Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4038

Search results for: implicit function

4038 Directional Implicit Functions in Nonsmooth Analysis

Authors: Murzabekova Gulden


Directional implicit functions for underdetermined nonsmooth systems in terms of the new tool of the Nonsmooth analysis - exhausters are considered. A method for finding an implicit function for underdetermined nonsmooth systems is proposed.

Keywords: implicit function, exhauster, nonsmooth systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
4037 Meta Model for Optimum Design Objective Function of Steel Frames Subjected to Seismic Loads

Authors: Salah R. Al Zaidee, Ali S. Mahdi


Except for simple problems of statically determinate structures, optimum design problems in structural engineering have implicit objective functions where structural analysis and design are essential within each searching loop. With these implicit functions, the structural engineer is usually enforced to write his/her own computer code for analysis, design, and searching for optimum design among many feasible candidates and cannot take advantage of available software for structural analysis, design, and searching for the optimum solution. The meta-model is a regression model used to transform an implicit objective function into objective one and leads in turn to decouple the structural analysis and design processes from the optimum searching process. With the meta-model, well-known software for structural analysis and design can be used in sequence with optimum searching software. In this paper, the meta-model has been used to develop an explicit objective function for plane steel frames subjected to dead, live, and seismic forces. Frame topology is assumed as predefined based on architectural and functional requirements. Columns and beams sections and different connections details are the main design variables in this study. Columns and beams are grouped to reduce the number of design variables and to make the problem similar to that adopted in engineering practice. Data for the implicit objective function have been generated based on analysis and assessment for many design proposals with CSI SAP software. These data have been used later in SPSS software to develop a pure quadratic nonlinear regression model for the explicit objective function. Good correlations with a coefficient, R2, in the range from 0.88 to 0.99 have been noted between the original implicit functions and the corresponding explicit functions generated with meta-model.

Keywords: meta-modal, objective function, steel frames, seismic analysis, design

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
4036 Framework for Improving Manufacturing "Implicit Competitiveness" by Enhancing Monozukuri Capability

Authors: Takahiro Togawa, Nguyen Huu Phuc, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Oke Oktavianty


Our research focuses on a framework which analyses the relationship between product/process architecture, manufacturing organizational capability and manufacturing "implicit competitiveness" in order to improve manufacturing implicit competitiveness. We found that 1) there is a relationship between architecture-based manufacturing organizational capability and manufacturing implicit competitiveness, and 2) analysis and measures conducted in manufacturing organizational capability proved effective to improve manufacturing implicit competitiveness.

Keywords: implicit competitiveness, QCD, organizational capacity, architectural strategy

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4035 Efficient Estimation for the Cox Proportional Hazards Cure Model

Authors: Khandoker Akib Mohammad


While analyzing time-to-event data, it is possible that a certain fraction of subjects will never experience the event of interest, and they are said to be cured. When this feature of survival models is taken into account, the models are commonly referred to as cure models. In the presence of covariates, the conditional survival function of the population can be modelled by using the cure model, which depends on the probability of being uncured (incidence) and the conditional survival function of the uncured subjects (latency), and a combination of logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression is used to model the incidence and latency respectively. In this paper, we have shown the asymptotic normality of the profile likelihood estimator via asymptotic expansion of the profile likelihood and obtain the explicit form of the variance estimator with an implicit function in the profile likelihood. We have also shown the efficient score function based on projection theory and the profile likelihood score function are equal. Our contribution in this paper is that we have expressed the efficient information matrix as the variance of the profile likelihood score function. A simulation study suggests that the estimated standard errors from bootstrap samples (SMCURE package) and the profile likelihood score function (our approach) are providing similar and comparable results. The numerical result of our proposed method is also shown by using the melanoma data from SMCURE R-package, and we compare the results with the output obtained from the SMCURE package.

Keywords: Cox PH model, cure model, efficient score function, EM algorithm, implicit function, profile likelihood

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4034 Implicit Bias as One Obstacle to Gender Equity

Authors: Kellina Craig-Henderson


Today, there is increased attention to the role of social perceptions in the selection, hiring, and management of employees and the evaluation and promotion of students. In some contexts, where women or members of certain social groups have been historically underrepresented there is evidence that these perceptions reflect the implicit biases people harbor. Research in the social and psychological sciences reveals that implicit biases against women unfairly disadvantage them in academic and work settings. This presentation will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on an implicit bias as well as the problems associated with it. How employers, educators and other evaluators can inoculate themselves from the pernicious effects of these biases will be considered.

Keywords: gender equity, implicit bias, social psychology, unconscious bias

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4033 The Processing of Implicit Stereotypes in Everyday Scene Perception

Authors: Magali Mari, Fabrice Clement


The present study investigated the influence of implicit stereotypes on adults’ visual information processing, using an eye-tracking device. Implicit stereotyping is an automatic and implicit process; it happens relatively quickly, outside of awareness. In the presence of a member of a social group, a set of expectations about the characteristics of this social group appears automatically in people’s minds. The study aimed to shed light on the cognitive processes involved in stereotyping and to further investigate the use of eye movements to measure implicit stereotypes. With an eye-tracking device, the eye movements of participants were analyzed, while they viewed everyday scenes depicting women and men in congruent or incongruent gender role activities (e.g., a woman ironing or a man ironing). The settings of these scenes had to be analyzed to infer the character’s role. Also, participants completed an implicit association test that combined the concept of gender with attributes of occupation (home/work), while measuring reaction times to assess participants’ implicit stereotypes about gender. The results showed that implicit stereotypes do influence people’s visual attention; within a fraction of a second, the number of returns, between stereotypical and counter-stereotypical scenes, differed significantly, meaning that participants interpreted the scene itself as a whole before identifying the character. They predicted that, in such a situation, the character was supposed to be a woman or a man. Also, the study showed that eye movements could be used as a fast and reliable supplement for traditional implicit association tests to measure implicit stereotypes. Altogether, this research provides further understanding of implicit stereotypes processing as well as a natural method to study implicit stereotypes.

Keywords: eye-tracking, implicit stereotypes, social cognition, visual attention

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4032 A Semi-Implicit Phase Field Model for Droplet Evolution

Authors: M. H. Kazemi, D. Salac


A semi-implicit phase field method for droplet evolution is proposed. Using the phase field Cahn-Hilliard equation, we are able to track the interface in multiphase flow. The idea of a semi-implicit finite difference scheme is reviewed and employed to solve two nonlinear equations, including the Navier-Stokes and the Cahn-Hilliard equations. The use of a semi-implicit method allows us to have larger time steps compared to explicit schemes. The governing equations are coupled and then solved by a GMRES solver (generalized minimal residual method) using modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. To show the validity of the method, we apply the method to the simulation of a rising droplet, a leaky dielectric drop and the coalescence of drops. The numerical solutions to the phase field model match well with existing solutions over a defined range of variables.

Keywords: coalescence, leaky dielectric, numerical method, phase field, rising droplet, semi-implicit method

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4031 On the Grid Technique by Approximating the Derivatives of the Solution of the Dirichlet Problems for (1+1) Dimensional Linear Schrodinger Equation

Authors: Lawrence A. Farinola


Four point implicit schemes for the approximation of the first and pure second order derivatives for the solution of the Dirichlet problem for one dimensional Schrodinger equation with respect to the time variable t were constructed. Also, special four-point implicit difference boundary value problems are proposed for the first and pure second derivatives of the solution with respect to the spatial variable x. The Grid method is also applied to the mixed second derivative of the solution of the Linear Schrodinger time-dependent equation. It is assumed that the initial function belongs to the Holder space C⁸⁺ᵃ, 0 < α < 1, the Schrodinger wave function given in the Schrodinger equation is from the Holder space Cₓ,ₜ⁶⁺ᵃ, ³⁺ᵃ/², the boundary functions are from C⁴⁺ᵃ, and between the initial and the boundary functions the conjugation conditions of orders q = 0,1,2,3,4 are satisfied. It is proven that the solution of the proposed difference schemes converges uniformly on the grids of the order O(h²+ k) where h is the step size in x and k is the step size in time. Numerical experiments are illustrated to support the analysis made.

Keywords: approximation of derivatives, finite difference method, Schrödinger equation, uniform error

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4030 Using Implicit Data to Improve E-Learning Systems

Authors: Slah Alsaleh


In the recent years and with popularity of internet and technology, e-learning became a major part of majority of education systems. One of the advantages the e-learning systems provide is the large amount of information available about the students' behavior while communicating with the e-learning system. Such information is very rich and it can be used to improve the capability and efficiency of e-learning systems. This paper discusses how e-learning can benefit from implicit data in different ways including; creating homogeneous groups of student, evaluating students' learning, creating behavior profiles for students and identifying the students through their behaviors.

Keywords: e-learning, implicit data, user behavior, data mining

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4029 Task Distraction vs. Visual Enhancement: Which Is More Effective?

Authors: Huangmei Liu, Si Liu, Jia’nan Liu


The present experiment investigated and compared the effectiveness of two kinds of methods of attention control: Task distraction and visual enhancement. In the study, the effectiveness of task distractions to explicit features and of visual enhancement to implicit features of the same group of Chinese characters were compared based on their effect on the participants’ reaction time, subjective confidence rating, and verbal report. We found support that the visual enhancement on implicit features did overcome the contrary effect of training distraction and led to awareness of those implicit features, at least to some extent.

Keywords: task distraction, visual enhancement, attention, awareness, learning

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4028 Response of a Bridge Crane during an Earthquake

Authors: F. Fekak, A. Gravouil, M. Brun, B. Depale


During an earthquake, a bridge crane may be subjected to multiple impacts between crane wheels and rail. In order to model such phenomena, a time-history dynamic analysis with a multi-scale approach is performed. The high frequency aspect of the impacts between wheels and rails is taken into account by a Lagrange explicit event-capturing algorithm based on a velocity-impulse formulation to resolve contacts and impacts. An implicit temporal scheme is used for the rest of the structure. The numerical coupling between the implicit and the explicit schemes is achieved with a heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator.

Keywords: bridge crane, earthquake, dynamic analysis, explicit, implicit, impact

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4027 Cultural Disposition and Implicit Dehumanization of Sexualized Females by Women

Authors: Hong Im Shin


Previous research demonstrated that self-objectification (women view themselves as objects for use) is related to system-justification. Three studies investigated whether cultural disposition as its system-justifying function could have an impact on self-objectification and dehumanization of sexualized women and men. Study 1 (N = 91) employed a survey methodology to examine the relationship between cultural disposition (collectivism vs. individualism), trait of system-justification, and self-objectification. The results showed that the higher tendency of collectivism was related to stronger system-justification and self-objectification. Study 2 (N = 60 females) introduced a single category implicit association task (SC-IAT) to assess the extent to which sexually objectified women were associated with uniquely human attributes (i.e., culture) compared to animal-related attributes (i.e., nature). According to results, female participants associated sexually objectified female targets less with human attributes compared to animal-related attributes. Study 3 (N = 46) investigated whether priming to individualism or collectivism was associated to system justification and sexual objectification of men and women with the use of a recognition task involving upright and inverted pictures of sexualized women and men. The results indicated that the female participants primed to individualism showed an inversion effect for sexualized women and men (person-like recognition), whereas there was no inversion effect for sexualized women in the priming condition of collectivism (object-like recognition). This implies that cultural disposition plays a mediating role for rationalizing the gender status, implicit dehumanization of sexualized females and self-objectification. Future research directions are discussed.

Keywords: cultural disposition, dehumanization, implicit test, self-objectification

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4026 Competition between Verb-Based Implicit Causality and Theme Structure's Influence on Anaphora Bias in Mandarin Chinese Sentences: Evidence from Corpus

Authors: Linnan Zhang


Linguists, as well as psychologists, have shown great interests in implicit causality in reference processing. However, most frequently-used approaches to this issue are psychological experiments (such as eye tracking or self-paced reading, etc.). This research is a corpus-based one and is assisted with statistical tool – software R. The main focus of the present study is about the competition between verb-based implicit causality and theme structure’s influence on anaphora bias in Mandarin Chinese sentences. In Accessibility Theory, it is believed that salience, which is also known as accessibility, and relevance are two important factors in reference processing. Theme structure, which is a special syntactic structure in Chinese, determines the salience of an antecedent on the syntactic level while verb-based implicit causality is a key factor to the relevance between antecedent and anaphora. Therefore, it is a study about anaphora, combining psychology with linguistics. With analysis of the sentences from corpus as well as the statistical analysis of Multinomial Logistic Regression, major findings of the present study are as follows: 1. When the sentence is stated in a ‘cause-effect’ structure, the theme structure will always be the antecedent no matter forward biased verbs or backward biased verbs co-occur; in non-theme structure, the anaphora bias will tend to be the opposite of the verb bias; 2. When the sentence is stated in a ‘effect-cause’ structure, theme structure will not always be the antecedent and the influence of verb-based implicit causality will outweigh that of theme structure; moreover, the anaphora bias will be the same with the bias of verbs. All the results indicate that implicit causality functions conditionally and the noun in theme structure will not be the high-salience antecedent under any circumstances.

Keywords: accessibility theory, anaphora, theme strcture, verb-based implicit causality

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4025 Model Predictive Control with Unscented Kalman Filter for Nonlinear Implicit Systems

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto


A class of implicit systems is known as a more generalized class of systems than a class of explicit systems. To establish a control method for such a generalized class of systems, we adopt model predictive control method which is a kind of optimal feedback control with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. However, model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems whose all state variables are not exactly known. In other words, model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems with limited measurable states. In fact, it is usual that the state variables of systems are measured through outputs, hence, only limited parts of them can be used directly. It is also usual that output signals are disturbed by process and sensor noises. Hence, it is important to establish a state estimation method for nonlinear implicit systems with taking the process noise and sensor noise into consideration. To this purpose, we apply the model predictive control method and unscented Kalman filter for solving the optimization and estimation problems of nonlinear implicit systems, respectively. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control with unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear implicit systems.

Keywords: optimal control, nonlinear systems, state estimation, Kalman filter

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4024 Numerical Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Blood Flow in a Stenosed Artery

Authors: Sreeparna Majee, G. C. Shit


Unsteady blood flow has been numerically investigated through stenosed arteries to achieve an idea about the physiological blood flow pattern in diseased arteries. The blood is treated as Newtonian fluid and the arterial wall is considered to be rigid having deposition of plaque in its lumen. For direct numerical simulation, vorticity-stream function formulation has been adopted to solve the problem using implicit finite difference method by developing well known Peaceman-Rachford Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The effects of magnetic parameter and Reynolds number on velocity and wall shear stress are being studied and presented quantitatively over the entire arterial segment. The streamlines have been plotted to understand the flow pattern in the stenosed artery, which has significant alterations in the downstream of the stenosis in the presence of magnetic field. The results show that there are nominal changes in the flow pattern when magnetic field strength is enhanced upto 8T which can have remarkable usage to MRI machines.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamics, blood flow, stenosis, energy dissipation

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4023 Implicit Force Control of a Position Controlled Robot - A Comparison with Explicit Algorithms

Authors: Alexander Winkler, Jozef Suchý


This paper investigates simple implicit force control algorithms realizable with industrial robots. A lot of approaches already published are difficult to implement in commercial robot controllers, because the access to the robot joint torques is necessary or the complete dynamic model of the manipulator is used. In the past we already deal with explicit force control of a position controlled robot. Well known schemes of implicit force control are stiffness control, damping control and impedance control. Using such algorithms the contact force cannot be set directly. It is further the result of controller impedance, environment impedance and the commanded robot motion/position. The relationships of these properties are worked out in this paper in detail for the chosen implicit approaches. They have been adapted to be implementable on a position controlled robot. The behaviors of stiffness control and damping control are verified by practical experiments. For this purpose a suitable test bed was configured. Using the full mechanical impedance within the controller structure will not be practical in the case when the robot is in physical contact with the environment. This fact will be verified by simulation.

Keywords: robot force control, stiffness control, damping control, impedance control, stability

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4022 Impact of the Time Interval in the Numerical Solution of Incompressible Flows

Authors: M. Salmanzadeh


In paper, we will deal with incompressible Couette flow, which represents an exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Couette flow is perhaps the simplest of all viscous flows, while at the same time retaining much of the same physical characteristics of a more complicated boundary-layer flow. The numerical technique that we will employ for the solution of the Couette flow is the Crank-Nicolson implicit method. Parabolic partial differential equations lend themselves to a marching solution; in addition, the use of an implicit technique allows a much larger marching step size than would be the case for an explicit solution. Hence, in the present paper we will have the opportunity to explore some aspects of CFD different from those discussed in the other papers.

Keywords: incompressible couette flow, numerical method, partial differential equation, Crank-Nicolson implicit

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4021 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman


A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

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4020 The Processing of Implicit Stereotypes in Contexts of Reading, Using Eye-Tracking and Self-Paced Reading Tasks

Authors: Magali Mari, Misha Muller


The present study’s objectives were to determine how diverse implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information and linguistic inferential processes, such as presupposition accommodation. When reading a text, one constructs a representation of the described situation, which is then updated, according to new outputs and based on stereotypes inscribed within society. If the new output contradicts stereotypical expectations, the representation must be corrected, resulting in longer reading times. A similar process occurs in cases of linguistic inferential processes like presupposition accommodation. Presupposition accommodation is traditionally regarded as fast, automatic processing of background information (e.g., ‘Mary stopped eating meat’ is quickly processed as Mary used to eat meat). However, very few accounts have investigated if this process is likely to be influenced by domains of social cognition, such as implicit stereotypes. To study the effects of implicit stereotypes on presupposition accommodation, adults were recorded while they read sentences in French, combining two methods, an eye-tracking task and a classic self-paced reading task (where participants read sentence segments at their own pace by pressing a computer key). In one condition, presuppositions were activated with the French definite articles ‘le/la/les,’ whereas in the other condition, the French indefinite articles ‘un/une/des’ was used, triggering no presupposition. Using a definite article presupposes that the object has already been uttered and is thus part of background information, whereas using an indefinite article is understood as the introduction of new information. Two types of stereotypes were under examination in order to enlarge the scope of stereotypes traditionally analyzed. Study 1 investigated gender stereotypes linked to professional occupations to replicate previous findings. Study 2 focused on nationality-related stereotypes (e.g. ‘the French are seducers’ versus ‘the Japanese are seducers’) to determine if the effects of implicit stereotypes on reading are generalizable to other types of implicit stereotypes. The results show that reading is influenced by the two types of implicit stereotypes; in the two studies, the reading pace slowed down when a counter-stereotype was presented. However, presupposition accommodation did not affect participants’ processing of information. Altogether these results show that (a) implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information, regardless of the type of stereotypes presented, and (b) that implicit stereotypes prevail over the superficial linguistic treatment of presuppositions, which suggests faster processing for treating social information compared to linguistic information.

Keywords: eye-tracking, implicit stereotypes, reading, social cognition

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4019 Estimation of Implicit Colebrook White Equation by Preferable Explicit Approximations in the Practical Turbulent Pipe Flow

Authors: Itissam Abuiziah


In several hydraulic systems, it is necessary to calculate the head losses which depend on the resistance flow friction factor in Darcy equation. Computing the resistance friction is based on implicit Colebrook-White equation which is considered as the standard for the friction calculation, but it needs high computational cost, therefore; several explicit approximation methods are used for solving an implicit equation to overcome this issue. It follows that the relative error is used to determine the most accurate method among the approximated used ones. Steel, cast iron and polyethylene pipe materials investigated with practical diameters ranged from 0.1m to 2.5m and velocities between 0.6m/s to 3m/s. In short, the results obtained show that the suitable method for some cases may not be accurate for other cases. For example, when using steel pipe materials, Zigrang and Silvester's method has revealed as the most precise in terms of low velocities 0.6 m/s to 1.3m/s. Comparatively, Halland method showed a less relative error with the gradual increase in velocity. Accordingly, the simulation results of this study might be employed by the hydraulic engineers, so they can take advantage to decide which is the most applicable method according to their practical pipe system expectations.

Keywords: Colebrook–White, explicit equation, friction factor, hydraulic resistance, implicit equation, Reynolds numbers

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4018 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb


The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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4017 High Order Block Implicit Multi-Step (Hobim) Methods for the Solution of Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: J. P. Chollom, G. M. Kumleng, S. Longwap


The search for higher order A-stable linear multi-step methods has been the interest of many numerical analysts and has been realized through either higher derivatives of the solution or by inserting additional off step points, supper future points and the likes. These methods are suitable for the solution of stiff differential equations which exhibit characteristics that place a severe restriction on the choice of step size. It becomes necessary that only methods with large regions of absolute stability remain suitable for such equations. In this paper, high order block implicit multi-step methods of the hybrid form up to order twelve have been constructed using the multi-step collocation approach by inserting one or more off step points in the multi-step method. The accuracy and stability properties of the new methods are investigated and are shown to yield A-stable methods, a property desirable of methods suitable for the solution of stiff ODE’s. The new High Order Block Implicit Multistep methods used as block integrators are tested on stiff differential systems and the results reveal that the new methods are efficient and compete favourably with the state of the art Matlab ode23 code.

Keywords: block linear multistep methods, high order, implicit, stiff differential equations

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4016 Binary Decision Diagram Based Methods to Evaluate the Reliability of Systems Considering Failure Dependencies

Authors: Siqi Qiu, Yijian Zheng, Xin Guo Ming


In many reliability and risk analysis, failures of components are supposed to be independent. However, in reality, the ignorance of failure dependencies among components may render the results of reliability and risk analysis incorrect. There are two principal ways to incorporate failure dependencies in system reliability and risk analysis: implicit and explicit methods. In the implicit method, failure dependencies can be modeled by joint probabilities, correlation values or conditional probabilities. In the explicit method, certain types of dependencies can be modeled in a fault tree as mutually independent basic events for specific component failures. In this paper, explicit and implicit methods based on BDD will be proposed to evaluate the reliability of systems considering failure dependencies. The obtained results prove the equivalence of the proposed implicit and explicit methods. It is found that the consideration of failure dependencies decreases the reliability of systems. This observation is intuitive, because more components fail due to failure dependencies. The consideration of failure dependencies helps designers to reduce the dependencies between components during the design phase to make the system more reliable.

Keywords: reliability assessment, risk assessment, failure dependencies, binary decision diagram

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4015 Virtual Reality as a Method in Transformative Learning: A Strategy to Reduce Implicit Bias

Authors: Cory A. Logston


It is imperative researchers continue to explore every transformative strategy to increase empathy and awareness of racial bias. Racism is a social and political concept that uses stereotypical ideology to highlight racial inequities. Everyone has biases they may not be aware of toward disparate out-groups. There is some form of racism in every profession; doctors, lawyers, and teachers are not immune. There have been numerous successful and unsuccessful strategies to motivate and transform an individual’s unconscious biased attitudes. One method designed to induce a transformative experience and identify implicit bias is virtual reality (VR). VR is a technology designed to transport the user to a three-dimensional environment. In a virtual reality simulation, the viewer is immersed in a realistic interactive video taking on the perspective of a Black man. The viewer as the character experiences discrimination in various life circumstances growing up as a child into adulthood. For instance, the prejudice felt in school, as an adolescent encountering the police and false accusations in the workplace. Current research suggests that an immersive VR simulation can enhance self-awareness and become a transformative learning experience. This study uses virtual reality immersion and transformative learning theory to create empathy and identify any unintentional racial bias. Participants, White teachers, will experience a VR immersion to create awareness and identify implicit biases regarding Black students. The desired outcome provides a springboard to reconceptualize their own implicit bias. Virtual reality is gaining traction in the research world and promises to be an effective tool in the transformative learning process.

Keywords: empathy, implicit bias, transformative learning, virtual reality

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4014 Implicit Eulerian Fluid-Structure Interaction Method for the Modeling of Highly Deformable Elastic Membranes

Authors: Aymen Laadhari, Gábor Székely


This paper is concerned with the development of a fully implicit and purely Eulerian fluid-structure interaction method tailored for the modeling of the large deformations of elastic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a simplified model for the mechanical properties of the membrane, in which the surface strain energy depends on the membrane stretching. The fully Eulerian description is based on the advection of a modified surface tension tensor, and the deformations of the membrane are tracked using a level set strategy. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson method, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the presented method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps.

Keywords: finite element method, implicit, level set, membrane, Newton method

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4013 Structural Reliability Analysis Using Extreme Learning Machine

Authors: Mehul Srivastava, Sharma Tushar Ravikant, Mridul Krishn Mishra


In structural design, the evaluation of safety and probability failure of structure is of significant importance, mainly when the variables are random. On real structures, structural reliability can be evaluated obtaining an implicit limit state function. The structural reliability limit state function is obtained depending upon the statistically independent variables. In the analysis of reliability, we considered the statistically independent random variables to be the load intensity applied and the depth or height of the beam member considered. There are many approaches for structural reliability problems. In this paper Extreme Learning Machine technique and First Order Second Moment Method is used to determine the reliability indices for the same set of variables. The reliability index obtained using ELM is compared with the reliability index obtained using FOSM. Higher the reliability index, more feasible is the method to determine the reliability.

Keywords: reliability, reliability index, statistically independent, extreme learning machine

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4012 On a Univalent Function and the Integral Means of Its Derivative

Authors: Shatha S. Alhily


The purpose of this research paper is to show all the possible values of the pth power of the integrable function which make the integral means of the derivative of univalent function existing and finite.

Keywords: derivative, integral means, self conformal maps, univalent function

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4011 Block Implicit Adams Type Algorithms for Solution of First Order Differential Equation

Authors: Asabe Ahmad Tijani, Y. A. Yahaya


The paper considers the derivation of implicit Adams-Moulton type method, with k=4 and 5. We adopted the method of interpolation and collocation of power series approximation to generate the continuous formula which was evaluated at off-grid and some grid points within the step length to generate the proposed block schemes, the schemes were investigated and found to be consistent and zero stable. Finally, the methods were tested with numerical experiments to ascertain their level of accuracy.

Keywords: Adam-Moulton Type (AMT), off-grid, block method, consistent and zero stable

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4010 A Variant of a Double Structure-Preserving QR Algorithm for Symmetric and Hamiltonian Matrices

Authors: Ahmed Salam, Haithem Benkahla


Recently, an efficient backward-stable algorithm for computing eigenvalues and vectors of a symmetric and Hamiltonian matrix has been proposed. The method preserves the symmetric and Hamiltonian structures of the original matrix, during the whole process. In this paper, we revisit the method. We derive a way for implementing the reduction of the matrix to the appropriate condensed form. Then, we construct a novel version of the implicit QR-algorithm for computing the eigenvalues and vectors.

Keywords: block implicit QR algorithm, preservation of a double structure, QR algorithm, symmetric and Hamiltonian structures

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4009 Research on Contract's Explicit Incentive and Reputation's Implicit Incentive Mechanism towards Construction Contractors

Authors: Li Ma, Meishuang Ma, Mengying Huang


The quality of construction projects reflects the credit and responsibilities of construction contractors for the owners and the whole society. Because the construction contractors master more relevant information about the entrusted engineering project under construction while the owners are in unfavorable position of gaining information, asymmetric information may lead the contractors act against the owners in order to pursue their own interests. Building a powerful motivation mechanism is the key to guarantee investor economic interests and the life and property of users in construction projects. Based on principal-agent theory and game theory, the authors develop relevant mathematical models to analyze and compare the contractor’s utility functions under different combinations of contracts’ explicit incentive mechanism and reputation’s implicit incentive mechanism aiming at finding out the conditions for incentive validity. The research concludes that the most rational motivation way is to combine the explicit and implicit incentive effects of both contracts and reputation mechanism, and puts forth some measures for problems on account of China’s current situation.

Keywords: construction contractors, contract, reputation, incentive mechanism

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