Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 540

Search results for: multipass drawing

540 A Study on Improvement of Straightness of Preform Pulling Process of Hollow Pipe by Finete Element Analysis Method

Authors: Yeon-Jong Jeong, Jun-Hong Park, Hyuk Choi

Abstract:

In this study, we have studied the design of intermediate die in multipass drawing. Research has been continuously studied because of the advantage of better dimensional accuracy, smooth surface and improved mechanical properties in the case of drawing. Among them, multipass drawing, which is a method to realize complicated shape by drawing, was discussed in this study. The most important factor in the multipass drawing is the dimensional accuracy and simplify the process. To accomplish this, a multistage shape drawing was performed using various intermediate die shape designs, and finite element analysis was performed.

Keywords: FEM (Finite Element Method), multipass drawing, intermediate die, hollow pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
539 Modeling of Cold Tube Drawing with a Fixed Plug by Finite Element Method and Determination of Optimum Drawing Parameters

Authors: E. Yarar, E. A. Guven, S. Karabay

Abstract:

In this study, a comprehensive simulation was made for the cold tube drawing with fixed plug. The cold tube drawing process is preferred due to its high surface quality and the high mechanical properties. In drawing processes applied to materials with low plastic deformability, cracks can occur on the surfaces and the process efficiency decreases. The aim of the work is to investigate the effects of different drawing parameters on drawing forces and stresses. In the simulations, optimum conditions were investigated for four different materials, Ti64Al4V, AA5052, AISI4140, and C365. One of the most important parameters for the cold drawing process is the die angle. Three dies were designed for the analysis with semi die angles of 5°, 10°, and 15°. Three different parameters were used for the friction coefficient between die and the material. In the simulations, reduction of area and the drawing speed is kept constant. Drawing is done in one pass. According to the simulation results, the highest drawing forces were obtained in Ti64Al4V. As the semi die angle increases, the drawing forces decrease. The change in semi die angle was most effective on Ti64Al4V. Increasing the coefficient of friction is another effect that increases the drawing forces. The increase in the friction coefficient has also increased in drawing stresses. The increase in die angle also increased the drawing stress distribution for the other three materials outside C365. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that the designed drawing die is suitable for drawing. The lowest drawing stress distribution and drawing forces were obtained for AA5052. Drawing die parameters have a direct effect on the results. In addition, lubricants used for drawing have a significant effect on drawing forces.

Keywords: cold tube drawing, drawing force, drawing stress, semi die angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
538 SEM-EBSD Observation for Microtubes by Using Dieless Drawing Process

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Itaru Kumisawa

Abstract:

Because die drawing requires insertion of a die, a plug, or a mandrel, higher precision and efficiency are demanded for drawing equipment for a tube having smaller diameter. Manufacturing of such tubes is also accompanied by problems such as cracking and fracture. We specifically examine dieless drawing, which is less affected by these drawing-related difficulties. This deformation process is governed by a similar principle to that of reduction in diameter when pulling a heated glass tube. We conducted dieless drawing of SUS304 stainless steel microtubes under various conditions with three factor parameters of heating temperature, area reduction, and drawing speed. We used SEM-EBSD to observe the processing condition effects on microstructural elements. As the result of this study, crystallographic orientation of microtube is clear by using SEM-EBSD analysis.

Keywords: microtube, dieless drawing, IPF (inverse pole figure), GOS (grain orientation spread), crystallographic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
537 Thinking about Drawing: The Evolution of Architectural Education in China After 1949

Authors: Wang Yanze

Abstract:

Architectural design results from the interaction between space and drawing. Stemming from the Beaux-Arts architectural education, drawing kept its dominant position in teaching and learning process for centuries. However, this education system is being challenged in the present time due to the development of the times. Based on the architectural education of China after 1949, a brief introduction to the history of the evolution of the design concept and drawing is given in this paper. Illustrating with the reference to the students’ works in Nanjing Institute of Technology, the predecessor of Southeast University, in China, the paper analyses the relationship between concept and representation, as well as the participation of Space, the modernism discourse. This process contains the transmission of the character of architects, the renovation of drawing skills and the profound social background. With different purposes, the emphasis on representation tends to be combined with the operation on space, and the role of drawing in architectural design process also changes. Therefore, based on the continuity of the traditional architectural education system, the discussion on the “Drawing of Space” in contemporary education system is proposed.

Keywords: architectural education, beaux-arts, drawing, modernism

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
536 Multipass Scratch Characterization of TiNbVN Thin Coatings Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: Hikmet Cicek

Abstract:

Transition metal nitrides are widely used as protective coatings on machine parts and cutting tools to protect the surfaces from abrasion and corrosion for decades. In this study, the ternary TiNbVN thin coatings were produced with closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system and their structural, mechanical and fatigue-like (multi-pass scratch test) properties were investigated. Two different substrates (M2 and H13 steels) were used to explore substrates effects. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used for the structural and chemical analysis of the coatings. Nanohardness tests were proceed for mechanical properties. The fatigue-like properties of the coatings obtained from the multi-scratch test under three different cycle passes. The results showed that TiNbVN films have excellent fatigue resistance and the coatings deposited on M2 steel substrate have higher hardness and better fatigue resistance.

Keywords: physical vapor deposition, fatigue, metal nitride, multipass scratch test

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
535 Optimal Design of Shape for Increasing the Bonding Pressure Drawing of Hot Clad Pipes by Finite Element Method Analysis

Authors: Seok-Hyeon Park, Joon-Hong Park, Mok-Tan-Ahn, Seong-Hun Ha

Abstract:

Clad Pipe is made of a different kind of material, which is different from the internal and external materials, for the corrosive crude oil transportation tube. Most of the clad pipes are produced by hot rolling. However, problems arise due to high product prices and excessive process numbers. Therefore, in this study, the hot drawing process with excellent product cost, process number and productivity is applied. Due to the nature of the drawing process, the shape of the mold greatly influences the formability of the material and the bonding pressure of the two materials because it is a process of drawing the material to the die and reducing the cross-sectional area. Also, in case of hot drawing, if the mold shape is not suitable due to the increased fluidity of the material, it may cause problems such as tearing and stretching. Therefore, in this study, we try to find the shape of the mold which suppresses the occurrence of defects in the hot drawing process and maximizes the bonding pressure between the two materials through the mold shape optimization design by FEM analysis.

Keywords: clad pipe, hot drawing, bonding pressure, mold shape

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
534 A Study on Optimum Shape in According to Equivalent Stress Distributions at the Die and Plug in the Multi-Pass Drawing Process

Authors: Yeon-Jong Jeong, Mok-Tan Ahn, Seok-Hyeon Park, Seong-Hun Ha, Joon-Hong Park, Jong-Bae Park

Abstract:

Multi-stage drawing process is an important technique for forming a shape that cannot be molded in a single process. multi-stage drawing process in number of passes and the shape of the die are an important factors influencing the productivity and formability of the product. The number and shape of the multi-path in the mold of the drawing process is very influencing the productivity and formability of the product. Half angle of the die and mandrel affects the drawing force and it also affects the completion of the final shape. Thus reducing the number of pass and the die shape optimization are necessary to improve the formability of the billet. Analyzing the load on the die through the FEM analysis and in consideration of the formability of the material presents a die model.

Keywords: multi-pass shape drawing, equivalent stress, FEM, finite element method, optimum shape

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
533 Multi-Pass Shape Drawing Process Design for Manufacturing of Automotive Reinforcing Agent with Closed Cross-Section Shape using Finite Element Method Analysis

Authors: Mok-Tan Ahn, Hyeok Choi, Joon-Hong Park

Abstract:

Multi-stage drawing process is an important technique for forming a shape that cannot be molded in a single process. multi-stage drawing process in number of passes and the shape of the die are an important factor influencing the productivity and moldability of the product. The number and shape of the multi-path in the mold of the drawing process is very influencing the productivity and moldability of the product. Half angle of the die and mandrel affects the drawing force and it also affects the completion of the final shape. Thus reducing the number of pass and the die shape optimization are necessary to improve the formability of the billet. The purpose of this study, Analyzing the load on the die through the FEM analysis and in consideration of the formability of the material presents a die model.

Keywords: automotive reinforcing agent, multi-pass shape drawing, automotive parts, FEM analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
532 The Experimental and Numerical Analysis of TRIP Steel Wire Drawing Processes Drawn with Different Partial Reductions

Authors: Sylwia Wiewiorowska, Zbigniew Muskalski

Abstract:

The strain intensity and redundant strains, dependent in multistage TRIP wire drawing processes from values used single partial reductions, should influence on the intensity of transformation the retained austenite into martensite and thereby on mechanical properties of drawn wires. The numerical analysis of drawing processes with use of Drawing 2D programme, for steel wires made from TRIP steel with 0,29 % has been shown in the work. The change of strain intensity Ԑc and the values of redundant strain Ԑxy, has been determined for particular draws in dependence of used single partial reductions.

Keywords: steel wire, TRIP steel, drawing processes, fem modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
531 Finite Element Simulation of Deep Drawing Process to Minimize Earing

Authors: Pawan S. Nagda, Purnank S. Bhatt, Mit K. Shah

Abstract:

Earing defect in drawing process is highly undesirable not only because it adds on an additional trimming operation but also because the uneven material flow demands extra care. The objective of this work is to study the earing problem in the Deep Drawing of circular cup and to optimize the blank shape to reduce the earing. A finite element model is developed for 3-D numerical simulation of cup forming process in ABAQUS. Extra-deep-drawing (EDD) steel sheet has been used for simulation. Properties and tool design parameters were used as input for simulation. Earing was observed in the simulated cup and it was measured at various angles with respect to rolling direction. To reduce the earing defect initial blank shape was modified with the help of anisotropy coefficient. Modified blanks showed notable reduction in earing.

Keywords: anisotropy, deep drawing, earing, finite element simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
530 A Study on Temperature and Drawing Speed for Diffusion Bonding Enhancement in Drawing of Hot Lined Pipes by FEM Analysis

Authors: M. T. Ahn, J. H. Park, S. H. Park, S. H. Ha

Abstract:

Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in hot drawing even if the reduction in the section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: diffusion bonding, temperature, pressure, drawing speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
529 A Detailed Experimental Study and Evaluation of Springback under Stretch Bending Process

Authors: A. Soualem

Abstract:

The design of multi stage deep drawing processes requires the evaluation of many process parameters such as the intermediate die geometry, the blank shape, the sheet thickness, the blank holder force, friction, lubrication etc..These process parameters have to be determined for the optimum forming conditions before the process design. In general sheet metal forming may involve stretching drawing or various combinations of these basic modes of deformation. It is important to determine the influence of the process variables in the design of sheet metal working process. Especially, the punch and die corner for deep drawing will affect the formability. At the same time the prediction of sheet metals springback after deep drawing is an important issue to solve for the control of manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the importance of this problem increases because of the use of steel sheeting with high stress and also aluminum alloys. The aim of this paper is to give a better understanding of the springback and its effect in various sheet metals forming process such as expansion and restraint deep drawing in the cup drawing process, by varying radius die, lubricant for two commercially available materials e.g. galvanized steel and Aluminum sheet. To achieve these goals experiments were carried out and compared with other results. The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the springback.

Keywords: springback, deep drawing, expansion, restricted deep drawing

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
528 Angular-Coordinate Driven Radial Tree Drawing

Authors: Farshad Ghassemi Toosi, Nikola S. Nikolov

Abstract:

We present a visualization technique for radial drawing of trees consisting of two slightly different algorithms. Both of them make use of node-link diagrams for visual encoding. This visualization creates clear drawings without edge crossing. One of the algorithms is suitable for real-time visualization of large trees, as it requires minimal recalculation of the layout if leaves are inserted or removed from the tree; while the other algorithm makes better utilization of the drawing space. The algorithms are very similar and follow almost the same procedure but with different parameters. Both algorithms assign angular coordinates for all nodes which are then converted into 2D Cartesian coordinates for visualization. We present both algorithms and discuss how they compare to each other.

Keywords: Radial drawing, Visualization, Algorithm, Use of node-link diagrams

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
527 A Study on the Relationship between Shear Strength and Surface Roughness of Lined Pipes by Cold Drawing

Authors: Mok-Tan Ahn, Joon-Hong Park, Yeon-Jong Jeong

Abstract:

Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in heat drawing even if the reduction in section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: drawing speed, FEM (Finite Element Method), diffusion bonding, temperature, heat drawing, lined pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
526 Effect of Punch and Die Profile Radii on the Maximum Drawing Force and the Total Consumed Work in Deep Drawing of a Flat Ended Cylindrical Brass

Authors: A. I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

Deep drawing is considered to be the most widely used sheet metal forming processes among the particularly in automobile and aircraft industries. It is widely used for manufacturing a large number of the body and spare parts. In its simplest form it may be defined as a secondary forming process by which a sheet metal is formed into a cylinder or alike by subjecting the sheet to compressive force through a punch with a flat end of the same geometry as the required shape of the cylinder end while it is held by a blank holder which hinders its movement but does not stop it. The punch and die profile radii play In this paper, the effects of punch and die profile radii on the autographic record, the minimum thickness strain location where the cracks normally start and cause the fracture, the maximum deep drawing force and the total consumed work in the drawing flat ended cylindrical brass cups are investigated. Five punches and five dies each having different profile radii were manufactured for this investigation. Furthermore, their effect on the quality of the drawn cups is also presented and discussed. It was found that the die profile radius has more effect on the maximum drawing force and the total consumed work than the punch profile radius.

Keywords: punch and die profile radii, deep drawing process, maximum drawing force, total consumed work, quality of produced parts, flat ended cylindrical brass cups

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
525 Annealing Process Study at Galvanizing Line: Characterization and Implication Inherent to Lead Entrainment

Authors: Marcelo Franzkowiak Stahlschmidt

Abstract:

This paper discusses the experiments carried out based on the wire drawing process analysis and later annealing on lead furnace on a galvanizing line. Using Design of Experiments methodology, the aim of this work is to understand the occurrence of lead entrainment originating from the annealed wires in order to decrease this problem. Wire samples were collected from wire drawing machines and galvanizing line and submitted to surface roughness analysis and its implications on lead drag out based on wire speed, wire diameter, lead bath temperature, thermal capacity of the lead kettle, wire surface condition, wire roughness and wire superficial cleanliness. Proposals to decrease lead drag out were made in order to increase wire drawing machines and galvanizing line performance.

Keywords: wire drawing process, galvanizing, heat treatment, lead

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
524 The Impact of Scientific Content of National Geographic Channel on Drawing Style of Kindergarten Children

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Mona Yacoub

Abstract:

This study depends on tracking children style through what they have drawn after being introduced to 16 visual content through National Geographic Abu Dhabi Channel programs and the study of the changing features in their drawings before applying the visual act with them. The researchers used Goodenough-Harris Test to analyse children drawings and to extract the features which changed in their drawing before and after the visual content. The results showed a positive change especially in the shapes of animals and their properties. Children become more aware of animals’ shapes. The study sample was 220 kindergarten children divided into 130 girls and 90 boys at the Orman Experimental Language School in Dokki, Giza, Egypt. The study results showed an improvement in children drawing with 85% than they were before watching videos.

Keywords: National Geographic, children drawing, kindergarten, Goodenough-Harris Test

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523 The Geometrical Cosmology: The Projective Cast of the Collective Subjectivity of the Chinese Traditional Architectural Drawings

Authors: Lina Sun

Abstract:

Chinese traditional drawings related to buildings and construction apply a unique geometry differentiating with western Euclidean geometry and embrace a collection of special terminologies, under the category of tu (the Chinese character for drawing). This paper will on one side etymologically analysis the terminologies of Chinese traditional architectural drawing, and on the other side geometrically deconstruct the composition of tu and locate the visual narrative language of tu in the pictorial tradition. The geometrical analysis will center on selected series of Yang-shi-lei tu of the construction of emperors’ mausoleums in Qing Dynasty (1636-1912), and will also draw out the earlier architectural drawings and the architectural paintings such as the jiehua, and paintings on religious frescoes and tomb frescoes as the comparison. By doing these, this research will reveal that both the terminologies corresponding to different geometrical forms respectively indicate associations between architectural drawing and the philosophy of Chinese cosmology, and the arrangement of the geometrical forms in the visual picture plane facilitates expressions of the concepts of space and position in the geometrical cosmology. These associations and expressions are the collective intentions of architectural drawing evolving in the thousands of years’ tradition without breakage and irrelevant to the individual authorship. Moreover, the architectural tu itself as an entity, not only functions as the representation of the buildings but also express intentions and strengthen them by using the Chinese unique geometrical language flexibly and intentionally. These collective cosmological spatial intentions and the corresponding geometrical words and languages reveal that the Chinese traditional architectural drawing functions as a unique architectural site with subjectivity which exists parallel with buildings and express intentions and meanings by itself. The methodology and the findings of this research will, therefore, challenge the previous researches which treat architectural drawings just as the representation of buildings and understand the drawings more than just using them as the evidence to reconstruct the information of buildings. Furthermore, this research will situate architectural drawing in between the researches of Chinese technological tu and artistic painting, bridging the two academic areas which usually treated the partial features of architectural drawing separately. Beyond this research, the collective subjectivity of the Chinese traditional drawings will facilitate the revealing of the transitional experience from traditions to drawing modernity, where the individual subjective identities and intentions of architects arise. This research will root for the understanding both the ambivalence and affinity of the drawing modernity encountering the traditions.

Keywords: Chinese traditional architectural drawing (tu), etymology of tu, collective subjectivity of tu, geometrical cosmology in tu, geometry and composition of tu, Yang-shi-lei tu

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522 Analyzing the Practicality of Drawing Inferences in Automation of Commonsense Reasoning

Authors: Chandan Hegde, K. Ashwini

Abstract:

Commonsense reasoning is the simulation of human ability to make decisions during the situations that we encounter every day. It has been several decades since the introduction of this subfield of artificial intelligence, but it has barely made some significant progress. The modern computing aids also have remained impotent in this regard due to the absence of a strong methodology towards commonsense reasoning development. Among several accountable reasons for the lack of progress, drawing inference out of commonsense knowledge-base stands out. This review paper emphasizes on a detailed analysis of representation of reasoning uncertainties and feasible prospects of programming aids for drawing inferences. Also, the difficulties in deducing and systematizing commonsense reasoning and the substantial progress made in reasoning that influences the study have been discussed. Additionally, the paper discusses the possible impacts of an effective inference technique in commonsense reasoning.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, commonsense reasoning, knowledge base, uncertainty in reasoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
521 Using Collaborative Pictures to Understand Student Experience

Authors: Tessa Berg, Emma Guion Akdag

Abstract:

Summative feedback forms are used in academia for gathering data on course quality and student understanding. Students answer a series of questions based on the course they are soon to finish in these forms. Feedback forms are notorious for being homogenised and limiting and thus the data captured is often neutral and lacking in tacit emotional responses. This paper contrasts student feedback forms with collaborative drawing. We analyse 19 pictures drawn by international students on a pre-sessional course. Through visuals we present an approach to enable a holistic level of student understanding. Visuals communicate irrespective of possible language, cultural and educational barriers. This paper sought to discover if the pictures mirrored the feedback given on a typical feedback form. Findings indicate a considerable difference in the two approaches and thus we highlight the value of collaborative drawing as a complimentary resource to aid the understanding of student experience.

Keywords: feedback forms, visualisation, student experience, collaborative drawing

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
520 The Practise of Hand Drawing as a Premier Form of Representation in Architectural Design Teaching: The Case of FAUP

Authors: Rafael Santos, Clara Pimenta Do Vale, Barbara Bogoni, Poul Henning Kirkegaard

Abstract:

In the last decades, the relevance of hand drawing has decreased in the scope of architectural education. However, some schools continue to recognize its decisive role, not only in the architectural design teaching, but in the whole of architectural training. With this paper it is intended to present the results of a research developed on the following problem: the practise of hand drawing as a premier form of representation in architectural design teaching. The research had as its object the educational model of the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Porto (FAUP) and was led by three main objectives: to identify the circumstance that promoted hand drawing as a form of representation in FAUP's model; to characterize the types of hand drawing and their role in that model; to determine the particularities of hand drawing as a premier form of representation in architectural design teaching. Methodologically, the research was conducted according to a qualitative embedded single-case study design. The object – i.e., the educational model – was approached in FAUP case considering its Context and three embedded unities of analysis: the educational Purposes, Principles and Practices. In order to guide the procedures of data collection and analysis, a Matrix for the Characterization (MCC) was developed. As a methodological tool, the MCC allowed to relate the three embedded unities of analysis with the three main sources of evidence where the object manifests itself: the professors, expressing how the model is Assumed; the architectural design classes, expressing how the model is Achieved; and the students, expressing how the model is Acquired. The main research methods used were the naturalistic and participatory observation, in-person-interview and documentary and bibliographic review. The results reveal that the educational model of FAUP – following the model of the former Porto School – was largely due to the methodological foundations created with the hand drawing teaching-learning processes. In the absence of a culture of explicit theoretical elaboration or systematic research, hand drawing was the support for the continuity of the school, an expression of a unified thought about what should be the reflection and practice of architecture. As a form of representation, hand drawing plays a transversal role in the entire educational model, since its purposes are not limited to the conception of architectural design – it is also a means for perception, analysis and synthesis. Regarding the architectural design teaching, there seems to be an understanding of three complementary dimensions of didactics: the instrumental, methodological and propositional dimension. At FAUP, hand drawing is recognized as the common denominator among these dimensions, according to the idea of "globality of drawing". It is expected that the knowledge base developed in this research may have three main contributions: to contribute to the maintenance and valorisation of FAUP’s model; through the precise description of the methodological procedures, to contribute by transferability to similar studies; through the critical and objective framework of the problem underlying the hand drawing in architectural design teaching, to contribute to the broader discussion concerning the contemporary challenges on architectural education.

Keywords: architectural design teaching, architectural education, forms of representation, hand drawing

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
519 Optimization of Pressure in Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Ajay Kumar Choubey, Geeta Agnihotri, C. Sasikumar, Rashmi Dwivedi

Abstract:

Deep-drawing operations are performed widely in industrial applications. It is very important for efficiency to achieve parts with no or minimum defects. Deep drawn parts are used in high performance, high strength and high reliability applications where tension, stress, load and human safety are critical considerations. Wrinkling is a kind of defect caused by stresses in the flange part of the blank during metal forming operations. To avoid wrinkling appropriate blank-holder pressure/force or drawbead can be applied. Now-a-day computer simulation plays a vital role in the field of manufacturing process. So computer simulation of manufacturing has much advantage over previous conventional process i.e. mass production, good quality of product, fast working etc. In this study, a two dimensional elasto-plastic Finite Element (F.E.) model for Mild Steel material blank has been developed to study the behavior of the flange wrinkling and deep drawing parameters under different Blank-Holder Pressure (B.H.P.). For this, commercially available Finite Element software ANSYS 14 has been used in this study. Simulation results are critically studied and salient conclusions have been drawn.

Keywords: ANSYS, deep drawing, BHP, finite element simulation, wrinkling

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
518 Evaluating the Use of Digital Art Tools for Drawing to Enhance Artistic Ability and Improve Digital Skill among Junior School Students

Authors: Aber Salem Aboalgasm, Rupert Ward

Abstract:

This study investigated some results of the use of digital art tools by junior school children in order to discover if these tools could promote artistic ability and creativity. The study considers the ease of use and usefulness of the tools as well as how to assess artwork produced by digital means. As the use of these tools is a relatively new development in Art education, this study may help educators in their choice of which tools to use and when to use them. The study also aims to present a model for the assessment of students’ artistic development and creativity by studying their artistic activity. This model can help in determining differences in students’ creative ability and could be useful both for teachers, as a means of assessing digital artwork, and for students, by providing the motivation to use the tools to their fullest extent. Sixteen students aged nine to ten years old were observed and recorded while they used the digital drawing tools. The study found that, according to the students’ own statements, it was not the ease of use but the successful effects the tools provided which motivated the children to use them.

Keywords: artistic ability, creativity, drawing digital tool, TAM model, psychomotor domain

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517 Failure Analysis of Low Relaxation Prestressed High Carbon Steel Wire During Drawing Operation: A Metallurgical Investigation

Authors: Souvik Das, Sandip Bhattacharya, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Manashi Adhikary

Abstract:

Wires breakages during cold drawing are a complex phenomenon; wire breakages may be induced by improper wire-rod quality, inappropriate heat-treated microstructure, and/or lubrication breakdown on the wire surface. A comprehensive metallurgical investigation of failed/broken wire samples is therefore essential for understanding the origin of failure. Frequent breakage of wires during drawing is a matter of serious concern to the wire drawers as it erodes their already slim margins through reduced productivity and loss in yield. The present paper highlights the failure investigation of wires of Low Relaxation Prestressed High Carbon grade during cold drawing due to entrapment of hard constituents detached from the roller entry guide during rolling operations. The hardness measurement of this entrapped location indicates 54.9 Rockwell Hardness as against the rest portion 33.4 Rockwell Hardness. The microstructure chemical analysis and X-ray mapping analysis data of the entrapment location confirmed complex chromium carbide originated from D2-steel used in entry guide during the rolling process. Since the harder entrapped phase could not be deformed in the same manner as the parent phase, the failure of the wire rod occurs during hot rolling.

Keywords: LRPC, D2-steel, chromium carbide, roller guide

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516 Experimental and FEA Study for Reduction of Damage in Sheet Metal Forming

Authors: Amitkumar R. Shelar, B. P. Ronge, Sridevi Seshabhattar, R. M. Wabale

Abstract:

This paper gives knowledge about the behavior of cold rolled steel IS 513_2008 CR2_D having grade D for the reduction of ductile damage. CR specifies Cold Rolled and D for Drawing grade. Problems encountered during sheet metal forming operations are dent, wrinkles, thinning, spring back, insufficient stretching etc. In this paper, wrinkle defect was studied experimentally and by using FE software on one of the auto components due to which its functionality was decreased. Experimental result and simulation result were found to be in agreement.

Keywords: deep drawing, FE software-LS DYNA, friction, wrinkling

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
515 Perception of Violence through the Drawing: A Research with Mexican University Students

Authors: Yessica Martinez Soto, Cesar E. Jimenez Yanez, Margarita Barak Velasquez, Yaralin Aceves Villanueva

Abstract:

The presence of violent behavior in society is growing rapidly, which causes people to live in an environment of constant tension due to fear of becoming victims of violent acts. It is up to social scientists to be able to carry out analyzes in this regard to identify the different ways in which violence is normalized among people. The interest of this research work focuses on investigating the perception of violence in Mexican University students through the technique of drawing. To carry out this research, we worked with 67 university students from the Autonomous University of Baja California in Mexico, who drew an image of how they understood the concept of violence. His works showed us a variety of emotions, actions, and elements that relate and link with violence. One of the methodological tools to recognize and establish the link between the knowledge of a concept between discourse and practice is through graphic representations, that is, drawings. Although the drawing gives us a personal interpretation of the reality of each artist, the repetition of elements and the representation of similar situations allowed us to identify the degrees of incidence of the different types of violence and the areas in which it manifests itself.

Keywords: college students, Mexico, social representations, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
514 Ultradrawing and Ultimate Tensile Properties of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Fibers Filled with Activated Nanocarbon Particles with Varying Specific Surface Areas

Authors: Wang-Xi Fan, Yi Ding, Zhong-Dan Tu, Kuo-Shien Huang, Chao-Ming Huang, Jen-Taut Yeh

Abstract:

Original and/or functionalized activated nanocarbon particles with a quoted specific surface area of 100, 500, 1000 and 1400 m2/g, respectively, were used to investigate the influence of specific surface areas of activated nanocarbon on ultra drawing and ultimate tensile properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), UHMWPE/activated nanocarbon and UHMWPE/ functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers. The specific surface areas of well dispersed functionalized activated nanocarbon in UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers can positively affect their ultra drawing, orientation, ultimate tensile properties and “micro-fibril” characteristics. Excellent orientation and ultimate tensile properties of UHMWPE/nanofiller fibers can be prepared by ultra drawing the UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon as-prepared fibers with optimal contents and compositions of functionalized activated nanocarbon. The ultimate tensile strength value of the best prepared UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon drawn fiber reached 8.0 GPa, which was about 2.86 times of that of the best-prepared UHMWPE drawn fiber prepared in this study. Specific surface area, morphological and Fourier transform infrared analyses of original and functionalized activated nanocarbon and/or investigations of thermal, orientation factor and ultimate tensile properties of as-prepared and/or drawn UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers were performed to understand the above-improved ultra drawing and ultimate tensile properties of the UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers.

Keywords: activated nanocarbon, specific surface areas, ultradrawing, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

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513 Study of Drawing Characteristics due to Friction between the Materials by FEM

Authors: Won Jin Ryu, Mok Tan Ahn, Hyeok Choi, Joon Hong Park, Sung Min Kim, Jong Bae Park

Abstract:

Pipes for offshore plants require specifications that satisfy both high strength and high corrosion resistance. Therefore, currently, clad pipes are used in offshore plants. Clad pipes can be made using either overlay welding or clad plates. The present study was intended to figure out the effects of friction between two materials, which is a factor that affects two materials, were figured out using FEM to make clad pipes through heterogenous material drawing instead of the two methods mentioned above. Therefore, FEM has conducted while all other variables that the variable friction was fixed. The experimental results showed increases in pullout force along with increases in the friction in the boundary layer.

Keywords: clad pipe, FEM, friction, pullout force

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
512 Analysis on the Need of Engineering Drawing and Feasibility Study on 3D Model Based Engineering Implementation

Authors: Parthasarathy J., Ramshankar C. S.

Abstract:

Engineering drawings these days play an important role in every part of an industry. By and large, Engineering drawings are influential over every phase of the product development process. Traditionally, drawings are used for communication in industry because they are the clearest way to represent the product manufacturing information. Until recently, manufacturing activities were driven by engineering data captured in 2D paper documents or digital representations of those documents. The need of engineering drawing is inevitable. Still Engineering drawings are disadvantageous in re-entry of data throughout manufacturing life cycle. This document based approach is prone to errors and requires costly re-entry of data at every stage in the manufacturing life cycle. So there is a requirement to eliminate Engineering drawings throughout product development process and to implement 3D Model Based Engineering (3D MBE or 3D MBD). Adopting MBD appears to be the next logical step to continue reducing time-to-market and improve product quality. Ideally, by fully applying the MBD concept, the product definition will no longer rely on engineering drawings throughout the product lifecycle. This project addresses the need of Engineering drawing and its influence in various parts of an industry and the need to implement the 3D Model Based Engineering with its advantages and the technical barriers that must be overcome in order to implement 3D Model Based Engineering. This project also addresses the requirements of neutral formats and its realisation in order to implement the digital product definition principles in a light format. In order to prove the concepts of 3D Model Based Engineering, the screw jack body part is also demonstrated. At ZF Windpower Coimbatore Limited, 3D Model Based Definition is implemented to Torque Arm (Machining and Casting), Steel tube, Pinion shaft, Cover, Energy tube.

Keywords: engineering drawing, model based engineering MBE, MBD, CAD

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
511 Effect of Punch Diameter on Optimal Loading Profiles in Hydromechanical Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Mehmet Halkaci, Ekrem Öztürk, Mevlüt Türköz, H. Selçuk Halkacı

Abstract:

Hydromechanical deep drawing (HMD) process is an advanced manufacturing process used to form deep parts with only one forming step. In this process, sheet metal blank can be drawn deeper by means of fluid pressure acting on sheet surface in the opposite direction of punch movement. High limiting drawing ratio, good surface quality, less springback characteristic and high dimensional accuracy are some of the advantages of this process. The performance of the HMD process is affected by various process parameters such as fluid pressure, blank holder force, punch-die radius, pre-bulging pressure and height, punch diameter, friction between sheet-die and sheet-punch. The fluid pressure and bank older force are the main loading parameters and affect the formability of HMD process significantly. The punch diameter also influences the limiting drawing ratio (the ratio of initial sheet diameter to punch diameter) of the sheet metal blank. In this research, optimal loading (fluid pressure and blank holder force) profiles were determined for AA 5754-O sheet material through fuzzy control algorithm developed in previous study using LS-DYNA finite element analysis (FEA) software. In the preceding study, the fuzzy control algorithm was developed utilizing geometrical criteria such as thinning and wrinkling. In order to obtain the final desired part with the developed algorithm in terms of the punch diameter requested, the effect of punch diameter, which is the one of the process parameters, on loading profiles was investigated separately using blank thickness of 1 mm. Thus, the practicality of the previously developed fuzzy control algorithm with different punch diameters was clarified. Also, thickness distributions of the sheet metal blank along a curvilinear distance were compared for the FEA in which different punch diameters were used. Consequently, it was found that the use of different punch diameters did not affect the optimal loading profiles too much.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis (FEA), fuzzy control, hydromechanical deep drawing, optimal loading profiles, punch diameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 356