects on Lipid profiles. This aspect is under further analysis. Conclusion: All components of the lipid profile were definitely lower in CLD patients as compared to controls and demonstrated an inverse correlation with increasing severity. The utilization of this parameter as a prognosticating aid requires further study. Additionally, preliminary analysis indicates that various CLD etiologies appear to have specific effects on the lipid profile – a finding under further analysis.

Keywords: CLD, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, lipid profile, triglycerides, VLDL

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576 Blood Lipid Profile and Liver Lipid Peroxidation in Normal Rat Fed with Different Concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal

Authors: Eqbal M. A. Dauqan, A. Aminah

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the blood lipid profile and liver lipid peroxidation in normal rat fed with different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. Thirty six Sprague Dawley male rats each weighing between 180-200g were randomly divided into two groups. Each group contains eighteen rats and were divided into three groups of 6 rats per group. The rats were fed ad libitum with commercial rat’s feed and tap water containing different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal (3% and 6%) for 4 weeks. The results at 4 weeks showed that there was no significant difference (p≤0.05) in the total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) between the control group and treated groups while the results for the high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) showed a significant decrease (P≥0.05) at the 3% and 6% of gum arabic treated groups compared to control group. There was a significant increase (P≥0.05) in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) with 3% and 6% of gum Arabic (GA) groups compared to the control group. The study indicated that there was no significant (p≤0.05) effect on TC and TG but there was significant effect (P≥0.05) on HDL-C and LDL-C in blood lipid profile of normal rat. The results showed that after 4 weeks of treatment the malondialdehyde (MDA) value in rat fed with 6% of A. seyal group was significantly higher (P≥0.05) than control or other treated groups of A. seyal and A. senegal studied. Thus, the two species of gum arabic did not have beneficial effect on blood lipid profile and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Acacia senegal, acacia seyal, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA)

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575 Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves Inhibits Fe2+ and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver

Authors: Oluwafemi Ojo, Omotade Oloyede

Abstract:

This study seeks to investigate the antioxidative properties and the ability of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from Ocimum gratissimum (OG) leaves to inhibit some pro-oxidants (Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside) induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver homogenates in vitro. The ability of the extracts to inhibit 25 µM FeSO4 and 7.0 µM sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in isolated rat’s liver was determined. The results of the study revealed that both pro-oxidants caused a significantly decrease in (p < 0.05) accumulation of lipid peroxides. However, aqueous extract of OG shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production in the liver induced with SNP than Fe2+. Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extract of OG which shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production more when induced with Fe2+ than SNP. However, ethyl acetate fraction of OG shows a higher inhibitory effect on both Fe2+ and SNP induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver. This applies to its significantly higher extractable phytochemicals. Therefore, Fe II and sodium nitroprusside induced oxidative stress could be managed by dietary intake of Ocimum gratissimum leaves.

Keywords: antioxidative, pro-oxidants, lipid peroxidation, Ocimum gratissimum

Procedia PDF Downloads 378