Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: Waleed Maqableh

52 Interactive Multiple Functions User Interface

Authors: Manjit Singh Sidhu, Waleed Maqableh, Jee Geak Ying

Abstract:

Tangible user interfaces (TUI) that employ markers in the augmented reality (AR) environment has hampered the interactivity between the user and the software application. This is because the user lacks focus on visualizing the contents due to the interaction mechanisms whereby multiple markers may need to be used to perform a particular function. In this research, we have designed a novel TUI user interface where multiple functions could be triggered similar to a natural keyboard thus allowing user to focus more on its digital contents such as 2D/3D, text input, animation and sound. Test results of the user interface with potential users and HCI experts revealed that the multiple functions user interface was new, preferred and appreciated more as opposed to marker based user interface.

Keywords: multimedia, augmented reality, engineering, user interface, visualization

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51 Evaluation of AR-4BL-MAST with Multiple Markers Interaction Technique for Augmented Reality Based Engineering Application

Authors: Waleed Maqableh, Ahmad Al-Hamad, Manjit Sidhu

Abstract:

Augmented reality (AR) technology has the capability to provide many benefits in the field of education as a modern technology which aided learning and improved the learning experience. This paper evaluates AR based application with multiple markers interaction technique (touch-to-print) which is designed for analyzing the kinematics of 4BL mechanism in mechanical engineering. The application is termed as AR-4BL-MAST and it allows the users to touch the symbols on a paper in natural way of interaction. The evaluation of this application was performed with mechanical engineering students and human–computer interaction (HCI) experts to test its effectiveness as a tangible user interface application where the statistical results show its ability as an interaction technique, and it gives the users more freedom in interaction with the virtual mechanical objects.

Keywords: augmented reality, multimedia, user interface, engineering, education technology

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50 Phytochemical Investigation and Diuretic Activity of the Palestinian Crataegus aronia in Mice Using an Aqueous Extract

Authors: Belal Rahhal, Isra Taha, Insaf Najajreh, Waleed Basha, Hamzeh Alzabadeh, Ahed Zyoud

Abstract:

Phytochemical Investigation and Diuretic Activity of the Palestinian Crataegus aronia in Mice using an Aqueous Extract Division of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences An- Najah National University Nablus- Palestine Belal Rahhal, Isra Taha, Insaf Najajreh, Waleed Basha, Hamzeh Alzabadeh and Ahed Zyoud Purpose: Throughout history, various natural materials were used as remedies for treatment of various diseases, and recently a vastly growing and renewed interest in herbal medicine is witnessed globally. In Palestinian folk medicine, Crataegus aronia is used as a diuretic and for treatment of hypertension. This study aimed to assess the preliminary phytochemical properties and the diuretic effect of the aqueous extracts of this plant in mice after its intraperitonial administration. Methods: It is an experimental trial applied on mice (n=8, Male, CD-1, weight range: [25-30 gram]), which are divided into two groups (4 in each). The first group administered with the plant extract (500 mg/kg) , and the second with normal saline as negative control group. Then urine output and electrolyte contents were quantified up to 6 hours for the three groups and then compared to the control one. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids and flavoniods as major phytoconstituents in aqueous extract. Significant diuresis was noted in those received the aqueous extract of Crataegus aronia (p < 0.05) compared to controls. Moreover, aqueous extract had an acidic pH and a mild increase in the electrolyte excretion (Na, K). Conclusions: Our results revealed that Crataegus aronia aqueous extract has a potential diuretic effect. Further studies are needed to evaluate this diuretic effect in the relief of diseases characterized by volume overload. Keywords: C. aronia, furosemide, diuresis, mice, medicinal plants.

Keywords: medicinal plants, diuretic activity, mice, C. aronia, , furosemide, , Phytochemical Investigation

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49 Photocatalytic Activity of Pure and Doped CeO2 Nanoparticles

Authors: Mohamed Khedr, Ahmed Farghali, Waleed El Rouby, Abdelrhman Hamdeldeen

Abstract:

Pure CeO2, Sm and Gd doped CeO2 were successfully prepared via hydrothermal method. The effect of hydrothermal temperature, reaction time and precursors were investigated. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman Spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The prepared pure and doped CeO2 nanoparticles were used as photo-catalyst for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) dye under UV light irradiation. The results showed that Gd doped CeO2 nano-particles have the best catalytic degradation effect for MB under UV irradiation. The degradation pathways of MB were followed using liquid chromatography (LC/MS) and it was found that Gd doped CeO2 was able to oxidize MB dye with a complete mineralization of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms into CO2, NH4+, NO3- and SO42-.

Keywords: CeO2, doped CeO2, photocatalysis, methylene blue

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48 Comparison between Transient Elastography (FibroScan) and Liver Biopsy for Diagnosis of Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Seham Seif, Shahera Etreby, Khaled Zalata, Waleed Samir

Abstract:

Background: Transient Elastography (TE; FibroScan®) is a non-invasive technique to assess liver fibrosis. Aim: To compare TE and liver biopsy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, genotype IV and evaluate the effect of steatosis and schistosomiasis on FibroScan. Methods: The fibrosis stage (METAVIR Score) TE, was assessed in 519 patients. The diagnostic performance of FibroScan is assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). Results: The cut-off value of ≥ F2 was 8.55 kPa, ≥ F3 was 10.2 kPa and cirrhosis = F4 was 16.3 kPa. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 70.1% and 81.7% for the diagnosis of ≥ F2, 62.6% and 96.22% for F ≥ 3, and 27.7% and 100% for F4. No significant difference between schistosomiasis, steatosis degree and FibroScan measurements. Conclusion: Fibroscan could accurately predict liver fibrosis.

Keywords: chronic hepatitis C, FibroScan, liver biopsy, liver fibrosis

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47 Potential Risk Factors Associated with Sole Hemorrhages Causing Lameness in Egyptian Water Buffaloes and Native Breed Cows

Authors: Waleed El-Said Abou El-Amaiem

Abstract:

Sole hemorrhages are considered as a main cause for sub clinical laminitis. In this study we aimed at discussing the most prominent risk factors associated with sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows. The final multivariate logistic regression model showed, a significant association between sub acute ruminal acidosis (P< 0.05), limb affected (P< 0.05) and weight (P< 0.05) and sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper to discuss the risk factors associated with sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows.

Keywords: lameness, buffalo, sole hemorrhages, breed cows

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46 Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Arsenic-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat

Abstract:

The protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) was investigated in rats exposed to testicular injury induced by sodium arsenite (10mg/kg/day, orally, for two days). TQ treatment (10mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) was applied for five days, starting three day before arsenic administration. TQ significantly attenuated the arsenic-induced decreases of serum testosterone, and testicular reduced glutathione level, and significantly decreased the elevations of testicular malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels resulted from arsenic administration. Also, TQ ameliorated the arsenic-induced testicular tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, TQ decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. It was concluded that TQ may represent a potential candidate to protect against arsenic-induced testicular injury.

Keywords: thymoquinone, arsenic, testes, rats

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45 Protective Effect of Hesperidin against Cyclophosphamide Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat

Abstract:

The protective effect of hesperidin was investigated in rats exposed to liver injury induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) at a dose of 150 mg kg-1. Hesperidin treatment (100 mg kg-1/day, orally) was applied for seven days, starting five days before CYP administration. Hesperidin significantly decreased the CYP-induced elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity, significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity resulted from CYP administration. Also, hesperidin ameliorated the CYP-induced liver tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, hesperidin decreased the CYP-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, Fas ligand, and caspase-9 in liver tissue. It was concluded that hesperidin may represent a potential candidate to protect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: hesperidin, cyclophosphamide, liver, rats

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44 Up-Flow Sponge Submerged Biofilm Reactor for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Authors: Saber A. El-Shafai, Waleed M. Zahid

Abstract:

An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with sponge was investigated for sewage treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles as single aerobic (1-1 at 3.5 L/L.d HLR and 1-2 at 3.8 L/L.day HLR) and four cycles as single anaerobic/aerobic reactor; 2-1 and 2-2 at low HLR (3.7 and 3.5 L/L.day) and 2-3 and 2-4 at high HLR (5.1 and 5.4 L/L.day). During the aerobic cycles, 50% effluent recycling significantly reduces the system performance except for phosphorous. In case of the anaerobic/aerobic reactor, the effluent recycling, significantly improves system performance at low HLR while at high HLR only phosphorous removal was improved. Excess sludge production was limited to 0.133 g TSS/g COD with better sludge volume index (SVI) in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles; (54.7 versus 58.5 ml/g).

Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, up-flow, submerged biofilm, sponge

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43 Reinforced Concrete, Problems and Solutions: A Literature Review

Authors: Omar Alhamad, Waleed Eid

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete is a concrete lined with steel so that the materials work together in the resistance forces. Reinforcement rods or mesh are used for tensile, shear, and sometimes intense pressure in a concrete structure. Reinforced concrete is subject to many natural problems or industrial errors. The result of these problems is that it reduces the efficiency of the reinforced concrete or its usefulness. Some of these problems are cracks, earthquakes, high temperatures or fires, as well as corrosion of reinforced iron inside reinforced concrete. There are also factors of ancient buildings or monuments that require some techniques to preserve them. This research presents some general information about reinforced concrete, the pros and cons of reinforced concrete, and then presents a series of literary studies of some of the late published researches on the subject of reinforced concrete and how to preserve it, propose solutions or treatments for the treatment of reinforced concrete problems, raise efficiency and quality for a longer period. These studies have provided advanced and modern methods and techniques in the field of reinforced concrete.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, treatment, concrete, corrosion, seismic, cracks

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42 A Novel Method For Non-Invasive Diagnosis Of Hepatitis C Virus Using Electromagnetic Signal Detection: A Multicenter International Study

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Waleed Samir, Zahid Azam, Premashis Kar, Saeed Hamid, Shiv Sarin

Abstract:

A simple, rapid and non-invasive electromagnetic sensor (C-FAST device) was- patented; for diagnosis of HCV RNA. Aim: To test the validity of the device compared to standard HCV PCR. Subjects and Methods: The first phase was done as pilot in Egypt on 79 participants; the second phase was done in five centers: one center from Egypt, two centers from Pakistan and two centers from India (800, 92 and 113 subjects respectively). The third phase was done nationally as multicenter study on (1600) participants for ensuring its representativeness. Results: When compared to PCR technique, C-FAST device revealed sensitivity 95% to 100%, specificity 95.5% to 100%, PPV 89.5% to 100%, NPV 95% to 100% and positive likelihood ratios 21.8% to 38.5%. Conclusion: It is practical evidence that HCV nucleotides emit electromagnetic signals that can be used for its identification. As compared to PCR, C-FAST is an accurate, valid and non-invasive device.

Keywords: C-FAST- a valid and reliable device, distant cellular interaction, electromagnetic signal detection, non-invasive diagnosis of HCV

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41 How to Perform Proper Indexing?

Authors: Watheq Mansour, Waleed Bin Owais, Mohammad Basheer Kotit, Khaled Khan

Abstract:

Efficient query processing is one of the utmost requisites in any business environment to satisfy consumer needs. This paper investigates the various types of indexing models, viz. primary, secondary, and multi-level. The investigation is done under the ambit of various types of queries to which each indexing model performs with efficacy. This study also discusses the inherent advantages and disadvantages of each indexing model and how indexing models can be chosen based on a particular environment. This paper also draws parallels between various indexing models and provides recommendations that would help a Database administrator to zero-in on a particular indexing model attributed to the needs and requirements of the production environment. In addition, to satisfy industry and consumer needs attributed to the colossal data generation nowadays, this study has proposed two novel indexing techniques that can be used to index highly unstructured and structured Big Data with efficacy. The study also briefly discusses some best practices that the industry should follow in order to choose an indexing model that is apposite to their prerequisites and requirements.

Keywords: indexing, hashing, latent semantic indexing, B-tree

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40 Biogenic-Sedimentary Structures of the Ordovician-Khabour Formation from the Northern Thrust Zone, Kurdistan, Iraq

Authors: Waleed Sulaiman Shingaly

Abstract:

The Ordivician-Khabour Formation from the Northern Thrust Zone of Iraqi-Kurdistan comprises between 500 and 800 m of alternating predominantly greenish-grey sandstones, siltstones and shales. The succession has revealed an abundant ichnofossils characterized by 11 ichnogenus, namely: Helminthopsis, Gordia, Cruziana, Rusophycus, Monomorphichnus, Rhizocorallium, Thalassinoide, Planolite, Paleophycus, Deplocraterion and Skolithose. Ethologically these ichnogenera display dwelling and feeding activities of the infaunal organisms. This association of ichnofossils contains elements of the Skolithose and Cruziana ichnofacies. The presence of Skolithos ichnofacies indicates sandy shifting substrate and high energy conditions in foreshore zone while the Cruziana ichnofacies indicate unconsolidated, poorly sorted soft substrate and low energy condition in the shore face/offshore zone. These ichnogenera indicate shoreface-offshore zone of shallow-marine environment for the deposition of the rocks of the Khabour Formation.

Keywords: Ichnofossils, shoreface-offshore zone, Khabour Formation, Iraq

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39 Evaluation of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Eugenol with Lanolin Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashar Iqbal, Amna Jalal, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax in orchard of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Lanolin wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFₗₗ-7 trapped 42.1 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 51.71%, proved strongly attractive SRFₗₗ for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (AI > 50%). The SRFₗₗ-2, SRFₗₗ-3, SRFₗₗ-4, SRFₗₗ-5, SRFₗₗ-6, SRFₗₗ-8 and SRFₗₗ-9 trapped 17.7, 27.9, 32.3, 23.8, 28.3, 37.8 and 19.9 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 20.54%, 41.02%, 26.00%, 34.15%, 43.50%, 49.86% and 46.07% AI respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulations for B. zonata and were categorized as Class-II slow-released formulations (AI = 11-50%). However, SRFₗₗ-1 trapped 14.8 flies /day/trap, exhibited 0.71% AI proved little or nonattractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, lenoline wax, methyl euginol

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38 Adapting the Chemical Reaction Optimization Algorithm to the Printed Circuit Board Drilling Problem

Authors: Taisir Eldos, Aws Kanan, Waleed Nazih, Ahmad Khatatbih

Abstract:

Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) is an optimization metaheuristic inspired by the nature of chemical reactions as a natural process of transforming the substances from unstable to stable states. Starting with some unstable molecules with excessive energy, a sequence of interactions takes the set to a state of minimum energy. Researchers reported successful application of the algorithm in solving some engineering problems, like the quadratic assignment problem, with superior performance when compared with other optimization algorithms. We adapted this optimization algorithm to the Printed Circuit Board Drilling Problem (PCBDP) towards reducing the drilling time and hence improving the PCB manufacturing throughput. Although the PCBDP can be viewed as instance of the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), it has some characteristics that would require special attention to the transactions that explore the solution landscape. Experimental test results using the standard CROToolBox are not promising for practically sized problems, while it could find optimal solutions for artificial problems and small benchmarks as a proof of concept.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, chemical reaction optimization, traveling salesman, board drilling

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37 Words of Peace in the Speeches of the Egyptian President, Abdulfattah El-Sisi: A Corpus-Based Study

Authors: Mohamed S. Negm, Waleed S. Mandour

Abstract:

The present study aims primarily at investigating words of peace (lexemes of peace) in the formal speeches of the Egyptian president Abdulfattah El-Sisi in a two-year span of time, from 2018 to 2019. This paper attempts to shed light not only on the contextual use of the antonyms, war and peace, but also it underpins quantitative analysis through the current methods of corpus linguistics. As such, the researchers have deployed a corpus-based approach in collecting, encoding, and processing 30 presidential speeches over the stated period (23,411 words and 25,541 tokens in total). Further, semantic fields and collocational networkzs are identified and compared statistically. Results have shown a significant propensity of adopting peace, including its relevant collocation network, textually and therefore, ideationally, at the expense of war concept which in most cases surfaces euphemistically through the noun conflict. The president has not justified the action of war with an honorable cause or a valid reason. Such results, so far, have indicated a positive sociopolitical mindset the Egyptian president possesses and moreover, reveal national and international fair dealing on arising issues.

Keywords: CADS, collocation network, corpus linguistics, critical discourse analysis

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36 Investigation the Effect of Quenching Media on Abrasive Wear in Grade Medium Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas S. Alwan, Waleed K. Hussan

Abstract:

In this paper, a general verification of possible heat treatment of steel has been done with the view of conditions of real abrasive wear of rotivater with soil texture. This technique is found promising to improve the quality of agriculture components working with the soil in dry condition. Abrasive wear resistance is very important in many applications and in most cases it is directly correlated with the hardness of materials surface. Responded of heat treatments were carried out in various media (Still air, Cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %) and follow by low-temperature tempering (250°C) was applied on steel type (AISI 1030). After heat treatment was applied wear with soil texture by using tillage process to determine the (actual wear rate) of the specimens depending on weight loss method. It was found; the wear resistance Increases with increase hardness with varying quenching media as follows; 30 HRC, 45 HRC, 52 HRC, and 60 HRC for nontreated (as received) cooling media as still air, cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %, respectively. Martensitic structure with retained austenite can be obtained depending on the quenching medium. Wear was presented on the worn surfaces of the steels which were used in this work.

Keywords: microstructures, hardness, abrasive wear, heat treatment, soil texture

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35 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: biodegradable waxes, slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, methyl euginol

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34 Use of Fruit Beetles, Waxworms Larvae and Tiger Worms in Waste Conditioning for Composting

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen

Abstract:

In many countries, cow dung is used as farm manure and for biogas production. Several bacterial strains associated with cow dung such as Campylobacter, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli cause serious human diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of insect larvae including fruit beetle, waxworms and tiger worms to improve the breakdown of agricultural wastes and reduce their pathogen loads. Fresh cow faeces were collected from a cattle farm and distributed into plastic boxes (100 g/box). Each box was provided with 10 larvae of fruit beetle, Waxworms and Tiger worms, respectively. There were 3 replicates in each treatment including the control. Bacteria were isolated weekly from both control and cow faeces to which larvae were added to determine the bacterial populations. Results revealed that the bacterial load was higher in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetles than in the control, while the bacterial load was lower in the cow faeces treated with waxworms and tiger worms than in the control. The activities of the fruit beetle larvae led to the cow faeces being liquefied which provided a more conducive growing media for bacteria. Therefore, higher bacterial load in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetle might be attributed to the liquefaction of cow faeces.

Keywords: fruit beetle, waxworms, tiger worms, waste conditioning, composting

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33 Retrospective Analysis of Injuries to Flight Attendants in a Commercial Airliner

Authors: B. K. Umesh Kumar, Waleed Al Shukaili

Abstract:

Air travel is one of the safest modes of travel. Inflight injuries occur due to various factors such as air turbulence, spillage of hot liquids, and fall of improperly stowed overhead baggage. Injuries occur not only to passengers but also to the flight attendants who are handling the passengers throughout the flight. A retrospective study of all records of crew safety report by the captain of the aircraft for all the flights from 01 Mar 2015 to 31 Mar 2019 in a National Carrier of Middle Eastern country, were analyzed. There was one injury to Flight attendant every 1200 flights. Commonest aircraft involved was Boeing. Inflight phase had 82% of all injuries. 63% of accidents involved female Attendants. Commonest age group involved was from 25-30 years. Cart and container injuries were the commonest and accounted for nearly 62% of the total injuries followed by turbulence. Back injuries were the commonest injuries followed by ankle, shoulder, and burns. Mean days of absence from work seen in shoulder injuries 40 days followed by injuries to back, which accounted for 38 Days. Reduction in injuries to flight attendants can be brought about by proper selection of crew, reduction in cart load. Proper maintenance of cart and container plays a major role in prevention of occupational accidents.

Keywords: flight attendants, in-flight injuries, types of injuries, work related injury prevention

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32 Assesment of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Euginol with Carnauba Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas Amjad, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq

Abstract:

Present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of methyl eugenol with Carnauba wax in orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Carnauba wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFCN-9 trapped 35.3 flies/day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 50.35%, proved strongly attractive SRFCN for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (Attractive Index > 50%). The SRFCN-1, SRFCN-2, SRFCN-3, SRFCN-4, SRFCN-5, SRFCN-6, SRFCN-7 and SRFCN-8 trapped 2.0, 5.3, 3.3, 4.0, 5.7, 12.0, 9.7 and 14.3 flies/day/trap respectively exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of -70.73%, -37.25%, -55.55%, -48.93%, -34.61%, 1.40%, -9.37% and 10.25% Attractive Index respectively, proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (Attractive Index < 11%). Results revealed that the Slow-Released Formulation containing 10% Carnauba wax with 90% methyl eugenol trapped maximum number of flies of over 30 days.

Keywords: slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, Carnauba wax, methyl euginol

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31 The Effects of Cow Manure Treated by Fruit Beetle Larvae, Waxworms and Tiger Worms on Plant Growth in Relation to Its Use as Potting Compost

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen

Abstract:

Dairy industry is flourishing in world to provide milk and milk products to local population. Besides milk products, dairy industries also generate a substantial amount of cow manure that significantly affects the environment. Moreover, heat produced during the decomposition of the cow manure adversely affects the crop germination. Different companies are producing vermicompost using different species of worms/larvae to overcome the harmful effects using fresh manure. Tiger worm treatment enhanced plant growth, especially in the compost-manure ratio (75% compost, 25% cow manure), followed by a ratio of 50% compost, 50% cow manure.  Results also indicated that plant growth in Waxworm treated manure was weak as compared to plant growth in compost treated with Fruit Beetle (FB), Waxworms (WW), and Control (C) especially in the compost (25% compost, 75% cow manure) and 100% cow manure where there was no growth at all. Freshplant weight, fresh leaf weight and fresh root weight were significantly higher in the compost treated with Tiger worms in (75% compost, 25% cow manure); no evidence was seen for any significant differences in the dry root weight measurement between FB, Tiger worms (TW), WW, Control (C) in all composts. TW produced the best product, especially at the compost ratio of 75% compost, 25% cow manure followed by 50% compost, 50% cow manure.

Keywords: fruit beetle, tiger worms, waxworms, control

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30 Effect of Segregation Pattern of Mn, Si, and C on through Thickness Microstructure and Properties of Hot Rolled Steel

Authors: Waleed M. Al-Othman, Hamid Bayati, Abdullah Al-Shahrani, Haitham Al-Jabr

Abstract:

Pearlite bands commonly form parallel to the surface of the hot rolled steel and have significant influence on the properties of the steel. This study investigated the correlation between segregation pattern of Mn, Si, C and formation of the pearlite bands in hot rolled Gr 60 steel plate. Microstructural study indicated formation of a distinguished thick band at centerline of the plate with number of parallel bands through thickness of the steel plate. The thickness, frequency, and continuity of the bands are reduced from mid-thickness toward external surface of the steel plate. Analysis showed a noticeable increase of C, Si and Mn levels within the bands. Such alloying segregation takes place during metal solidification. EDS analysis verified presence of particles rich in Ti, Nb, Mn, C, N, within the bands. Texture analysis by Electron Backscatter Detector (EBSD) indicated the grains size/misorientation can noticeably change within the bands. Effect of banding on through-thickness properties of the steel was examined by carrying out microhardness, toughness and tensile tests. Results suggest the Mn and C contents are changed in sinusoidal pattern through thickness of the hot rolled plate and pearlite bands are formed at the peaks of this sinusoidal segregation pattern. Changes in grain size/misorientation, formation of highly alloyed particles, and pearlite within these bands, facilitate crack formation along boundaries of these bands.

Keywords: pearlite band, alloying segregation, hot rolling, Ti, Nb, N, C

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29 Developing an ANN Model to Predict Anthropometric Dimensions Based on Real Anthropometric Database

Authors: Waleed A. Basuliman, Khalid S. AlSaleh, Mohamed Z. Ramadan

Abstract:

Applying the anthropometric dimensions is considered one of the important factors when designing any human-machine system. In this study, the estimation of anthropometric dimensions has been improved by developing artificial neural network that aims to predict the anthropometric measurements of the male in Saudi Arabia. A total of 1427 Saudi males from age 6 to 60 participated in measuring twenty anthropometric dimensions. These anthropometric measurements are important for designing the majority of work and life applications in Saudi Arabia. The data were collected during 8 months from different locations in Riyadh City. Five of these dimensions were used as predictors variables (inputs) of the model, and the remaining fifteen dimensions were set to be the measured variables (outcomes). The hidden layers have been varied during the structuring stage, and the best performance was achieved with the network structure 6-25-15. The results showed that the developed Neural Network model was significantly able to predict the body dimensions for the population of Saudi Arabia. The network mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were found 0.0348 and 3.225 respectively. The accuracy of the developed neural network was evaluated by compare the predicted outcomes with a multiple regression model. The ANN model performed better and resulted excellent correlation coefficients between the predicted and actual dimensions.

Keywords: artificial neural network, anthropometric measurements, backpropagation, real anthropometric database

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28 Camel Mortalities Due to Accidental Intoxcation with Ionophore

Authors: M. A. Abdelfattah, F. K. Waleed

Abstract:

Anticoccidials were utilized widely in veterinary practice for the avoidance of coccidiosis in poultry and assume a huge job as development promotants in ruminants. Ionophore harming is every now and again happens because of accidental access to medicated feed, errors in feed mixing, incorrect dosage calculation or misuse in non-recommended species. Camels on several farms in Eastern area of Saudi Arabia were accidently fed with a feed pellet containing 13 ppm salinomycin. One hundred and sixty-three camels died with mortality rate of 100%. The poisoning was clinically characterized by restlessness with tail lift to the top, jerk in the muscles of legs and thighs, excessive sweating, frequent setting and standing with body imbalance, lateral and sternal recumbences with the legs stretched back, eye tears with dilated pupil, vomiting of the stomach content, loss of consciousness and death of some of them. Feed analysis indicated the presence of salinomycin in pelleted feed in a range of 13 mg/kg-47 mg/kg. Necropsy findings and histopathological examinations were presented. Regulations and legal implications concerning with sale of contaminated feed in Saudi market are discussed in the light of feed law and by-law. The necessity for an effective implication of regulation concerning application of quality assurance systems based on the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the application of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point (HACCP) during feed production is necessary to avoid feed accident.

Keywords: medicated feed, salinomycin, anticoccidial, camel, toxicity

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27 The Development of Crisis Distance Education at Kuwait University During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Waleed Alanzi

Abstract:

The purpose of this qualitative study was to add to the existing literature and provide a more detailed understanding of the individual experiences and perceptions of 15 Deans at the University of Kuwait regarding their first year of planning, developing, and implementing crisis distance education (CDE) in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. An interpretative phenomenological approach was applied, using the thematic analysis of interview transcripts to describe the challenging journeys taken by each of the Deans from the first-person point of view. There was objective evidence, manifested by four primary themes (“Obstacles to the implementation of CDE”; “Planning for CDE”; “Training for CDE,” and “Future Directions”) to conclude that the faculty members, technical staff, administrative staff, and students generally helped each other to overcome the obstacles associated with planning and implementing CDE. The idea that CDE may turn homes into schools and parents into teachers was supported. The planning and implementation of CDE were inevitably associated with a certain amount of confusion, as well as disruptions in the daily routines of staff and students, as well as significant changes in their responsibilities. There were contradictory ideas about the future directions of distance education after the pandemic. Previous qualitative research on the implementation of CDE at higher education institutions in the Arab world has focused mainly on the experiences and perceptions of students; however, little is known about the experiences and perceptions of the students at the University of Kuwait during the COVID19 pandemic, providing a rationale and direction for future research.

Keywords: distance learning, qualitative research, COVID-19 epidemic, Kuwait university

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26 Estimating Anthropometric Dimensions for Saudi Males Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Waleed Basuliman

Abstract:

Anthropometric dimensions are considered one of the important factors when designing human-machine systems. In this study, the estimation of anthropometric dimensions has been improved by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model that is able to predict the anthropometric measurements of Saudi males in Riyadh City. A total of 1427 Saudi males aged 6 to 60 years participated in measuring 20 anthropometric dimensions. These anthropometric measurements are considered important for designing the work and life applications in Saudi Arabia. The data were collected during eight months from different locations in Riyadh City. Five of these dimensions were used as predictors variables (inputs) of the model, and the remaining 15 dimensions were set to be the measured variables (Model’s outcomes). The hidden layers varied during the structuring stage, and the best performance was achieved with the network structure 6-25-15. The results showed that the developed Neural Network model was able to estimate the body dimensions of Saudi male population in Riyadh City. The network's mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were found to be 0.0348 and 3.225, respectively. These results were found less, and then better, than the errors found in the literature. Finally, the accuracy of the developed neural network was evaluated by comparing the predicted outcomes with regression model. The ANN model showed higher coefficient of determination (R2) between the predicted and actual dimensions than the regression model.

Keywords: artificial neural network, anthropometric measurements, back-propagation

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25 Robot Operating System-Based SLAM for a Gazebo-Simulated Turtlebot2 in 2d Indoor Environment with Cartographer Algorithm

Authors: Wilayat Ali, Li Sheng, Waleed Ahmed

Abstract:

The ability of the robot to make simultaneously map of the environment and localize itself with respect to that environment is the most important element of mobile robots. To solve SLAM many algorithms could be utilized to build up the SLAM process and SLAM is a developing area in Robotics research. Robot Operating System (ROS) is one of the frameworks which provide multiple algorithm nodes to work with and provide a transmission layer to robots. Manyof these algorithms extensively in use are Hector SLAM, Gmapping and Cartographer SLAM. This paper describes a ROS-based Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) library Google Cartographer mapping, which is open-source algorithm. The algorithm was applied to create a map using laser and pose data from 2d Lidar that was placed on a mobile robot. The model robot uses the gazebo package and simulated in Rviz. Our research work's primary goal is to obtain mapping through Cartographer SLAM algorithm in a static indoor environment. From our research, it is shown that for indoor environments cartographer is an applicable algorithm to generate 2d maps with LIDAR placed on mobile robot because it uses both odometry and poses estimation. The algorithm has been evaluated and maps are constructed against the SLAM algorithms presented by Turtlebot2 in the static indoor environment.

Keywords: SLAM, ROS, navigation, localization and mapping, gazebo, Rviz, Turtlebot2, slam algorithms, 2d indoor environment, cartographer

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24 Green Synthesis of Magnetic, Silica Nanocomposite and Its Adsorptive Performance against Organochlorine Pesticides

Authors: Waleed A. El-Said, Dina M. Fouad, Mohamed H. Aly, Mohamed A. El-Gahami

Abstract:

Green synthesis of nanomaterials has received increasing attention as an eco-friendly technology in materials science. Here, we have used two types of extractions from green tea leaf (i.e. total extraction and tannin extraction) as reducing agents for a rapid, simple and one step synthesis method of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs)/iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocomposite based on deposition of Fe3O4 onto MSNPs. MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, vibrating sample magnetometer, N2 adsorption, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The average mesoporous silica particle diameter was found to be around 30 nm with high surface area (818 m2/gm). MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was used for removing lindane pesticide (an environmental hazard material) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared, UV-vis, High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography techniques were used to confirm the high ability of MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite for sensing and capture of lindane molecules with high sorption capacity (more than 89%) that could develop a new eco-friendly strategy for detection and removing of pesticide and as a promising material for water treatment application.

Keywords: green synthesis, mesoporous silica, magnetic iron oxide NPs, adsorption Lindane

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23 Efficacy of Cool's and Rhythmic Stabilization Exercises on Scapular up Ward Rotation and Ut/Sa Ratio in Patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Authors: Mohammed Moustafa, Khaled Ayad, Waleed Reda

Abstract:

Shoulder impingement syndrome is the most common disorder of the shoulder, resulting in functional loss and disability. Objective: This study was designed to compare between the effects of scapular muscle training versus rhythmic stabilization exercises in treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome. Methods: Thirty patients participated in this study; they were assigned randomly into two experimental groups. The first experimental group (A) consisted of 15 patients with a mean age (21.87±2.72) years; they received graduated rhythmic stabilization exercises and stretching of the posterior capsule. The second experimental group (B) consisted of 15 patients with a mean age (22.27±2.94) years; they received scapular muscle training exercises in addition to stretching of the posterior capsule. Treatment was given three times per week, every other day, for four consecutive weeks. Patients have been evaluated pretreatment and post treatment for shoulder pain severity and functional disability. Results: Both groups showed highly statistical significant reduction in pain severity and functional disability measured post-treatment when compared with their corresponding values in pretreatment assessment. Conclusion: Both of rhythmic stabilization exercises and scapular muscle training are effective interventions to reduce shoulder pain severity and functional disability.

Keywords: impingement syndrome, scapular exercises, rhythmic stabilization exercises, posterior capsule stretch

Procedia PDF Downloads 172