Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17325

Search results for: far infrared spectra high resolution

17325 The Microwave and Far Infrared Spectra of Acetaldehyde-d1 in vt=2

Authors: A. Larrousi, M. Elkeurti, K. Amara, M. Zemouli, L. H. Coudert, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, Atsuko Maeda, R. W. C. McKellar, D. Appadoo


Experimental and theoretical investigations of the microwave and far infrared spectra of CH3COD are reported. Two hundred twelve lines were identified in the far infrared spectrum recorded using the Canadian synchrotron radiation light source. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-eight lines in vt=0,1 and 216 in vt=2 have been measured in the microwave spectrum obtained using the fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique. A global analysis of the new data and of already available microwave lines has been carried out and yielded values for rotation–torsion parameters. The unitless weighted standard deviation of the fit is 1.6. 46 parameters and 216 lines were identified.

Keywords: CH3COD, torsion, the microwave spectra, far infrared spectra high resolution

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17324 Design and Implementation of Image Super-Resolution for Myocardial Image

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Super-resolution is the technique of intelligently upscaling images, avoiding artifacts or blurring, and deals with the recovery of a high-resolution image from one or more low-resolution images. Single-image super-resolution is a process of obtaining a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution observations by signal processing. While super-resolution has been demonstrated to improve image quality in scaled down images in the image domain, its effects on the Fourier-based technique remains unknown. Super-resolution substantially improved the spatial resolution of the patient LGE images by sharpening the edges of the heart and the scar. This paper aims at investigating the effects of single image super-resolution on Fourier-based and image based methods of scale-up. In this paper, first, generate a training phase of the low-resolution image and high-resolution image to obtain dictionary. In the test phase, first, generate a patch and then difference of high-resolution image and interpolation image from the low-resolution image. Next simulation of the image is obtained by applying convolution method to the dictionary creation image and patch extracted the image. Finally, super-resolution image is obtained by combining the fused image and difference of high-resolution and interpolated image. Super-resolution reduces image errors and improves the image quality.

Keywords: image dictionary creation, image super-resolution, LGE images, patch extraction

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17323 Improved Super-Resolution Using Deep Denoising Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Pawan Kumar Mishra, Ganesh Singh Bisht


Super-resolution is the technique that is being used in computer vision to construct high-resolution images from a single low-resolution image. It is used to increase the frequency component, recover the lost details and removing the down sampling and noises that caused by camera during image acquisition process. High-resolution images or videos are desired part of all image processing tasks and its analysis in most of digital imaging application. The target behind super-resolution is to combine non-repetition information inside single or multiple low-resolution frames to generate a high-resolution image. Many methods have been proposed where multiple images are used as low-resolution images of same scene with different variation in transformation. This is called multi-image super resolution. And another family of methods is single image super-resolution that tries to learn redundancy that presents in image and reconstruction the lost information from a single low-resolution image. Use of deep learning is one of state of art method at present for solving reconstruction high-resolution image. In this research, we proposed Deep Denoising Super Resolution (DDSR) that is a deep neural network for effectively reconstruct the high-resolution image from low-resolution image.

Keywords: resolution, deep-learning, neural network, de-blurring

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17322 Study of the Ambiguity of Effective Hamiltonian for the Fundamental Degenerate States V3 of the Molecule 12CD4

Authors: Ouardi Okkacha, Kaarour Abedlkrim, Meskine Mohamed


The effective Hamiltonians are widely used in molecular spectroscopy for the interpretation of the vibration-rotation spectra. Their construction is an ambiguous procedure due to the existence of unitary transformations that change the effective Hamiltonian but do not change its eigenvalues. As a consequence of this ambiguity, it may happen that some parameters of effective Hamiltonians cannot be recovered from experimental data in a unique way. The type of admissible transformations which keeps the operator form of the effective Hamiltonian unaltered and the number of empirically determinable parameters strongly depend on the symmetry type of a molecule (asymmetric top, spherical top, and so on) and on the degeneracy of the vibrational state. In this work, we report the study of the ambiguity of effective Hamiltonian for the fundamental degenerate states v3 of the Molecule 12CD4.

Keywords: 12CD4, high-resolution infrared spectra, tetrahedral tensorial formalism, vibrational states, rovibrational line position analysis, XTDS, SPVIEW

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17321 Simulation and Characterization of Compact Magnetic Proton Recoil Spectrometer for Fast Neutron Spectra Measurements

Authors: Xingyu Peng, Qingyuan Hu, Xuebin Zhu, Xi Yuan


Neutron spectrometry has contributed much to the development of nuclear physics since 1932 and has also become an importance tool in several other fields, notably nuclear technology, fusion plasma diagnostics and radiation protection. Compared with neutron fluxes, neutron spectra can provide more detailed information on the internal physical process of neutron sources, such as fast neutron reactors, fusion plasma, fission-fusion hybrid reactors, and so on. However, high performance neutron spectrometer is not so commonly available as it requires the use of large and complex instrumentation. This work describes the development and characterization of a compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer for high-resolution measurements of fast neutron spectra. The compact MPR spectrometer is featured by its large recoil angle, small size permanent analysis magnet, short beam transport line and dual-purpose detector array for both steady state and pulsed neutron spectra measurement. A 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle transport code is developed to simulate the response function of the spectrometer. Simulation results illustrate that the performance of the spectrometer is mainly determined by n-p recoil foil and proton apertures, and an overall energy resolution of 3% is achieved for 14 MeV neutrons. Dedicated experiments using alpha source and mono-energetic neutron beam are employed to verify the simulated response function of the compact MPR spectrometer. These experimental results show a good agreement with the simulated ones, which indicates that the simulation code possesses good accuracy and reliability. The compact MPR spectrometer described in this work is a valuable tool for fast neutron spectra measurements for the fission or fusion devices.

Keywords: neutron spectrometry, magnetic proton recoil spectrometer, neutron spectra, fast neutron

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17320 The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂/RGO Heterojunctions with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin

Authors: Mingmei Zhang, Xinyong Li


Novel AgInS2/SnS2/RGO (AISR) heterojunctions photocatalysts were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AISR nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AISR photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, laser flash photolysis technique was conducted to test the lifetime of charge carriers of the fabricated nanocomposites. The interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed.

Keywords: AISR heterojunctions, electron-hole pairs, SPV spectra, charges transfer mechanism

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17319 The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂ Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin

Authors: Mingmei Zhang, Xinyong Li


AgInS₂/SnS₂ (AIS) nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AIS nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AIS photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, the interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed by DFT calculations.

Keywords: AIS nanocomposites, electron-hole pairs, charges transfer, DFTcaculations

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17318 Application on Metastable Measurement with Wide Range High Resolution VDL Circuit

Authors: Po-Hui Yang, Jing-Min Chen, Po-Yu Kuo, Chia-Chun Wu


This paper proposed a high resolution Vernier Delay Line (VDL) measurement circuit with coarse and fine detection mechanism, which improved the trade-off problem between high resolution and less delay cells in traditional VDL circuits. And the measuring time of proposed measurement circuit is also under the high resolution requests. At first, the testing range of input signal which proposed high resolution delay line is detected by coarse detection VDL. Moreover, the delayed input signal is transmitted to fine detection VDL for measuring value with better accuracy. This paper is implemented at 0.18μm process, operating frequency is 100 MHz, and the resolution achieved 2.0 ps with only 16-stage delay cells. The test range is 170ps wide, and 17% stages saved compare with traditional single delay line circuit.

Keywords: vernier delay line, D-type flip-flop, DFF, metastable phenomenon

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17317 Rapid Discrimination of Porcine and Tilapia Fish Gelatin by Fourier Transform Infrared- Attenuated Total Reflection Combined with 2 Dimensional Infrared Correlation Analysis

Authors: Norhidayu Muhamad Zain


Gelatin, a purified protein derived mostly from porcine and bovine sources, is used widely in food manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. However, the presence of any porcine-related products are strictly forbidden for Muslim and Jewish consumption. Therefore, analytical methods offering reliable results to differentiate the sources of gelatin are needed. The aim of this study was to differentiate the sources of gelatin (porcine and tilapia fish) using Fourier transform infrared- attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) combined with two dimensional infrared (2DIR) correlation analysis. Porcine gelatin (PG) and tilapia fish gelatin (FG) samples were diluted in distilled water at concentrations ranged from 4-20% (w/v). The samples were then analysed using FTIR-ATR and 2DIR correlation software. The results showed a significant difference in the pattern map of synchronous spectra at the region of 1000 cm⁻¹ to 1100 cm⁻¹ between PG and FG samples. The auto peak at 1080 cm⁻¹ that attributed to C-O functional group was observed at high intensity in PG samples compared to FG samples. Meanwhile, two auto peaks (1080 cm⁻¹ and 1030 cm⁻¹) at lower intensity were identified in FG samples. In addition, using 2D correlation analysis, the original broad water OH bands in 1D IR spectra can be effectively differentiated into six auto peaks located at 3630, 3340, 3230, 3065, 2950 and 2885 cm⁻¹ for PG samples and five auto peaks at 3630, 3330, 3230, 3060 and 2940 cm⁻¹ for FG samples. Based on the rule proposed by Noda, the sequence of the spectral changes in PG samples is as following: NH₃⁺ amino acid > CH₂ and CH₃ aliphatic > OH stretch > carboxylic acid OH stretch > NH in secondary amide > NH in primary amide. In contrast, the sequence was totally in the opposite direction for FG samples and thus both samples provide different 2D correlation spectra ranged from 2800 cm-1 to 3700 cm⁻¹. This method may provide a rapid determination of gelatin source for application in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products.

Keywords: 2 dimensional infrared (2DIR) correlation analysis, Fourier transform infrared- attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), porcine gelatin, tilapia fish gelatin

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17316 Identification and Classification of Fiber-Fortified Semolina by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)

Authors: Amanda T. Badaró, Douglas F. Barbin, Sofia T. Garcia, Maria Teresa P. S. Clerici, Amanda R. Ferreira


Food fortification is the intentional addition of a nutrient in a food matrix and has been widely used to overcome the lack of nutrients in the diet or increasing the nutritional value of food. Fortified food must meet the demand of the population, taking into account their habits and risks that these foods may cause. Wheat and its by-products, such as semolina, has been strongly indicated to be used as a food vehicle since it is widely consumed and used in the production of other foods. These products have been strategically used to add some nutrients, such as fibers. Methods of analysis and quantification of these kinds of components are destructive and require lengthy sample preparation and analysis. Therefore, the industry has searched for faster and less invasive methods, such as Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). NIR is a rapid and cost-effective method, however, it is based on indirect measurements, yielding high amount of data. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy requires calibration with mathematical and statistical tools (Chemometrics) to extract analytical information from the corresponding spectra, as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). PCA is well suited for NIR, once it can handle many spectra at a time and be used for non-supervised classification. Advantages of the PCA, which is also a data reduction technique, is that it reduces the data spectra to a smaller number of latent variables for further interpretation. On the other hand, LDA is a supervised method that searches the Canonical Variables (CV) with the maximum separation among different categories. In LDA, the first CV is the direction of maximum ratio between inter and intra-class variances. The present work used a portable infrared spectrometer (NIR) for identification and classification of pure and fiber-fortified semolina samples. The fiber was added to semolina in two different concentrations, and after the spectra acquisition, the data was used for PCA and LDA to identify and discriminate the samples. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy associate to PCA was very effective in identifying pure and fiber-fortified semolina. Additionally, the classification range of the samples using LDA was between 78.3% and 95% for calibration and 75% and 95% for cross-validation. Thus, after the multivariate analysis such as PCA and LDA, it was possible to verify that NIR associated to chemometric methods is able to identify and classify the different samples in a fast and non-destructive way.

Keywords: Chemometrics, fiber, linear discriminant analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy, principal component analysis, semolina

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17315 Preparation and Sealing of Polymer Microchannels Using EB Lithography and Laser Welding

Authors: Ian Jones, Jonathan Griffiths


Laser welding offers the potential for making very precise joints in plastics products, both in terms of the joint location and the amount of heating applied. These methods have allowed the production of complex products such as microfluidic devices where channels and structure resolution below 100 µm is regularly used. However, to date, the dimension of welds made using lasers has been limited by the focus spot size that is achievable from the laser source. Theoretically, the minimum spot size possible from a laser is comparable to the wavelength of the radiation emitted. Practically, with reasonable focal length optics the spot size achievable is a few factors larger than this, and the melt zone in a plastics weld is larger again than this. The narrowest welds feasible to date have therefore been 10-20 µm wide using a near-infrared laser source. The aim of this work was to prepare laser absorber tracks and channels less than 10 µm wide in PMMA thermoplastic using EB lithography followed by sealing of channels using laser welding to carry out welds with widths of the order of 1 µm, below the resolution limit of the near-infrared laser used. Welded joints with a width of 1 µm have been achieved as well as channels with a width of 5 µm. The procedure was based on the principle of transmission laser welding using a thin coating of infrared absorbent material at the joint interface. The coating was patterned using electron-beam lithography to obtain the required resolution in a reproducible manner and that resolution was retained after the transmission laser welding process. The joint strength was ratified using larger scale samples. The results demonstrate that plastics products could be made with a high density of structure with resolution below 1 um, and that welding can be applied without excessively heating regions beyond the weld lines. This may be applied to smaller scale sensor and analysis chips, micro-bio and chemical reactors and to microelectronic packaging.

Keywords: microchannels, polymer, EB lithography, laser welding

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17314 Analysis of Active Compounds in Thai Herbs by near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Chaluntorn Vichasilp, Sutee Wangtueai


This study aims to develop a new method to detect active compounds in Thai herbs (1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in mulberry leave, anthocyanin in Mao and curcumin in turmeric) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs). NIRs is non-destructive technique that rapid, non-chemical involved and low-cost determination. By NIRs and chemometrics technique, it was found that the DNJ prediction equation conducted with partial least square regression with cross-validation had low accuracy R2 (0.42) and SEP (31.87 mg/100g). On the other hand, the anthocyanin prediction equation showed moderate good results (R2 and SEP of 0.78 and 0.51 mg/g) with Multiplication scattering correction at wavelength of 2000-2200 nm. The high absorption could be observed at wavelength of 2047 nm and this model could be used as screening level. For curcumin prediction, the good result was obtained when applied original spectra with smoothing technique. The wavelength of 1400-2500 nm was created regression model with R2 (0.68) and SEP (0.17 mg/g). This model had high NIRs absorption at a wavelength of 1476, 1665, 1986 and 2395 nm, respectively. NIRs showed prospective technique for detection of some active compounds in Thai herbs.

Keywords: anthocyanin, curcumin, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs)

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17313 Advantages of Multispectral Imaging for Accurate Gas Temperature Profile Retrieval from Fire Combustion Reactions

Authors: Jean-Philippe Gagnon, Benjamin Saute, Stéphane Boubanga-Tombet


Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. However, it is well known that most combustion gases such as carbon dioxide (CO₂), water vapor (H₂O), and carbon monoxide (CO) selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e., over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperature profiles of most combustion processes derived from conventional broadband imaging are inaccurate without prior knowledge or assumptions about the spectral emissivity properties of the combustion gases. Using spectral filters allows estimating these critical emissivity parameters in addition to providing selectivity regarding the chemical nature of the combustion gases. However, due to the turbulent nature of most flames, it is crucial that such information be obtained without sacrificing temporal resolution. For this reason, Telops has developed a time-resolved multispectral imaging system which combines a high-performance broadband camera synchronized with a rotating spectral filter wheel. In order to illustrate the benefits of using this system to characterize combustion experiments, measurements were carried out using a Telops MS-IR MW on a very simple combustion system: a wood fire. The temperature profiles calculated using the spectral information from the different channels were compared with corresponding temperature profiles obtained with conventional broadband imaging. The results illustrate the benefits of the Telops MS-IR cameras for the characterization of laminar and turbulent combustion systems at a high temporal resolution.

Keywords: infrared, multispectral, fire, broadband, gas temperature, IR camera

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17312 Transfer Learning for Protein Structure Classification at Low Resolution

Authors: Alexander Hudson, Shaogang Gong


Structure determination is key to understanding protein function at a molecular level. Whilst significant advances have been made in predicting structure and function from amino acid sequence, researchers must still rely on expensive, time-consuming analytical methods to visualise detailed protein conformation. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to make accurate (≥80%) predictions of protein class and architecture from structures determined at low (>3A) resolution, using a deep convolutional neural network trained on high-resolution (≤3A) structures represented as 2D matrices. Thus, we provide proof of concept for high-speed, low-cost protein structure classification at low resolution, and a basis for extension to prediction of function. We investigate the impact of the input representation on classification performance, showing that side-chain information may not be necessary for fine-grained structure predictions. Finally, we confirm that high resolution, low-resolution and NMR-determined structures inhabit a common feature space, and thus provide a theoretical foundation for boosting with single-image super-resolution.

Keywords: transfer learning, protein distance maps, protein structure classification, neural networks

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17311 Excitonic Refractive Index Change in High Purity GaAs Modulator at Room Temperature for Optical Fiber Communication Network

Authors: Durga Prasad Sapkota, Madhu Sudan Kayastha, Koichi Wakita


In this paper, we have compared and analyzed the electron absorption properties between with and without excitonic effect bulk in high purity GaAs spatial light modulator for an optical fiber communication network. The electroabsorption properties such as absorption spectra, change in absorption spectra, change in refractive index and extinction ratio have been calculated. We have also compared the result of absorption spectra and change in absorption spectra with the experimental results and found close agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: exciton, refractive index change, extinction ratio, GaAs

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17310 Phase Detection Using Infrared Spectroscopy: A Build up to Inline Gas–Liquid Flow Characterization

Authors: Kwame Sarkodie, William Cheung, Andrew R. Fergursson


The characterization of multiphase flow has gained enormous attention for most petroleum and chemical industrial processes. In order to fully characterize fluid phases in a stream or containment, there needs to be a profound knowledge of the existing composition of fluids present. This introduces a problem for real-time monitoring of fluid dynamics such as fluid distributions, and phase fractions. This work presents a simple technique of correlating absorbance spectrums of water, oil and air bubble present in containment. These spectra absorption outputs are derived by using an Fourier Infrared spectrometer. During the testing, air bubbles were introduced into static water column and oil containment and with light absorbed in the infrared regions of specific wavelength ranges. Attenuation coefficients are derived for various combinations of water, gas and oil which reveal the presence of each phase in the samples. The results from this work are preliminary and viewed as a build up to the design of a multiphase flow rig which has an infrared sensor pair to be used for multiphase flow characterization.

Keywords: attenuation, infrared, multiphase, spectroscopy

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17309 Potential Contribution of Combined High-Resolution and Fluorescence Remote Sensing to Coastal Ecosystem Service Assessments

Authors: Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An


Although most studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services, there is still a knowledge gap on coastal ecosystem services and an urgent need to assess them. Lau (2013) clearly defined five types of costal ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, shoreline protection, fish nursery, biodiversity, and water quality. While high-resolution remote sensing can provide the more direct, spatially estimates of biophysical parameters, such as species distribution relating to biodiversity service, and Fluorescence information derived from remote sensing direct relate to photosynthesis, availing in estimation of carbon sequestration and the response to environmental changes in coastal wetland. Here, we review the capabilities of high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing for describing biodiversity, vegetation condition, ecological processes and highlight how these prodicts may contribute to costal ecosystem service assessment. In so doing, we anticipate rapid progress to combine the high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing to estimate the spatial pattern of costal ecosystem services.

Keywords: ecosystem services, high resolution, remote sensing, chlorophyll fluorescence

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17308 Initial Dip: An Early Indicator of Neural Activity in Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Waveform

Authors: Mannan Malik Muhammad Naeem, Jeong Myung Yung


Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has a favorable position in non-invasive brain imaging techniques. The concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin and de-oxygenated hemoglobin during particular cognitive activity is the basis for this neuro-imaging modality. Two wavelengths of near-infrared light can be used with modified Beer-Lambert law to explain the indirect status of neuronal activity inside brain. The temporal resolution of fNIRS is very good for real-time brain computer-interface applications. The portability, low cost and an acceptable temporal resolution of fNIRS put it on a better position in neuro-imaging modalities. In this study, an optimization model for impulse response function has been used to estimate/predict initial dip using fNIRS data. In addition, the activity strength parameter related to motor based cognitive task has been analyzed. We found an initial dip that remains around 200-300 millisecond and better localize neural activity.

Keywords: fNIRS, brain-computer interface, optimization algorithm, adaptive signal processing

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17307 Determination of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Susceptibility to Antibiotics Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Manal Suleiman, George Abu-Aqil, Uraib Sharaha, Klaris Riesenberg, Itshak Lapidot, Ahmad Salman, Mahmoud Huleihel


Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most aggressive multidrug-resistant bacteria associated with human infections resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Thus, for an effective treatment, it is important to diagnose both the species of infecting bacteria and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Current used methods for diagnosing the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are time-consuming (about 24h following the first culture). Thus, there is a clear need for rapid methods to determine the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Infrared spectroscopy is a well-known method that is known as sensitive and simple which is able to detect minor biomolecular changes in biological samples associated with developing abnormalities. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of infrared spectroscopy in tandem with Random Forest and XGBoost machine learning algorithms to diagnose the susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae to antibiotics within approximately 20 minutes following the first culture. In this study, 1190 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were obtained from different patients with urinary tract infections. The isolates were measured by the infrared spectrometer, and the spectra were analyzed by machine learning algorithms Random Forest and XGBoost to determine their susceptibility regarding nine specific antibiotics. Our results confirm that it was possible to classify the isolates into sensitive and resistant to specific antibiotics with a success rate range of 80%-85% for the different tested antibiotics. These results prove the promising potential of infrared spectroscopy as a powerful diagnostic method for determining the Klebsiella pneumoniae susceptibility to antibiotics.

Keywords: urinary tract infection (UTI), Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial susceptibility, infrared spectroscopy, machine learning

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17306 Thin Films of Copper Oxide Deposited by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method: Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Touka Nassim, Tabli Dalila


In this study, CuO thin films synthesized via simple sol-gel method, have been deposited on glass substrates by the spin coating technique and annealed at various temperatures. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The structural characterization by XRD reveals that the as prepared films were tenorite phase and have a high level of purity and crystallinity. The crystallite size of the CuO films was affected by the annealing temperature and was estimated in the range 20-31.5 nm. SEM images show a homogeneous distribution of spherical nanoparticles over the surface of the annealed films at 350 and 450 °C. Vibrational Spectroscopy revealed vibration modes specific to CuO with monolithic structure on the Raman spectra at 289 cm−1 and on FT-IR spectra around 430-580 cm−1. Electronic investigation performed by UV–Visible spectroscopy showed that the films have high absorbance in the visible region and their optical band gap increases from 2.40 to 2.66 eV (blue shift) with increasing annealing temperature from 350 to 550 °C.

Keywords: Sol-gel, Spin coating method, Copper oxide, Thin films

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17305 A Hybrid Image Fusion Model for Generating High Spatial-Temporal-Spectral Resolution Data Using OLI-MODIS-Hyperion Satellite Imagery

Authors: Yongquan Zhao, Bo Huang


Spatial, Temporal, and Spectral Resolution (STSR) are three key characteristics of Earth observation satellite sensors; however, any single satellite sensor cannot provide Earth observations with high STSR simultaneously because of the hardware technology limitations of satellite sensors. On the other hand, a conflicting circumstance is that the demand for high STSR has been growing with the remote sensing application development. Although image fusion technology provides a feasible means to overcome the limitations of the current Earth observation data, the current fusion technologies cannot enhance all STSR simultaneously and provide high enough resolution improvement level. This study proposes a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal-Spectral image Fusion Model (HSTSFM) to generate synthetic satellite data with high STSR simultaneously, which blends the high spatial resolution from the panchromatic image of Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), the high temporal resolution from the multi-spectral image of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the high spectral resolution from the hyper-spectral image of Hyperion to produce high STSR images. The proposed HSTSFM contains three fusion modules: (1) spatial-spectral image fusion; (2) spatial-temporal image fusion; (3) temporal-spectral image fusion. A set of test data with both phenological and land cover type changes in Beijing suburb area, China is adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that HSTSFM can produce fused image that has good spatial and spectral fidelity to the reference image, which means it has the potential to generate synthetic data to support the studies that require high STSR satellite imagery.

Keywords: hybrid spatial-temporal-spectral fusion, high resolution synthetic imagery, least square regression, sparse representation, spectral transformation

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17304 Frame Camera and Event Camera in Stereo Pair for High-Resolution Sensing

Authors: Khen Cohen, Daniel Yankelevich, David Mendlovic, Dan Raviv


We present a 3D stereo system for high-resolution sensing in both the spatial and the temporal domains by combining a frame-based camera and an event-based camera. We establish a method to merge both devices into one unite system and introduce a calibration process, followed by a correspondence technique and interpolation algorithm for 3D reconstruction. We further provide quantitative analysis about our system in terms of depth resolution and additional parameter analysis. We show experimentally how our system performs temporal super-resolution up to effectively 1ms and can detect fast-moving objects and human micro-movements that can be used for micro-expression analysis. We also demonstrate how our method can extract colored events for an event-based camera without any degradation in the spatial resolution, compared to a colored filter array.

Keywords: DVS-CIS stereo vision, micro-movements, temporal super-resolution, 3D reconstruction

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17303 Anomalous Behaviors of Visible Luminescence from Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Hyunho Shin, Jaekwang Jung, Jeongho Park, Sungwon Hwang


For the application of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to optoelectronic nanodevices, it is of critical importance to understand the mechanisms which result in novel phenomena of their light absorption/emission. The optical transitions are known to be available up to ~6 eV in GQDs, especially useful for ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). Here, we present size-dependent shape/edge-state variations of GQDs and visible photoluminescence (PL) showing anomalous size dependencies. With varying the average size (da) of GQDs from 5 to 35 nm, the peak energy of the absorption spectra monotonically decreases, while that of the visible PL spectra unusually shows nonmonotonic behaviors having a minimum at diameter ∼17 nm. The PL behaviors can be attributed to the novel feature of GQDs, that is, the circular-to-polygonal-shape and corresponding edge-state variations of GQDs at diameter ∼17 nm as the GQD size increases, as demonstrated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We believe that such a comprehensive scheme in designing device architecture and the structural formulation of GQDs provides a device for practical realization of environmentally benign, high performance flexible devices in the future.

Keywords: graphene, quantum dot, size, photoluminescence

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17302 Silver Nanoparticles-Enhanced Luminescence Spectra of Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Benjamin R. Horrocks


Metal-enhanced luminescence of silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) was determined using two different particle sizes of silver nano particles (AgNPs). SiNCs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm and FCC lattice. AgNPs were synthesized using photochemical reduction of AgNO3 with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The enhanced luminescence of SiNCs by AgNPs was evaluated by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Enhancement up to ×9 and ×3 times were observed for SiNCs that mixed with AgNPs which have an average particle size of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Silver NPs-enhanced luminescence of SiNCs occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of AgNPs; thus this intense field at AgNPs surface couples strongly to SiNCs.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS), silicon nanocrystals, luminescence

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17301 Spectroscopy Investigation of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Nano Ferrite Prepared by Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis

Authors: Z. Ž. Lazarević, Č. Jovalekić, V. N. Ivanovski, N. Ž. Romčević


Nickel-zinc ferrite, Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 was prepared by mechanochemical route in a planetary ball mill starting from mixture of the appropriate quantities of the Ni(OH)2, Zn(OH)2 and Fe(OH)3 hydroxide powders. In order to monitor the progress of chemical reaction and confirm phase formation, powder samples obtained after 5 h and 10 h of milling were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that the soft mechanochemical method, i.e. mechanochemical activation of hydroxides, produces high quality single phase Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 samples in much more efficient way. From the IR spectroscopy of single phase samples it is obvious that energy of modes depends on the ratio of cations. It is obvious that all samples have more than 5 Raman active modes predicted by group theory in the normal spinel structure. Deconvolution of measured spectra allows one to conclude that all complex bands in the spectra are made of individual peaks with the intensities that vary from spectrum to spectrum. The deconvolution of Raman spectra alows to separate contributions of different cations to a particular type of vibration and to estimate the degree of inversion.

Keywords: ferrite, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy

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17300 Turbulent Channel Flow Synthesis using Generative Adversarial Networks

Authors: John M. Lyne, K. Andrea Scott


In fluid dynamics, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent flows require large amounts of nodes to appropriately resolve all scales of energy transfer. Due to the size of these databases, sharing these datasets amongst the academic community is a challenge. Recent work has been done to investigate the use of super-resolution to enable database sharing, where a low-resolution flow field is super-resolved to high resolutions using a neural network. Recently, Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have grown in popularity with impressive results in the generation of faces, landscapes, and more. This work investigates the generation of unique high-resolution channel flow velocity fields from a low-dimensional latent space using a GAN. The training objective of the GAN is to generate samples in which the distribution of the generated samplesis ideally indistinguishable from the distribution of the training data. In this study, the network is trained using samples drawn from a statistically stationary channel flow at a Reynolds number of 560. Results show that the turbulent statistics and energy spectra of the generated flow fields are within reasonable agreement with those of the DNS data, demonstrating that GANscan produce the intricate multi-scale phenomena of turbulence.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, channel flow, turbulence, generative adversarial network

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17299 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk


In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: antenna pattern, array, signal processing, spatial resolution

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17298 Application of UAS in Forest Firefighting for Detecting Ignitions and 3D Fuel Volume Estimation

Authors: Artur Krukowski, Emmanouela Vogiatzaki


The article presents results from the AF3 project “Advanced Forest Fire Fighting” focused on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)-based 3D surveillance and 3D area mapping using high-resolution photogrammetric methods from multispectral imaging, also taking advantage of the 3D scanning techniques from the SCAN4RECO project. We also present a proprietary embedded sensor system used for the detection of fire ignitions in the forest using near-infrared based scanner with weight and form factors allowing it to be easily deployed on standard commercial micro-UAVs, such as DJI Inspire or Mavic. Results from real-life pilot trials in Greece, Spain, and Israel demonstrated added-value in the use of UAS for precise and reliable detection of forest fires, as well as high-resolution 3D aerial modeling for accurate quantification of human resources and equipment required for firefighting.

Keywords: forest wildfires, surveillance, fuel volume estimation, firefighting, ignition detectors, 3D modelling, UAV

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17297 A Method for Quantifying Arsenolipids in Sea Water by HPLC-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Muslim Khan, Kenneth B. Jensen, Kevin A. Francesconi


Trace amounts (ca 1 µg/L, 13 nM) of arsenic are present in sea water mostly as the oxyanion arsenate. In contrast, arsenic is present in marine biota (animals and algae) at very high levels (up to100,000 µg/kg) a significant portion of which is present as lipid-soluble compounds collectively termed arsenolipids. The complex nature of sea water presents an analytical challenge to detect trace compounds and monitor their environmental path. We developed a simple method using liquid-liquid extraction combined with HPLC-High Resolution Mass Spectrometer capable of detecting trace of arsenolipids (99 % of the sample matrix while recovering > 80 % of the six target arsenolipids with limit of detection of 0.003 µg/L.)

Keywords: arsenolipids, sea water, HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry

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17296 Distinguishing between Bacterial and Viral Infections Based on Peripheral Human Blood Tests Using Infrared Microscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: H. Agbaria, A. Salman, M. Huleihel, G. Beck, D. H. Rich, S. Mordechai, J. Kapelushnik


Viral and bacterial infections are responsible for variety of diseases. These infections have similar symptoms like fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue. Thus, physicians may encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on these symptoms. Bacterial infections differ from viral infections in many other important respects regarding the response to various medications and the structure of the organisms. In many cases, it is difficult to know the origin of the infection. The physician orders a blood, urine test, or 'culture test' of tissue to diagnose the infection type when it is necessary. Using these methods, the time that elapses between the receipt of patient material and the presentation of the test results to the clinician is typically too long ( > 24 hours). This time is crucial in many cases for saving the life of the patient and for planning the right medical treatment. Thus, rapid identification of bacterial and viral infections in the lab is of great importance for effective treatment especially in cases of emergency. Blood was collected from 50 patients with confirmed viral infection and 50 with confirmed bacterial infection. White blood cells (WBCs) and plasma were isolated and deposited on a zinc selenide slide, dried and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. The acquired spectra of WBCs and plasma were analyzed in order to differentiate between the two types of infections. In this study, the potential of FTIR microscopy in tandem with multivariate analysis was evaluated for the identification of the agent that causes the human infection. The method was used to identify the infectious agent type as either bacterial or viral, based on an analysis of the blood components [i.e., white blood cells (WBC) and plasma] using their infrared vibrational spectra. The time required for the analysis and evaluation after obtaining the blood sample was less than one hour. In the analysis, minute spectral differences in several bands of the FTIR spectra of WBCs were observed between groups of samples with viral and bacterial infections. By employing the techniques of feature extraction with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), a sensitivity of ~92 % and a specificity of ~86 % for an infection type diagnosis was achieved. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of WBCs is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the diagnosis of the infection type.

Keywords: viral infection, bacterial infection, linear discriminant analysis, plasma, white blood cells, infrared spectroscopy

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