Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7689

Search results for: lift and drag parameters

7689 Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels

Authors: Anshul Jain, P. Deepak Kumar, P. K. S. Dikshit

Abstract:

To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.

Keywords: drag, lift, vanes, open channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
7688 Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Wing-In-Ground Effect (WIG) Craft

Authors: A. Elbatran, Y. Ahmed, A. Radwan, M. Ishak

Abstract:

The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will support in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future. This paper investigates the aerodynamic characteristic of compound wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model. Drag coefficient, lift coefficient and Lift and drag ratio were studied numerically with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The modifications of the wing has been done in order to investigate the most suitable wing configuration that can increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. A numerical investigation was carried out in this research work using finite volume Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE) code ANSYS CFX, Validation was carried out by using experiments. The experimental and the numerical results concluded that the lift to drag ratio decreased with the increasing of the ground clearance.

Keywords: drag Coefficient, ground clearance, navier-stokes, WIG

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
7687 A CFD Study of the Performance Characteristics of Vented Cylinders as Vortex Generators

Authors: R. Kishan, R. M. Sumant, S. Suhas, Arun Mahalingam

Abstract:

This paper mainly researched on influence of vortex generator on lift coefficient and drag coefficient, when vortex generator is mounted on a flat plate. Vented cylinders were used as vortex generators which intensify vortex shedding in the wake of the vented cylinder as compared to base line circular cylinder which ensures more attached flow and increases lift force of the system. Firstly vented cylinders were analyzed in commercial CFD software which is compared with baseline cylinders for different angles of attack and further variation of lift and drag forces were studied by varying Reynolds number to account for influence of turbulence and boundary layer in the flow. Later vented cylinders were mounted on a flat plate and variation of lift and drag coefficients was studied by varying angles of attack and studying the dependence of Reynolds number and dimensions of vortex generator on the coefficients. Mesh grid sensitivity is studied to check the convergence of the results obtained It was found that usage of vented cylinders as vortex generators increased lift forces with small variation in drag forces by varying angle of attack.

Keywords: CFD analysis, drag coefficient, FVM, lift coefficient, modeling, Reynolds number, simulation, vortex generators, vortex shedding

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
7686 Design and Analysis of Solar Powered Plane

Authors: Malarvizhi, Venkatesan

Abstract:

This paper summarizes about the design and optimization of solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle. The purpose of this research is to increase the range and endurance. It can be used for environmental research, aerial photography, search and rescue mission and surveillance in other planets. The ultimate aim of this research is to design and analyze the solar powered plane in order to detect lift, drag and other parameters by using cfd analysis. Similarly the numerical investigation has been done to compare the results of earth’s atmosphere to the mars atmosphere. This is the approach made to check whether the solar powered plane is possible to glide in the planet mars by using renewable energy (i.e., solar energy).

Keywords: optimization, range, endurance, surveillance, lift and drag parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
7685 Application of Co-Flow Jet Concept to Aircraft Lift Increase

Authors: Sai Likitha Siddanathi

Abstract:

Present project is aimed at increasing the amount of lift produced by typical airfoil. This is achieved by its modification into the co-flow jet structure where a new internal flow is created inside the airfoil from well-designed apertures on its surface. The limit where produced excess lift overcomes the weight of pumping system inserted in airfoil upper portion, and drag force is converted into thrust is discussed in terms of airfoil velocity and angle of attack. Two normal and co-flow jet models are numerically designed and experimental results for both fabricated normal airfoil and CFJ model have been tested in low subsonic wind tunnel. Application has been made to subsonic NACA 652-415 airfoil. Produced lift in CFJ airfoil indicates a maximum value up to a factor of 5 above normal airfoil nearby flow separation ie in relatively weak flow distribution.

Keywords: flow Jet, lift coefficient, drag coefficient, airfoil performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
7684 Design and Numerical Study on Aerodynamics Performance for F16 Leading Edge Extension

Authors: San-Yih Lin, Hsien-Hao Teng

Abstract:

In this research, we use commercial software, ANSYS CFX, to carry on the simulation the F16 aerodynamics performance flow field. The flight with a modified Leading Edge Extension (LEX) is proposed to increase the lift/drag ratio. The Shear Stress Transport turbulent model is used. The unstructured grid system is generated by the ICEM CFD. The prism grid around the wall surface is generated to simulate boundary layer viscosity flow field and Tetrahedron Mesh is used for the other computation domain. The lift, drag, and pitch moment are computed. The strong vortex structures upper the wing and vortex bursts under different sweep angle of LEX are investigated.

Keywords: LEX, lift/drag ratio, pitch moment, vortex burst

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
7683 Aerodynamic Performance of a Pitching Bio-Inspired Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Hadi Zarafshani, Shidvash Vakilipour, Shahin Teimori, Sara Barati

Abstract:

In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of a rigid two-dimensional pitching bio-inspired corrugate airfoil was numerically investigated at Reynolds number of 14000. The Open Field Operations And Manipulations (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamic tool is used to solve flow governing equations numerically. The k-ω SST turbulence model with low Reynolds correction (k-ω SST LRC) and the pimpleDyMFOAM solver are utilized to simulate the flow field around pitching bio-airfoil. The lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil are calculated at reduced frequencies k=1.24-4.96 and the angular amplitude of A=5°-20°. Results show that in a fixed reduced frequency, the absolute value of the sectional lift and drag coefficients increase with increasing pitching amplitude. In a fixed angular amplitude, the absolute value of the lift and drag coefficients increase as the pitching reduced frequency increases.

Keywords: bio-inspired pitching airfoils, OpenFOAM, low Reynolds k-ω SST model, lift and drag coefficients

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
7682 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an RC Airplane Wing Using a NACA 2412 Profile at Different Angle of Attacks

Authors: Huseyin Gokberk, Shian Gao

Abstract:

CFD analysis of the relationship between the coefficients of lift and drag with respect to the angle of attack on a NACA 2412 wing section of an RC plane is conducted. Both the 2D and 3D models are investigated with the turbulence model. The 2D analysis has a free stream velocity of 10m/s at different AoA of 0°, 2°, 5°, 10°, 12°, and 15°. The induced drag and drag coefficient increased throughout the changes in angles even after the critical angle had been exceeded, whereas the lift force and coefficient of lift increased but had a limit at the critical stall angle, which results in values to reduce sharply. Turbulence flow characteristics are analysed around the aerofoil with the additions caused due to a finite 3D model. 3D results highlight how wing tip vortexes develop and alter the flow around the wing with the effects of the tapered configuration.

Keywords: CFD, turbulence modelling, aerofoil, angle of attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
7681 A Parametric Study on Aerodynamic Performance of Tyre Using CFD

Authors: Sowntharya L.

Abstract:

Aerodynamics is the most important factor when it comes to resistive forces such as lift, drag and side forces acting on the vehicle. In passenger vehicles, reducing the drag will not only unlock the door for higher achievable speed but will also reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle. Generally, tyre contributes significantly to the overall aerodynamics of the vehicle. Hence, understanding the air-flow behaviour around the tyre is vital to optimize the aerodynamic performance in the early stage of design process. Nowadays, aerodynamic simulation employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is gaining more importance as it reduces the number of physical wind-tunnel experiments during vehicle development process. This research develops a methodology to predict aerodynamic drag of a standalone tyre using Numerical CFD Solver and to validate the same using a wind tunnel experiment. A parametric study was carried out on different tread pattern tyres such as slick, circumferential groove & patterned tyre in stationary and rotating boundary conditions. In order to represent wheel rotation contact with the ground, moving reference frame (MRF) approach was used in this study. Aerodynamic parameters such as drag lift & air flow behaviour around the tire were simulated and compared with experimental results.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, drag, MRF, wind-tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
7680 Aerodynamic Investigation of Baseline-IV Bird-Inspired BWB Aircraft Design: Improvements over Baseline-III BWB

Authors: C. M. Nur Syazwani, M. K. Ahmad Imran, Rizal E. M. Nasir

Abstract:

The study on BWB UV begins in UiTM since 2005 and three designs have been studied and published. The latest designs are Baseline-III and inspired by birds that have features and aerodynamics behaviour of cruising birds without flapping capability. The aircraft featuring planform and configuration are similar to the bird. Baseline-III has major flaws particularly in its low lift-to-drag ratio, stability and issues regarding limited controllability. New design known as Baseline-IV replaces straight, swept wing to delta wing and have a broader tail compares to the Baseline-III’s. The objective of the study is to investigate aerodynamics of Baseline-IV bird-inspired BWB aircraft. This will be achieved by theoretical calculation and wind tunnel experiments. The result shows that both theoretical and wind tunnel experiments of Baseline-IV graph of CL and CD versus alpha are quite similar to each other in term of pattern of graph slopes and values. Baseline-IV has higher lift coefficient values at wide range of angle of attack compares to Baseline-III. Baseline-IV also has higher maximum lift coefficient, higher maximum lift-to-drag and lower parasite drag. It has stable pitch moment versus lift slope but negative moment at zero lift for zero angle-of-attack tail setting. At high angle of attack, Baseline-IV does not have stability reversal as shown in Baseline-III. Baseline-IV is proven to have improvements over Baseline-III in terms of lift, lift-to-drag ratio and pitch moment stability at high angle-of-attack.

Keywords: blended wing-body, bird-inspired blended wing-body, aerodynamic, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
7679 Investigation of the Turbulent Cavitating Flows from the Viewpoint of the Lift Coefficient

Authors: Ping-Ben Liu, Chien-Chou Tseng

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the lift coefficient and dynamic behaviors of cavitating flow around a two-dimensional Clark Y hydrofoil at 8° angle of attack, cavitation number of 0.8, and Reynolds number of 7.10⁵. The flow field is investigated numerically by using a vapor transfer equation and a modified turbulence model which applies the filter and local density correction. The results including time-averaged lift/drag coefficient and shedding frequency agree well with experimental observations, which confirmed the reliability of this simulation. According to the variation of lift coefficient, the cycle which consists of growth and shedding of cavitation can be divided into three stages, and the lift coefficient at each stage behaves similarly due to the formation and shedding of the cavity around the trailing edge.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, cavitation, turbulence, lift coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
7678 Computational Analysis of Cavity Effect over Aircraft Wing

Authors: P. Booma Devi, Dilip A. Shah

Abstract:

This paper seeks the potentials of studying aerodynamic characteristics of inward cavities called dimples, as an alternative to the classical vortex generators. Increasing stalling angle is a greater challenge in wing design. But our examination is primarily focused on increasing lift. In this paper, enhancement of lift is mainly done by introduction of dimple or cavity in a wing. In general, aircraft performance can be enhanced by increasing aerodynamic efficiency that is lift to drag ratio of an aircraft wing. Efficiency improvement can be achieved by improving the maximum lift co-efficient or by reducing the drag co-efficient. At the time of landing aircraft, high angle of attack may lead to stalling of aircraft. To avoid this kind of situation, increase in the stalling angle is warranted. Hence, improved stalling characteristic is the best way to ease landing complexity. Computational analysis is done for the wing segment made of NACA 0012. Simulation is carried out for 30 m/s free stream velocity over plain airfoil and different types of cavities. The wing is modeled in CATIA V5R20 and analyses are carried out using ANSYS CFX. Triangle and square shapes are used as cavities for analysis. Simulations revealed that cavity placed on wing segment shows an increase of maximum lift co-efficient when compared to normal wing configuration. Flow separation is delayed at downstream of the wing by the presence of cavities up to a particular angle of attack.

Keywords: lift, drag reduce, square dimple, triangle dimple, enhancement of stall angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
7677 Numerical Study of Flow around Flat Tube between Parallel Walls

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi

Abstract:

Flow around a flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube and it is varied in range of 100 to 300. Equations are solved by using finite volume method and results are presented in form of drag and lift coefficient. Results show that drag coefficient of flat tube is up to 66% lower than circular tube with equivalent diameter. In addition, by increasing l/D from 1 to 2, the drag coefficient of flat tube is decreased about 14-27%.

Keywords: laminar flow, flat-tube, drag coefficient, cross-flow, heat exchanger

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7676 Simulations of NACA 65-415 and NACA 64-206 Airfoils Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: David Nagy

Abstract:

This paper exemplifies the influence of the purpose of an aircraft on the aerodynamic properties of its airfoil. In particular, the research takes into consideration two types of aircraft, namely cargo aircraft and military high-speed aircraft and compares their airfoil characteristics using their NACA airfoils as well as computational fluid dynamics. The results show that airfoils of aircraft designed for cargo have a heavier focus on maintaining a large lift force whereas speed-oriented airplanes focus on minimizing the drag force.

Keywords: aerodynamic simulation, aircraft, airfoil, computational fluid dynamics, lift to drag ratio, NACA 64-206, NACA 65-415

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
7675 Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Rear-Roof Spoiler of Hatchback Vehicle

Authors: See-Yuan Cheng, Kwang-Yhee Chin, Shuhaimi Mansor

Abstract:

Rear-roof spoiler is commonly used for improving the aerodynamic performance of road vehicles. This study aims to investigate the effect of yaw angle on the effectiveness of strip-type rear-roof spoiler in providing lower drag and lift coefficients of a hatchback model. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used. The numerically obtained results were compared to the experimental data for validation of the CFD method. At increasing yaw angle, both the drag and lift coefficients of the model were to increase. In addition, the effectiveness of spoiler was deteriorated. These unfavorable effects were due to the formation of longitudinal vortices around the side edges of the model that had caused the surface pressure of the model to drop. Furthermore, there were significant crossflow structures developed behind the model at larger yaw angle, which were associated with the drop in the surface pressure of the rear section of the model and cause the drag coefficient to rise.

Keywords: Ahmed model, aerodynamics, spoiler, yaw angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
7674 Half Model Testing for Canard of a Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

Authors: Anwar U. Haque, Waqar Asrar, Ashraf Ali Omar, Erwin Sulaeman, Jaffer Sayed Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

Due to the interference effects, the intrinsic aerodynamic parameters obtained from the individual component testing are always fundamentally different than those obtained for complete model testing. Consideration and limitation for such testing need to be taken into account in any design work related to the component buildup method. In this paper, the scaled model of a straight rectangular canard of a hybrid buoyant aircraft is tested at 50 m/s in IIUM-LSWT (Low-Speed Wind Tunnel). Model and its attachment with the balance are kept rigid to have results free from the aeroelastic distortion. Based on the velocity profile of the test section’s floor; the height of the model is kept equal to the corresponding boundary layer displacement. Balance measurements provide valuable but limited information of the overall aerodynamic behavior of the model. Zero lift coefficient is obtained at -2.2o and the corresponding drag coefficient was found to be less than that at zero angles of attack. As a part of the validation of low fidelity tool, the plot of lift coefficient plot was verified by the experimental data and except the value of zero lift coefficient, the overall trend has under-predicted the lift coefficient. Based on this comparative study, a correction factor of 1.36 is proposed for lift curve slope obtained from the panel method.

Keywords: wind tunnel testing, boundary layer displacement, lift curve slope, canard, aerodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
7673 Effect of a Stepwise Discontinuity on a 65 Degree Delta Wing

Authors: Nishit L. Sanil, Raza M. Khan

Abstract:

Increasing lift effectively at higher angles of attack has always been a daunting challenge in aviation especially on a delta wing. These are used on military jet fighter planes and has some undesirable characteristics, notably flow separation at high angles of attack and high drag at low speeds. In order to solve this problem, a design modification is modeled on a delta wing which would increase the lift so that we can improve maneuverability. To attain an increase in the lift of a 65 degree delta wing at higher angles of attack, a step-wise discontinuity is created at the upper surface of the delta wing. A normal delta wing is validated for comparison which would thereby give us a measure of flow separation and coefficient of lift affected by the modification. The results obtained deliver a significant increase in lift at higher angles of attack thereby delaying stall. Hence the benefits of the modification would aid the potential designs of aircraft’s in the time to come.

Keywords: coefficient of lift, delta wing, flow separation, step-wise discontinuity

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
7672 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine

Abstract:

This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: aerodynamics, drag, lift, turbulence model, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
7671 Airliner-UAV Flight Formation in Climb Regime

Authors: Pavel Zikmund, Robert Popela

Abstract:

Extreme formation is a theoretical concept of self-sustain flight when a big Airliner is followed by a small UAV glider flying in airliner’s wake vortex. The paper presents results of climb analysis with a goal to lift the gliding UAV to airliner’s cruise altitude. Wake vortex models, the UAV drag polar and basic parameters and airliner’s climb profile are introduced at first. Then, flight performance of the UAV in the wake vortex is evaluated by analytical methods. Time history of optimal distance between the airliner and the UAV during the climb is determined. The results are encouraging, therefore available UAV drag margin for electricity generation is figured out for different vortex models.

Keywords: flight in formation, self-sustained flight, UAV, wake vortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
7670 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Matthieu Mantilla, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, citation, coefficient, Datcom, drag, lift, longitudinal, model, OpenVSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
7669 Movable Airfoil Arm (MAA) and Ducting Effect to Increase the Efficiency of a Helical Turbine

Authors: Abdi Ismail, Zain Amarta, Riza Rifaldy Argaputra

Abstract:

The Helical Turbine has the highest efficiency in comparison with the other hydrokinetic turbines. However, the potential of the Helical Turbine efficiency can be further improved so that the kinetic energy of a water current can be converted into mechanical energy as much as possible. This paper explains the effects by adding a Movable Airfoil Arm (MAA) and ducting on a Helical Turbine. The first research conducted an analysis of the efficiency comparison between a Plate Arm Helical Turbine (PAHT) versus a Movable Arm Helical Turbine Airfoil (MAAHT) at various water current velocities. The first step is manufacturing a PAHT and MAAHT. The PAHT and MAAHT has these specifications (as a fixed variable): 80 cm in diameter, a height of 88 cm, 3 blades, NACA 0018 blade profile, a 10 cm blade chord and a 60o inclination angle. The MAAHT uses a NACA 0012 airfoil arm that can move downward 20o, the PAHT uses a 5 mm plate arm. At the current velocity of 0.8, 0.85 and 0.9 m/s, the PAHT respectively generates a mechanical power of 92, 117 and 91 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 16%, 17% and 11%). At the same current velocity variation, the MAAHT respectively generates 74, 60 and 43 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 13%, 9% and 5%). Therefore, PAHT has a better performance than the MAAHT. Using analysis from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), the drag force of MAA is greater than the one generated by the plate arm. By using CFD analysis, the drag force that occurs on the MAA is more dominant than the lift force, therefore the MAA can be called a drag device, whereas the lift force that occurs on the helical blade is more dominant than the drag force, therefore it can be called a lift device. Thus, the lift device cannot be combined with the drag device, because the drag device will become a hindrance to the lift device rotation. The second research conducted an analysis of the efficiency comparison between a Ducted Helical Turbine (DHT) versus a Helical Turbine (HT) through experimental studies. The first step is manufacturing the DHT and HT. The Helical turbine specifications (as a fixed variable) are: 40 cm in diameter, a height of 88 cm, 3 blades, NACA 0018 blade profile, 10 cm blade chord and a 60o inclination angle. At the current speed of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.1 m/s, the HT respectively generates a mechanical power of 72, 85, 93 and 98 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 38%, 30%, 23% and 13%). At the same current speed variation, the DHT generates a mechanical power of 82, 98, 110 and 134 watts (a consecutive efficiency of 43%, 34%, 27% and 18%), respectively. The usage of ducting causes the water current speed around the turbine to increase.

Keywords: hydrokinetic turbine, helical turbine, movable airfoil arm, ducting

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
7668 Numerical Investigation of the Bio-fouling Roughness Effect on Tidal Turbine

Authors: O. Afshar

Abstract:

Unlike other renewable energy sources, tidal current energy is an extremely reliable, predictable and continuous energy source as the current pattern and speed can be predicted throughout the year. A key concern associated with tidal turbines is their long-term reliability when operating in the hostile marine environment. Bio-fouling changes the physical shape and roughness of turbine components, hence altering the overall turbine performance. This paper seeks to employ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to quantify the effects of this problem based on the obtained flow field information. The simulation is carried out on a NACA 63-618 aerofoil. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulent model are used to simulate the flow around the model. Different levels of fouling are studied on 2D aerofoil surface with quantified fouling height and density. In terms of lift and drag coefficient results, numerical results show good agreement with the experiment which was carried out in wind tunnel. Numerical results of research indicate that an increase in fouling thickness causes an increase in drag coefficient and a reduction in lift coefficient. Moreover, pressure gradient gradually becomes adverse as height of fouling increases. In addition, result by turbulent kinetic energy contour reveals it increases with fouling height and it extends into wake due to flow separation.

Keywords: tidal energy, lift coefficient, drag coefficient, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
7667 Theoretical Calculation of Wingtip Devices for Agricultural Aircraft

Authors: Hashim Bashir

Abstract:

The Vortex generated at the edges of the wing of an Aircraft are called the Wing Tip Vortex. The Wing Tip Vortices are associated with induced drag. The induced drag is responsible for nearly 50% of aircraft total drag and can be reduced through modifications to the wing tip. Some models displace wingtips vortices outwards diminishing the induced drag. Concerning agricultural aircrafts, wing tip vortex position is really important, while spreading products over a plantation. In this work, theoretical calculations were made in order to study the influence in aerodynamic characteristics and vortex position, over Sudanese agricultural aircraft, by the following types of wing tips: delta tip, winglet and down curved. The down curved tip was better for total drag reduction, but not good referring to vortex position. The delta tip gave moderate improvement on aerodynamic characteristic and on vortex position. The winglet had a better vortex position and lift increment, but caused an undesirable result referring to the wing root bending moment. However, winglet showed better development potential for agricultural aircraft.

Keywords: wing tip device, wing tip vortice, agricultural aircaft, winglet

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
7666 Gas Lift Optimization to Improve Well Performance

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, Meisam Babaie

Abstract:

Gas lift optimization is becoming more important now a day in petroleum industry. A proper lift optimization can reduce the operating cost, increase the net present value (NPV) and maximize the recovery from the asset. A widely accepted definition of gas lift optimization is to obtain the maximum output under specified operating conditions. In addition, gas lift, a costly and indispensable means to recover oil from high depth reservoir entails solving the gas lift optimization problems. Gas lift optimization is a continuous process; there are two levels of production optimization. The total field optimization involves optimizing the surface facilities and the injection rate that can be achieved by standard tools softwares. Well level optimization can be achieved by optimizing the well parameters such as point of injection, injection rate, and injection pressure. All these aspects have been investigated and presented in this study by using experimental data and PROSPER simulation program. The results show that the well head pressure has a large influence on the gas lift performance and also proved that smart gas lift valve can be used to improve gas lift performance by controlling gas injection from down hole. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection reduces production rate and consequently increases the operation cost.

Keywords: optimization, production rate, reservoir pressure effect, gas injection rate effect, gas injection pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
7665 Aerodynamics of Nature Inspired Turbine Blade Using Computational Simulation

Authors: Seung Ki Lee, Richard Kyung

Abstract:

In the airfoil analysis, as the camber is greater, the minimal angle of attack causing the stall and maximum lift force increases. The shape of the turbine blades is similar to the shape of the wings of planes. After major wars, many remarkable blade shapes are made through researches about optimal blade shape. The blade shapes developed by National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NACA, is well known. In this paper, using computational and numerical analysis, the NACA airfoils are analyzed. This research shows that the blades vary with their thickness, which thinner blades are expected to be better. There is no significant difference of coefficient of lift due to the difference in thickness, but the coefficient of drag increases as the thickness increases.

Keywords: blades, drag force, national advisory committee for aeronautics airfoils, turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
7664 Leading Edge Vortex Development for a 65° Delta Wing with Varying Thickness and Maximum Thickness Locations

Authors: Jana Stucke, Sean Tuling, Chris Toomer

Abstract:

This study focuses on the numerical investigation of the leading edge vortex (LEV) development over a 65° swept delta wing with varying thickness and maximum thickness location and their impact on its overall performance. The tested configurations are defined by a 6% and 12 % thick biconvex aerofoil with maximum thickness location at 30% and 50% of the root chord. The results are compared to a flat plate delta wing configuration of 3.4% thickness. The largest differences are observed for the aerofoils of 12% thickness and are used to demonstrate the trends and aerodynamic characteristics from here on. It was found that the vortex structure changes with change with maximum thickness and overall thickness. This change leads to not only a reduction in lift but also in drag, especially when the maximum thickness is moved forward. The reduction in drag, however, outweighs the loss in lift thus increasing the overall performance of the configuration.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, delta wing, leading edge vortices

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
7663 Numerical Study on Parallel Rear-Spoiler on Super Cars

Authors: Anshul Ashu

Abstract:

Computers are applied to the vehicle aerodynamics in two ways. One of two is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and other is Computer Aided Flow Visualization (CAFV). Out of two CFD is chosen because it shows the result with computer graphics. The simulation of flow field around the vehicle is one of the important CFD applications. The flow field can be solved numerically using panel methods, k-ε method, and direct simulation methods. The spoiler is the tool in vehicle aerodynamics used to minimize unfavorable aerodynamic effects around the vehicle and the parallel spoiler is set of two spoilers which are designed in such a manner that it could effectively reduce the drag. In this study, the standard k-ε model of the simplified version of Bugatti Veyron, Audi R8 and Porsche 911 are used to simulate the external flow field. Flow simulation is done for variable Reynolds number. The flow simulation consists of three different levels, first over the model without a rear spoiler, second for over model with single rear spoiler, and third over the model with parallel rear-spoiler. The second and third level has following parameter: the shape of the spoiler, the angle of attack and attachment position. A thorough analysis of simulations results has been found. And a new parallel spoiler is designed. It shows a little improvement in vehicle aerodynamics with a decrease in vehicle aerodynamic drag and lift. Hence, it leads to good fuel economy and traction force of the model.

Keywords: drag, lift, flow simulation, spoiler

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7662 A Study on Shock Formation over a Transonic Aerofoil

Authors: M. Fowsia, Dominic Xavier Fernando, Vinojitha, Rahamath Juliyana

Abstract:

Aerofoil is a primary element to be designed during the initial phase of creating any new aircraft. It is the component that forms the cross-section of the wing. The wing is used to produce lift force that balances the weight which is acting downwards. The lift force is created due to pressure difference over the top and bottom surface which is caused due to velocity variation. At sub-sonic velocities, for a real fluid, we obtain a smooth flow of air over both the surfaces. In this era of high speed travel, commercial aircraft that can travel faster than speed of sound barrier is required. However transonic velocities cause the formation of shock waves which can cause flow separation over the top and bottom surfaces. In the transonic range, shock waves move across the top and bottom surfaces of the aerofoil, until both the shock waves merge into a single shock wave that is formed near the leading edge of theaerofoil. In this paper, a transonic aerofoil is designed and its aerodynamic properties at different velocities in the Transonic range (M = 0.8; 0.9; 1; 1.1; 1.2) are studied with the help of CFD. The Pressure and Velocity distributions over the top and bottom surfaces of aerofoil are studied and the variations of shock patterns, at different velocities, are analyzed. The analysis can be used to determine the effect of drag divergence on the lift created by the aerofoil.

Keywords: transonic aerofoil, cfd, drag divergence, shock formation, viscous flow

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7661 Power Performance Improvement of 500W Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Salient Design Parameters

Authors: Young-Tae Lee, Hee-Chang Lim

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance characteristics of Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with NACA airfoil blades. The performance of Darrieus-type VAWT can be characterized by torque and power. There are various parameters affecting the performance such as chord length, helical angle, pitch angle and rotor diameter. To estimate the optimum shape of Darrieustype wind turbine in accordance with various design parameters, we examined aerodynamic characteristics and separated flow occurring in the vicinity of blade, interaction between flow and blade, and torque and power characteristics derived from it. For flow analysis, flow variations were investigated based on the unsteady RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) equation. Sliding mesh algorithm was employed in order to consider rotational effect of blade. To obtain more realistic results we conducted experiment and numerical analysis at the same time for three-dimensional shape. In addition, several parameters (chord length, rotor diameter, pitch angle, and helical angle) were considered to find out optimum shape design and characteristics of interaction with ambient flow. Since the NACA airfoil used in this study showed significant changes in magnitude of lift and drag depending on an angle of attack, the rotor with low drag, long cord length and short diameter shows high power coefficient in low tip speed ratio (TSR) range. On the contrary, in high TSR range, drag becomes high. Hence, the short-chord and long-diameter rotor produces high power coefficient. When a pitch angle at which airfoil directs toward inside equals to -2° and helical angle equals to 0°, Darrieus-type VAWT generates maximum power.

Keywords: darrieus wind turbine, VAWT, NACA airfoil, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
7660 Numerical Study of Base Drag Reduction Using Locked Vortex Flow Management Technique for Lower Subsonic Regime

Authors: Kailas S. Jagtap, Karthik Sundarraj, Nirmal Kumar, S. Rajnarasimha, Prakash S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The issue of turbulence base streams and the drag related to it have been of important attention for rockets, missiles, and aircraft. Different techniques are used for base drag reduction. This paper presents the numerical study of numerous drag reduction technique. The base drag or afterbody drag of bluff bodies can be reduced easily using locked vortex drag reduction technique. For bluff bodies having a cylindrical shape, the base drag is much larger compared to streamlined bodies. For such bodies using splitter plates, the vortex can be trapped between the base and the plate, which results in smooth flow. Splitter plate with round and curved corner shapes has influence in drag reduction. In this paper, the comparison is done between single splitter plate as different positions and with the bluff body. Base drag for the speed of 30m/s can be reduced about 20% to 30% by using single splitter plate as compared to the bluff body.

Keywords: base drag, bluff body, splitter plate, vortex flow, ANSYS, fluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 101