Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 969

Search results for: the microwave spectra

969 The Microwave and Far Infrared Spectra of Acetaldehyde-d1 in vt=2

Authors: A. Larrousi, M. Elkeurti, K. Amara, M. Zemouli, L. H. Coudert, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, Atsuko Maeda, R. W. C. McKellar, D. Appadoo


Experimental and theoretical investigations of the microwave and far infrared spectra of CH3COD are reported. Two hundred twelve lines were identified in the far infrared spectrum recorded using the Canadian synchrotron radiation light source. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-eight lines in vt=0,1 and 216 in vt=2 have been measured in the microwave spectrum obtained using the fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique. A global analysis of the new data and of already available microwave lines has been carried out and yielded values for rotation–torsion parameters. The unitless weighted standard deviation of the fit is 1.6. 46 parameters and 216 lines were identified.

Keywords: CH3COD, torsion, the microwave spectra, far infrared spectra high resolution

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968 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar


The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by radio-frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40 oC to +150 oC and can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by capacitance bridge and inwave guide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement

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967 Microwave Assisted Growth of Varied Phases and Morphologies of Vanadium Oxides Nanostructures: Structural and Optoelectronic Properties

Authors: Issam Derkaoui, Mohammed Khenfouch, Bakang M. Mothudi, Malik Maaza, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio


Transition metal oxides nanoparticles with different morphologies have attracted a lot of attention recently owning to their distinctive geometries, and demonstrated promising electrical properties for various applications. In this paper, we discuss the time and annealing effects on the structural and electrical properties of vanadium oxides nanoparticles (VO-NPs) prepared by microwave method. In this sense, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra (Uv-Vis) and electrical conductivity were investigated. Hence, the annealing state and the time are two crucial parameters for the improvement of the optoelectronic properties. The use of these nanostructures is promising way for the development of technological applications especially for energy storage devices.

Keywords: Vanadium oxide, Microwave, Electrical conductivity, Optoelectronic properties

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966 Morphology and Electrical Conductivity of a Non-Symmetrical NiO-SDC/SDC Anode through a Microwave-Assisted Route

Authors: Mohadeseh Seyednezhad, Armin Rajabi, Andanastui Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu


This work investigates the electrical properties of NiO-SDC/SDC anode sintered at about 1200 ○C for 1h through a relatively new approach, namely the microwave method. Nano powders Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC) and NiO were mixed by using a high-energy ball-mill and subsequent co-pressed at three different compaction pressures 200, 300 and 400 MPa. The novelty of this study consists in the effect of compaction pressure on the electrochemical performance of Ni-SDC/SDC anode, with no binder used between layers. The electrical behavior of the prepared anode has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) in controlled atmospheres, operating at high temperatures (600-800 °C).

Keywords: sintering, fuel cell, electrical conductivity, nanostructures, impedance spectroscopy, ceramics

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965 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee


One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: microwave absorber, reflection loss, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), X-Band

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964 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed


An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: microwave, wool, fabric, moth, eradication, resistance

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963 Aluminum Based Hexaferrite and Reduced Graphene Oxide a Suitable Microwave Absorber for Microwave Application

Authors: Sanghamitra Acharya, Suwarna Datar


Extensive use of digital and smart communication createsprolong expose of unwanted electromagnetic (EM) radiations. This harmful radiation creates not only malfunctioning of nearby electronic gadgets but also severely affects a human being. So, a suitable microwave absorbing material (MAM) becomes a necessary urge in the field of stealth and radar technology. Initially, Aluminum based hexa ferrite was prepared by sol-gel technique and for carbon derived composite was prepared by the simple one port chemical reduction method. Finally, composite films of Poly (Vinylidene) Fluoride (PVDF) are prepared by simple gel casting technique. Present work demands that aluminum-based hexaferrite phase conjugated with graphene in PVDF matrix becomes a suitable candidate both in commercially important X and Ku band. The structural and morphological nature was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission-scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectra which conforms that 30-40 nm particles are well decorated over graphene sheet. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and conducting force microscopy (CFM) study further conforms the magnetic and conducting nature of composite. Finally, shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite film was studied by using Vector network analyzer (VNA) both in X band and Ku band frequency range and found to be more than 30 dB and 40 dB, respectively. As prepared composite films are excellent microwave absorbers.

Keywords: carbon nanocomposite, microwave absorbing material, electromagnetic shielding, hexaferrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
962 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR

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961 Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers

Authors: Pejman Hosseinioun, Ali Safari, Hamed Sarbazi


Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon with numerous impressive properties. It is a promising material for future high-speed nanoelectronics due to its intrinsic superior carrier mobility and very high saturation velocity. These exceptional carrier transport properties suggest that graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) can potentially outperform other FET technologies. In this paper, detailed discussions are introduced for Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers.

Keywords: graphene, microwave FETs, microwave amplifiers, transistors

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960 Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Lycopene from Gac Arils (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng)

Authors: Yardfon Tanongkankit, Kanjana Narkprasom, Nukrob Narkprasom, Khwanruthai Saiupparat, Phatthareeya Siriwat


Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng) possesses high potential for health food as it contains high lycopene contents. The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils using the microwave extraction method. Response surface method was used to find the conditions that optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils. The parameters of extraction used in this study were extraction time (120-600 seconds), the solvent to sample ratio (10:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1 and 50:1 mL/g) and set microwave power (100-800 watts). The results showed that the microwave extraction condition at the extraction time of 360 seconds, the sample ratio of 30:1 mL/g and the microwave power of 450 watts were suggested since it exhibited the highest value of lycopene content of 9.86 mg/gDW. It was also observed that lycopene contents extracted from gac arils by microwave method were higher than that by the conventional method.

Keywords: conventional extraction, Gac arils, microwave-assisted extraction, Lycopene

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959 Microwave Tomography: The Analytical Treatment for Detecting Malignant Tumor Inside Human Body

Authors: Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong


Early detection through screening is the best tool short of a perfect treatment against the malignant tumor inside the breast of a woman. By detecting cancer in its early stages, it can be recognized and treated before it has the opportunity to spread and change into potentially dangerous. Microwave tomography is a new imaging method based on contrast in dielectric properties of materials. The mathematical theory of microwave tomography involves solving an inverse problem for Maxwell’s equations. In this paper, we present designed antenna for breast cancer detection, which will use in microwave tomography configuration.

Keywords: microwave imaging, inverse scattering, breast cancer, malignant tumor detection

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958 Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides

Authors: Rumman M. D. Raihanuzzaman, Lee Chang Chuan, Zonghan Xie, Reza Ghomashchi


Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools, with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes, which has been used on a wide range of materials including ceramics. The complete understanding of microwave sintering and its contribution towards control of grain growth and on deformation of the resulting carbide materials needs further studies and attention. In addition, the effect of binder materials and their behaviour as a function of microwave sintering is another area that requires clear understanding. This review aims to focus on microwave sintering, providing information of how the process works and what type of materials it is best suited for. In addition, a closer look at some microwave sintered Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt samples will be taken and discussed, addressing some of the key issues and challenges faced in the research.

Keywords: cemented carbides, consolidation, microwave sintering, mechanical properties

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957 An Insight into Early Stage Detection of Malignant Tumor by Microwave Imaging

Authors: Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong


Detection of malignant tumor inside the breast of women is a challenging field for the researchers. MWI (Microwave imaging) for breast cancer diagnosis has been of interest for last two decades, newly it suggested for finding cancerous tissues of women breast. A simple and basic idea of the mathematical modeling is used throughout this paper for imaging of malignant tumor. In this paper, the authors explained inverse scattering method in the microwave imaging and also present some simulation results.

Keywords: breast cancer detection, microwave imaging, tomography, tumor

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956 Spectral Properties of Commutants of Unbounded Self-Adjoint Operators with Simple Spectra

Authors: Fidelis Mukudi, Justus Mile, Lucy Chikamai, Shem Aywa


An operator B is a commutant of the unbounded Selfadjoint operator with simple spectra F if FB is an extension of BF. The properties of the commutant are determined by those of the operator F. In this article, we use the spectral decomposition of Self-adjoint Unbounded operators and the structure of the underlying space to determine the nature of the commutants. We have shown that the spectrum of these commutants is a subset of the real number set and also established the effect of the spectral properties of the unbounded Self-adjoint operators with simple spectra to the spectrum of its commutants. Finally, we have shown that the spectral measure of the unbounded Selfadjoint operator with simple spectra is a scalar multiple of that of its commutant.

Keywords: unbounded operators, self-adjoint operators, spectral theorem, operators with simple spectra

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955 Sulfamethaxozole (SMX) Removal by Microwave-Assisted Heterogenous Fenton Reaction Involving Synthetic Clay (LDHS)

Authors: Chebli Derradji, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Zoubir Manaa, S. Nacef, A. Amrane


Antibiotics are major pollutants of wastewater not only due to their stability in biological systems, but also due to their impact on public health. Their degradation by means of hydroxyl radicals generated through the application of microwave in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and two solid catalysts, iron-based synthetic clay (LDHs) and goethite (FeOOH) have been examined. A drastic reduction of the degradation yield was observed above pH 4, and hence the optimal conditions were found to be a pH of 3, 0.1 g/L of clay, a somewhat low amount of H2O2 (1.74 mmol/L) and a microwave intensity of 850 W. It should be observed that to maintain an almost constant temperature, a cooling with cold water was always applied between two microwaves running; and hence the ratio between microwave heating time and cooling time was 1. The obtained SMX degradation was 98.8 ± 0.2% after 30 minutes of microwave treatment. It should be observed that in the absence of the solid catalyst, LDHs, no SMX degradation was observed. From this, the use of microwave in the presence of a solid source of iron (LDHs) appears to be an efficient solution for the treatment of wastewater containing SMX.

Keywords: microwave, fenton, heterogenous fenton, degradation, oxidation, antibiotics

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954 Mathematical Modeling of Eggplant Slices Drying Using Microwave-Oven

Authors: M.H. Keshek, M.N. Omar, A.H. Amer


Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered one of the most important crops in summer season, and it is grown in most cultivated area in Egypt. Eggplant has a very limited shelf life for freshness and physiological changes occur after harvest. Nowadays, microwave drying offers an alternative way to drying agricultural products. microwave drying is not only faster but also requiring less energy consumption than conventional drying. The main objective of this research was to evaluate using the microwave oven in Eggplant drying, to determine the optimum drying time of higher drying efficiency and lower energy consumption. The eggplants slices, having a thickness of about 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, with diameter 50±2 mm was dried using microwave oven (KOR-9G2B) using three different levels were 450, 630, and 810 Watt (50%, 70%, and 90% of 900 Watt). The results show that, the initial moisture content of the eggplant slices was around 93 % wet basis (13.28 g water/g dry matter). The results indicated that, the moisture transfer within the sample was more rapidly during higher microwave power heating (810 watt) and lower thickness (5 mm) of the eggplant slices. In addition, the results show that, the drying efficiency increases by increasing slices thickness at power levels 450, 630 and 810 Watt. The higher drying efficiency was 83.13% occurred when drying the eggplant slices 20 mm thickness in microwave oven at power 630 Watt. the higher total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 1.275 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 5 mm thickness, and the lower total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 0.55 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 20 mm thickness.

Keywords: microwave drying, eggplant, drying rate, drying efficiency, energy consumption

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953 Synthesis and Characterization of CaZrTi2O7 from Tartrate Precursor Employing Microwave Heating Technique

Authors: B. M. Patil, S. R. Dharwadkar


Zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) is one of the three major phases in the synthetic ceramic 'SYNROC' which is used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and also acts as photocatalytic and photophysical properties. In the present work the nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 was synthesized from Calcium Zirconyl Titanate tartrate precursor (CZTT) employing two different heating techniques such as Conventional heating (Muffle furnace) and Microwave heating (Microwave Oven). Thermal decomposition of the CZTT precursors in air yielded nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 powder as the end product. The products obtained by annealing the CZTT precursor using both heating method were characterized using simultaneous TG-DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, NTA and thermodilatometric study. The physical characteristics such as crystallinity, morphology and particle size of the product obtained by heating the CZTT precursor at the different temperatures in a Muffle furnace and Microwave oven were found to be significantly different. The microwave heating technique considerably lowered the synthesis temperature of CaZrTi2O7. The influence of microwave heating was more pronounced as compared to Muffle furnace heating. The details of the synthesis of CaZrTi2O7 from CZTT precursor are discussed.

Keywords: CZTT, CaZrTi2O7, microwave, SYNROC, zirconolite

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952 Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of Castor Oil from Castor Bean

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Rosli Mohd Yunus, Nurfarahin Bt Harun, Mardhiana Binti Ismail


The microwave extraction has attracted great interest among the researchers. The main virtue of the microwave technique is cost-effective, time saving and simple handling procedure. Castor beans was chosen because of its high content in fatty acid, especially ricinoleic acid. The purpose of this research is to extract the castor oil by using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) using ethanol as solvent and to investigate the influence of extraction time on castor oil yield and to characterize the main composition of the produced castor oil by using the GC-MS. It was found that there is a direct dependence between the oil yield and the time of extraction as it increases from 45% to 58% as the time increase from 10 min to 60 min. The major components of castor oil detected by GC-MS were ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid.

Keywords: microwave assisted extraction (MAE), castor oil, ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid

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951 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee


Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

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950 Zinc Adsorption Determination of H2SO4 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen Koc, A. S. Kipcak, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul


Active carbon can be obtained from agricultural sources. Due to the high surface area, the production of activated carbon from cheap resources is very important. Since the surface area of 1 g activated carbon is approximately between 300 and 2000 m2, it can be used to remove both organic and inorganic impurities. In this study, the adsorption of Zn metal was studied with the product of activated carbon, which is obtained from pomegranate peel by microwave and chemical activation methods. The microwave process of pomegranate peel was carried out under constant microwave power of 800 W and 1 to 4 minutes. After the microwave process, samples were treated with H2SO4 for 3 h. Then prepared product was used in synthetic waste water including 40 ppm Zn metal. As a result, removal of waste Zn in waste water ranged from 91% to 93%.

Keywords: activated carbon, chemical activation, H₂SO₄, microwave, pomegranate peel

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949 Microwave Sanitization of Polyester Fabrics

Authors: K. Haggag, M. Salama, H. El-Sayed


Polyester fabrics were sanitized by exposing them to vaporized water under the influence of conventional heating or microwave irradiation. Hydrogen peroxide was added the humid sanitizing environment as a disinfectant. The said sanitization process was found to be effective towards two types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli ATCC 2666 (G –ve) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (G +ve). The effect of the sanitization process on some of the inherent properties of polyester fabrics was monitored.

Keywords: polyester, fabric, sanitization, microwave, bacteria

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948 MWCNT/CuFe10Al2O19/Polyanilie Nanocomposite for Microwave Absorbing Applications

Authors: Pallab Bhattacharya, C. K. Das


Development of microwave absorbing material is a growing field of research in both the commercial and defense sector, and also to enrich the field of stealth technology. The recent work is attentive to the preparation of nanocomposite based on acid modified MWCNT, hexagonal shaped magnetic M-type hexaferrite (CuFe10Al2O19) and polyaniline. CuFe10Al2O19 was prepared by a facile chemical co-precipitation method. An in-situ approach was employed for the coating of polyaniline on MWCNT/CuFe10Al2O19 nanocomposite. The final fabrication of this nanocomposite for microwave measurements was done suitably in the matrix of thermoplastic polyurethane with 10% filler content. The nanocomposites showed the maximum reflection loss of -60.2 dB (in X-band) at the thickness of 2.5 mm with a broad absorption range in contrast to the pristine MWCNT and CuFe10Al2O19. Addition of PANI improves the microwave absorption property of the nanocomposites. The thermal stability of the prepared nanocomposites is also very high.

Keywords: magnetic materials, microwave absorption, MWCNT, nanocomposites

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947 Microwave Assisted Foam-Mat Drying of Guava Pulp

Authors: Ovais S. Qadri, Abhaya K. Srivastava


Present experiments were carried to study the drying kinetics and quality of microwave foam-mat dried guava powder. Guava pulp was microwave foam mat dried using 8% egg albumin as foaming agent and then dried at microwave power 480W, 560W, 640W, 720W and 800W, foam thickness 3mm, 5mm and 7mm and inlet air temperature of 40˚C and 50˚C. Weight loss was used to estimate change in drying rate with respect to time. Powdered samples were analysed for various physicochemical quality parameters viz. acidity, pH, TSS, colour change and ascorbic acid content. Statistical analysis using three-way ANOVA revealed that sample of 5mm foam thickness dried at 800W and 50˚C was the best with 0.3584% total acid, 3.98 pH, 14min drying time, 8˚Brix TSS, 3.263 colour change and 154.762mg/100g ascorbic acid content.

Keywords: foam mat drying, foam mat guava, guava powder, microwave drying

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946 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim


Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst

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945 Coaxial Helix Antenna for Microwave Coagulation Therapy in Liver Tissue Simulations

Authors: M. Chaichanyut, S. Tungjitkusolmun


This paper is concerned with microwave (MW) ablation for a liver cancer tissue by using helix antenna. The antenna structure supports the propagation of microwave energy at 2.45 GHz. A 1½ turn spiral catheter-based microwave antenna applicator has been developed. We utilize the three-dimensional finite element method (3D FEM) simulation to analyze where the tissue heat flux, lesion pattern and volume destruction during MW ablation. The configurations of helix antenna where Helix air-core antenna and Helix Dielectric-core antenna. The 3D FEMs solutions were based on Maxwell and bio-heat equations. The simulation protocol was power control (10 W, 300s). Our simulation result, both helix antennas have heat flux occurred around the helix antenna and that can be induced the temperature distribution similar (teardrop). The region where the temperature exceeds 50°C the microwave ablation was successful (i.e. complete destruction). The Helix air-core antenna and Helix Dielectric-core antenna, ablation zone or axial ratios (Widest/length) were respectively 0.82 and 0.85; the complete destructions were respectively 4.18 cm³ and 5.64 cm³.

Keywords: liver cancer, Helix antenna, finite element, microwave ablation

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944 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid

Authors: M. S. M. Yusof, R. Ramli, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah


This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.

Keywords: methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, amino acid, threonine, antibacterial

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943 Extraction of the Volatile Oils of Dictyopteris Membranacea by Focused Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Chemical Composition and Kinetic Data

Authors: Mohamed El Hattab


The Supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE) and the focused microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (FMAHD) were employed to isolate the volatile fraction of the brown alga Dictyopteris membranacea from the crude extract. The volatiles fractions obtained were analyzed by GC/MS. The major compounds in this case: dictyopterene A, 6-butylcyclohepta-1,4-diene, Undec-1-en-3-one, Undeca-1,4-dien-3-one, (3-oxoundec-4-enyl) sulphur, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 3-hexyl-4,5-dithia-cycloheptanone and albicanol (this later is present only in the FMAHD oil) are identified by comparing their mass spectra with those reported on the commercial MS data base and also on our previously work. A kinetic study realized on both extraction processes and followed by an external standard quantification has allowed the study of the mass percent evolution of the major compounds in the two oils, an empirical mathematical modelling was used to describe their kinetic extraction.

Keywords: dictyopteris membranacea, extraction techniques, mathematical modeling, volatile oils

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942 Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics

Authors: Bing-Jing Li, Sih-Yin Wang, Tse-Chun Yeh, Yuan-Bin Chen


Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

Keywords: (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4, microwave dielectric ceramics, high quality factor, high frequency wireless communication

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941 The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Biogas Production Efficiency Using Different Plant Substrates

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski


The purpose of the present work was to assess the impact of using electromagnetic microwave radiation as a means of stimulating the thermal conditions in anaerobic reactors on biomethanation efficiency of different plant substrates, as measured by the quantity and quality of the resultant biogas. Using electromagnetic microwave radiation to maintain optimal thermal conditions during biomethanation allows for achievement of much higher technological effects in comparison with a conventional heating system. After subjecting different plant substrates to fermentation in the model fermentation chambers, the largest improvements in regard to biogas production efficiency and biogas quality were recorded in the series with corn silage and grass silage. In the first case, the quantity of methane produced in the microwave-stimulated technological system exceeded by 15.26% the quantities produced in reactors heated conventionally. When grass silage was utilized as the organic substrate in the process of biomethanation, anaerobic reactors treated with microwave radiation produced 12.62% more methane.

Keywords: microwave radiation, biogas, methane fermentation, biomass

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940 Microwave Security System in Museums: Design and Implementation

Authors: Dalia Elsheakh, Hala Elsadek


The objective of this paper is to propose a competitive microwave security system that can be applied with reasonable price at museums in Egypt, considering the priceless elements in 23 Egyptian museums countrywide and the lack of good recent security systems even in big ones. The system main goal is to detect valuable targets to ensure their presence in the pre-defined positions in order to protect them from being stolen. The system is based on real time microwave scanning for the required space volume through transmitting RF waves at consecutive angles and detecting the back scattered waves from required objects to detect their existence at pre-specified locations.

Keywords: microwave security system, object locating system, real time locating system (RTLS), antenna array, array electronic scanning

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