Search results for: state estimation
8123 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies
Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi
Abstract:Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.
Keywords: state of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimationProcedia PDF Downloads 316
8122 A Mathematical Model of Power System State Estimation for Power Flow Solution
Authors: F. Benhamida, A. Graa, L. Benameur, I. Ziane
Abstract:The state estimation of the electrical power system operation state is very important for supervising task. With the nonlinearity of the AC power flow model, the state estimation problem (SEP) is a nonlinear mathematical problem with many local optima. This paper treat the mathematical model for the SEP and the monitoring of the nonlinear systems of great dimensions with an application on power electrical system, the modelling, the analysis and state estimation synthesis in order to supervise the power system behavior. in fact, it is very difficult, to see impossible, (for reasons of accessibility, techniques and/or of cost) to measure the excessive number of the variables of state in a large-sized system. It is thus important to develop software sensors being able to produce a reliable estimate of the variables necessary for the diagnosis and also for the control.
Keywords: power system, state estimation, robustness, observabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 438
8121 State Estimation Method Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Vehicle Nonlinear Dynamics
Authors: Wataru Nakamura, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Liang-Kuang Chen
Abstract:This paper provides a state estimation method for automatic control systems of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. A nonlinear tire model is employed to represent the realistic behavior of a vehicle. In general, all the state variables of control systems are not precisedly known, because those variables are observed through output sensors and limited parts of them might be only measurable. Hence, automatic control systems must incorporate some type of state estimation. It is needed to establish a state estimation method for nonlinear vehicle dynamics with restricted measurable state variables. For this purpose, unscented Kalman filter method is applied in this study for estimating the state variables of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The objective of this paper is to propose a state estimation method using unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.
Keywords: state estimation, control systems, observer systems, nonlinear systemsProcedia PDF Downloads 66
8120 State Estimation of a Biotechnological Process Using Extended Kalman Filter and Particle Filter
Authors: R. Simutis, V. Galvanauskas, D. Levisauskas, J. Repsyte, V. Grincas
Abstract:This paper deals with advanced state estimation algorithms for estimation of biomass concentration and specific growth rate in a typical fed-batch biotechnological process. This biotechnological process was represented by a nonlinear mass-balance based process model. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Particle Filter (PF) was used to estimate the unmeasured state variables from oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and base consumption (BC) measurements. To obtain more general results, a simplified process model was involved in EKF and PF estimation algorithms. This model doesn’t require any special growth kinetic equations and could be applied for state estimation in various bioprocesses. The focus of this investigation was concentrated on the comparison of the estimation quality of the EKF and PF estimators by applying different measurement noises. The simulation results show that Particle Filter algorithm requires significantly more computation time for state estimation but gives lower estimation errors both for biomass concentration and specific growth rate. Also the tuning procedure for Particle Filter is simpler than for EKF. Consequently, Particle Filter should be preferred in real applications, especially for monitoring of industrial bioprocesses where the simplified implementation procedures are always desirable.
Keywords: biomass concentration, extended Kalman filter, particle filter, state estimation, specific growth rateProcedia PDF Downloads 364
8119 Classic Training of a Neural Observer for Estimation Purposes
Authors: R. Loukil, M. Chtourou, T. Damak
Abstract:This paper investigates the training of multilayer neural network using the classic approach. Then, for estimation purposes, we suggest the use of a specific neural observer that we study its training algorithm which is the back-propagation one in the case of the disponibility of the state and in the case of an unmeasurable state. A MATLAB simulation example will be studied to highlight the usefulness of this kind of observer.
Keywords: training, estimation purposes, neural observer, back-propagation, unmeasurable stateProcedia PDF Downloads 491
8118 Tracking Filtering Algorithm Based on ConvLSTM
Authors: Ailing Yang, Penghan Song, Aihua Cai
Abstract:The nonlinear maneuvering target tracking problem is mainly a state estimation problem when the target motion model is uncertain. Traditional solutions include Kalman filtering based on Bayesian filtering framework and extended Kalman filtering. However, these methods need prior knowledge such as kinematics model and state system distribution, and their performance is poor in state estimation of nonprior complex dynamic systems. Therefore, in view of the problems existing in traditional algorithms, a convolution LSTM target state estimation (SAConvLSTM-SE) algorithm based on Self-Attention memory (SAM) is proposed to learn the historical motion state of the target and the error distribution information measured at the current time. The measured track point data of airborne radar are processed into data sets. After supervised training, the data-driven deep neural network based on SAConvLSTM can directly obtain the target state at the next moment. Through experiments on two different maneuvering targets, we find that the network has stronger robustness and better tracking accuracy than the existing tracking methods.
Keywords: maneuvering target, state estimation, Kalman filter, LSTM, self-attentionProcedia PDF Downloads 30
8117 Estimation of the State of Charge of the Battery Using EFK and Sliding Mode Observer in MATLAB-Arduino/Labview
Authors: Mouna Abarkan, Abdelillah Byou, Nacer M'Sirdi, El Hossain Abarkan
Abstract:This paper presents the estimation of the state of charge of the battery using two types of observers. The battery model used is the combination of a voltage source, which is the open circuit battery voltage of a strength corresponding to the connection of resistors and electrolyte and a series of parallel RC circuits representing charge transfer phenomena and diffusion. An adaptive observer applied to this model is proposed, this observer to estimate the battery state of charge of the battery is based on EFK and sliding mode that is known for their robustness and simplicity implementation. The results are validated by simulation under MATLAB/Simulink and implemented in Arduino-LabView.
Keywords: model of the battery, adaptive sliding mode observer, the EFK observer, estimation of state of charge, SOC, implementation in Arduino/LabViewProcedia PDF Downloads 230
8116 An Algorithm to Compute the State Estimation of a Bilinear Dynamical Systems
Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei
Abstract:In this paper, we introduce a mathematical algorithm which is used for estimating the states in the bilinear systems. This algorithm uses a special linearization of the second-order term by using the best available information about the state of the system. This technique makes our algorithm generalizes the well-known Kalman estimators. The system which is used here is of the bilinear class, the evolution of this model is linear-bilinear in the state of the system. Our algorithm can be used with linear and bilinear systems. We also here introduced a real application for the new algorithm to prove the feasibility and the efficiency for it.
Keywords: estimation algorithm, bilinear systems, Kakman filter, second order linearizationProcedia PDF Downloads 403
8115 Switched System Diagnosis Based on Intelligent State Filtering with Unknown Models
Authors: Nada Slimane, Foued Theljani, Faouzi Bouani
Abstract:The paper addresses the problem of fault diagnosis for systems operating in several modes (normal or faulty) based on states assessment. We use, for this purpose, a methodology consisting of three main processes: 1) sequential data clustering, 2) linear model regression and 3) state filtering. Typically, Kalman Filter (KF) is an algorithm that provides estimation of unknown states using a sequence of I/O measurements. Inevitably, although it is an efficient technique for state estimation, it presents two main weaknesses. First, it merely predicts states without being able to isolate/classify them according to their different operating modes, whether normal or faulty modes. To deal with this dilemma, the KF is endowed with an extra clustering step based fully on sequential version of the k-means algorithm. Second, to provide state estimation, KF requires state space models, which can be unknown. A linear regularized regression is used to identify the required models. To prove its effectiveness, the proposed approach is assessed on a simulated benchmark.
Keywords: clustering, diagnosis, Kalman Filtering, k-means, regularized regressionProcedia PDF Downloads 117
8114 State Estimation Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Burgers’ Equation
Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto
Abstract:Controlling the flow of fluids is a challenging problem that arises in many fields. Burgers’ equation is a fundamental equation for several flow phenomena such as traffic, shock waves, and turbulence. The optimal feedback control method, so-called model predictive control, has been proposed for Burgers’ equation. However, the model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems whose all state variables are not exactly known. In practical point of view, it is unusual that all the state variables of systems are exactly known, because the state variables of systems are measured through output sensors and limited parts of them can be only available. In fact, it is usual that flow velocities of fluid systems cannot be measured for all spatial domains. Hence, any practical feedback controller for fluid systems must incorporate some type of state estimator. To apply the model predictive control to the fluid systems described by Burgers’ equation, it is needed to establish a state estimation method for Burgers’ equation with limited measurable state variables. To this purpose, we apply unscented Kalman filter for estimating the state variables of fluid systems described by Burgers’ equation. The objective of this study is to establish a state estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter for Burgers’ equation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.
Keywords: observer systems, unscented Kalman filter, nonlinear systems, Burgers' equationProcedia PDF Downloads 83
8113 Parameter Estimation of Induction Motors by PSO Algorithm
Authors: A. Mohammadi, S. Asghari, M. Aien, M. Rashidinejad
Abstract:After emergent of alternative current networks and their popularity, asynchronous motors became more widespread than other kinds of industrial motors. In order to control and run these motors efficiently, an accurate estimation of motor parameters is needed. There are different methods to obtain these parameters such as rotor locked test, no load test, DC test, analytical methods, and so on. The most common drawback of these methods is their inaccuracy in estimation of some motor parameters. In order to remove this concern, a novel method for parameter estimation of induction motors using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. In the proposed method, transient state of motor is used for parameter estimation. Comparison of the simulation results purtuined to the PSO algorithm with other available methods justifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Keywords: induction motor, motor parameter estimation, PSO algorithm, analytical methodProcedia PDF Downloads 559
8112 Presentation of a Mix Algorithm for Estimating the Battery State of Charge Using Kalman Filter and Neural Networks
Authors: Amin Sedighfar, M. R. Moniri
Abstract:Determination of state of charge (SOC) in today’s world becomes an increasingly important issue in all the applications that include a battery. In fact, estimation of the SOC is a fundamental need for the battery, which is the most important energy storage in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), smart grid systems, drones, UPS and so on. Regarding those applications, the SOC estimation algorithm is expected to be precise and easy to implement. This paper presents an online method for the estimation of the SOC of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries. The proposed method uses the well-known Kalman Filter (KF), and Neural Networks (NNs) and all of the simulations have been done with MATLAB software. The NN is trained offline using the data collected from the battery discharging process. A generic cell model is used, and the underlying dynamic behavior of the model has used two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface, and end), where the SOC determined from the voltage represents the bulk capacitor. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of conventional integration-based SOC estimation methods with a mixed algorithm. Moreover, by containing the effect of temperature, the final result becomes more accurate.
Keywords: Kalman filter, neural networks, state-of-charge, VRLA batteryProcedia PDF Downloads 126
8111 Defects Estimation of Embedded Systems Components by a Bond Graph Approach
Authors: I. Gahlouz, A. Chellil
Abstract:The paper concerns the estimation of system components faults by using an unknown inputs observer. To reach this goal, we used the Bond Graph approach to physical modelling. We showed that this graphical tool is allowing the representation of system components faults as unknown inputs within the state representation of the considered physical system. The study of the causal and structural features of the system (controllability, observability, finite structure, and infinite structure) based on the Bond Graph approach was hence fulfilled in order to design an unknown inputs observer which is used for the system component fault estimation.
Keywords: estimation, bond graph, controllability, observabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 361
8110 Model Predictive Control with Unscented Kalman Filter for Nonlinear Implicit Systems
Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto
Abstract:A class of implicit systems is known as a more generalized class of systems than a class of explicit systems. To establish a control method for such a generalized class of systems, we adopt model predictive control method which is a kind of optimal feedback control with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. However, model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems whose all state variables are not exactly known. In other words, model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems with limited measurable states. In fact, it is usual that the state variables of systems are measured through outputs, hence, only limited parts of them can be used directly. It is also usual that output signals are disturbed by process and sensor noises. Hence, it is important to establish a state estimation method for nonlinear implicit systems with taking the process noise and sensor noise into consideration. To this purpose, we apply the model predictive control method and unscented Kalman filter for solving the optimization and estimation problems of nonlinear implicit systems, respectively. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control with unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear implicit systems.
Keywords: optimal control, nonlinear systems, state estimation, Kalman filterProcedia PDF Downloads 127
8109 Online Battery Equivalent Circuit Model Estimation on Continuous-Time Domain Using Linear Integral Filter Method
Authors: Cheng Zhang, James Marco, Walid Allafi, Truong Q. Dinh, W. D. Widanage
Abstract:Equivalent circuit models (ECMs) are widely used in battery management systems in electric vehicles and other battery energy storage systems. The battery dynamics and the model parameters vary under different working conditions, such as different temperature and state of charge (SOC) levels, and therefore online parameter identification can improve the modelling accuracy. This paper presents a way of online ECM parameter identification using a continuous time (CT) estimation method. The CT estimation method has several advantages over discrete time (DT) estimation methods for ECM parameter identification due to the widely separated battery dynamic modes and fast sampling. The presented method can be used for online SOC estimation. Test data are collected using a lithium ion cell, and the experimental results show that the presented CT method achieves better modelling accuracy compared with the conventional DT recursive least square method. The effectiveness of the presented method for online SOC estimation is also verified on test data.
Keywords: electric circuit model, continuous time domain estimation, linear integral filter method, parameter and SOC estimation, recursive least squareProcedia PDF Downloads 303
8108 Channel Estimation Using Deep Learning for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces-Assisted Millimeter Wave Systems
Authors: Ting Gao, Mingyue He
Abstract:Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are expected to be an important part of next-generation wireless communication networks due to their potential to reduce the hardware cost and energy consumption of millimeter Wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology. However, owing to the lack of signal processing abilities of the RIS, the perfect channel state information (CSI) in RIS-assisted communication systems is difficult to acquire. In this paper, the uplink channel estimation for mmWave systems with a hybrid active/passive RIS architecture is studied. Specifically, a deep learning-based estimation scheme is proposed to estimate the channel between the RIS and the user. In particular, the sparse structure of the mmWave channel is exploited to formulate the channel estimation as a sparse reconstruction problem. To this end, the proposed approach is derived to obtain the distribution of non-zero entries in a sparse channel. After that, the channel is reconstructed by utilizing the least-squares (LS) algorithm and compressed sensing (CS) theory. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed channel estimation scheme is superior to existing solutions even in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments.
Keywords: channel estimation, reconfigurable intelligent surface, wireless communication, deep learningProcedia PDF Downloads 60
8107 Simulation of 3-D Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Using MUSIC Algorithm
Authors: Duckyong Kim, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim
Abstract:DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation is an important method in array signal processing and has a wide range of applications such as direction finding, beam forming, and so on. In this paper, we briefly introduce the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) Algorithm, one of DOA estimation methods for analyzing several targets. Then we apply the MUSIC algorithm to the two-dimensional antenna array to analyze DOA estimation in 3D space through MATLAB simulation. We also analyze the design factors that can affect the accuracy of DOA estimation through simulation, and proceed with further consideration on how to apply the system.
Keywords: DOA estimation, MUSIC algorithm, spatial spectrum, array signal processingProcedia PDF Downloads 288
8106 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation
Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis
Abstract:In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.
Keywords: discrete time, estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gainProcedia PDF Downloads 92
8105 Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS Based on High Degree Cubature Kalman Filtering
Authors: Hamza Benzerrouk, Alexander Nebylov
Abstract:In classical GNSS/INS integration designs, the loosely coupled approach uses the GNSS derived position and the velocity as the measurements vector. This design is suboptimal from the standpoint of preventing GNSSoutliers/outages. The tightly coupled GPS/INS navigation filter mixes the GNSS pseudo range and inertial measurements and obtains the vehicle navigation state as the final navigation solution. The ultra‐tightly coupled GNSS/INS design combines the I (inphase) and Q(quadrature) accumulator outputs in the GNSS receiver signal tracking loops and the INS navigation filter function intoa single Kalman filter variant (EKF, UKF, SPKF, CKF and HCKF). As mentioned, EKF and UKF are the most used nonlinear filters in the literature and are well adapted to inertial navigation state estimation when integrated with GNSS signal outputs. In this paper, it is proposed to move a step forward with more accurate filters and modern approaches called Cubature and High Degree cubature Kalman Filtering methods, on the basis of previous results solving the state estimation based on INS/GNSS integration, Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) and High Degree Cubature Kalman Filter with (HCKF) are the references for the recent developed generalized Cubature rule based Kalman Filter (GCKF). High degree cubature rules are the kernel of the new solution for more accurate estimation with less computational complexity compared with the Gauss-Hermite Quadrature (GHQKF). Gauss-Hermite Kalman Filter GHKF which is not selected in this work because of its limited real-time implementation in high-dimensional state-spaces. In ultra tightly or a deeply coupled GNSS/INS system is dynamics EKF is used with transition matrix factorization together with GNSS block processing which is well described in the paper and assumes available the intermediary frequency IF by using a correlator samples with a rate of 500 Hz in the presented approach. GNSS (GPS+GLONASS) measurements are assumed available and modern SPKF with Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) are compared with new versions of CKF called high order CKF based on Spherical-radial cubature rules developed at the fifth order in this work. Estimation accuracy of the high degree CKF is supposed to be comparative to GHKF, results of state estimation are then observed and discussed for different initialization parameters. Results show more accurate navigation state estimation and more robust GNSS receiver when Ultra Tightly Coupled approach applied based on High Degree Cubature Kalman Filter.
Keywords: GNSS, INS, Kalman filtering, ultra tight integrationProcedia PDF Downloads 221
8104 On Fault Diagnosis of Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Parallel Composition
Authors: Jung-Min Yang
Abstract:Fault diagnosis of composite asynchronous sequential machines with parallel composition is addressed in this paper. An adversarial input can infiltrate one of two submachines comprising the composite asynchronous machine, causing an unauthorized state transition. The objective is to characterize the condition under which the controller can diagnose any fault occurrence. Two control configurations, state feedback and output feedback, are considered in this paper. In the case of output feedback, the exact estimation of the state is impossible since the current state is inaccessible and the output feedback is given as the form of burst. A simple example is provided to demonstrate the proposed methodology.
Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, parallel composition, fault diagnosis, corrective controlProcedia PDF Downloads 234
8103 Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based on ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments
Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon
Abstract:In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.
Keywords: frequency offset estimation, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise environment, OFDM, training symbolProcedia PDF Downloads 284
8102 Offline Parameter Identification and State-of-Charge Estimation for Healthy and Aged Electric Vehicle Batteries Based on the Combined Model
Authors: Xiaowei Zhang, Min Xu, Saeid Habibi, Fengjun Yan, Ryan Ahmed
Abstract:Recently, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have received extensive consideration since they offer a more sustainable and greener transportation alternative compared to fossil-fuel propelled vehicles. Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries are increasingly being deployed in EVs because of their high energy density, high cell-level voltage, and low rate of self-discharge. Since Li-ion batteries represent the most expensive component in the EV powertrain, accurate monitoring and control strategies must be executed to ensure their prolonged lifespan. The Battery Management System (BMS) has to accurately estimate parameters such as the battery State-of-Charge (SOC), State-of-Health (SOH), and Remaining Useful Life (RUL). In order for the BMS to estimate these parameters, an accurate and control-oriented battery model has to work collaboratively with a robust state and parameter estimation strategy. Since battery physical parameters, such as the internal resistance and diffusion coefficient change depending on the battery state-of-life (SOL), the BMS has to be adaptive to accommodate for this change. In this paper, an extensive battery aging study has been conducted over 12-months period on 5.4 Ah, 3.7 V Lithium polymer cells. Instead of using fixed charging/discharging aging cycles at fixed C-rate, a set of real-world driving scenarios have been used to age the cells. The test has been interrupted every 5% capacity degradation by a set of reference performance tests to assess the battery degradation and track model parameters. As battery ages, the combined model parameters are optimized and tracked in an offline mode over the entire batteries lifespan. Based on the optimized model, a state and parameter estimation strategy based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the relatively new Smooth Variable Structure Filter (SVSF) have been applied to estimate the SOC at various states of life.
Keywords: lithium-ion batteries, genetic algorithm optimization, battery aging test, parameter identificationProcedia PDF Downloads 205
8101 Parameters Estimation of Multidimensional Possibility Distributions
Authors: Sergey Sorokin, Irina Sorokina, Alexander Yazenin
Abstract:We present a solution to the Maxmin u/E parameters estimation problem of possibility distributions in m-dimensional case. Our method is based on geometrical approach, where minimal area enclosing ellipsoid is constructed around the sample. Also we demonstrate that one can improve results of well-known algorithms in fuzzy model identification task using Maxmin u/E parameters estimation.
Keywords: possibility distribution, parameters estimation, Maxmin u\E estimator, fuzzy model identificationProcedia PDF Downloads 389
8100 Real-Time Radar Tracking Based on Nonlinear Kalman Filter
Authors: Milca F. Coelho, K. Bousson, Kawser Ahmed
Abstract:To accurately track an aerospace vehicle in a time-critical situation and in a highly nonlinear environment, is one of the strongest interests within the aerospace community. The tracking is achieved by estimating accurately the state of a moving target, which is composed of a set of variables that can provide a complete status of the system at a given time. One of the main ingredients for a good estimation performance is the use of efficient estimation algorithms. A well-known framework is the Kalman filtering methods, designed for prediction and estimation problems. The success of the Kalman Filter (KF) in engineering applications is mostly due to the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which is based on local linearization. Besides its popularity, the EKF presents several limitations. To address these limitations and as a possible solution to tracking problems, this paper proposes the use of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). Although the EnKF is being extensively used in the context of weather forecasting and it is being recognized for producing accurate and computationally effective estimation on systems with a very high dimension, it is almost unknown by the tracking community. The EnKF was initially proposed as an attempt to improve the error covariance calculation, which on the classic Kalman Filter is difficult to implement. Also, in the EnKF method the prediction and analysis error covariances have ensemble representations. These ensembles have sizes which limit the number of degrees of freedom, in a way that the filter error covariance calculations are a lot more practical for modest ensemble sizes. In this paper, a realistic simulation of a radar tracking was performed, where the EnKF was applied and compared with the Extended Kalman Filter. The results suggested that the EnKF is a promising tool for tracking applications, offering more advantages in terms of performance.
Keywords: Kalman filter, nonlinear state estimation, optimal tracking, stochastic environmentProcedia PDF Downloads 76
8099 A Packet Loss Probability Estimation Filter Using Most Recent Finite Traffic Measurements
Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang
Abstract:A packet loss probability (PLP) estimation filter with finite memory structure is proposed to estimate the packet rate mean and variance of the input traffic process in real-time while removing undesired system and measurement noises. The proposed PLP estimation filter is developed under a weighted least square criterion using only the finite traffic measurements on the most recent window. The proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to have several inherent properties such as unbiasedness, deadbeat, robustness. A guideline for choosing appropriate window length is described since it can affect significantly the estimation performance. Using computer simulations, the proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to be superior to the Kalman filter for the temporarily uncertain system. One possible explanation for this is that the proposed PLP estimation filter can have greater convergence time of a filtered estimate as the window length M decreases.
Keywords: packet loss probability estimation, finite memory filter, infinite memory filter, Kalman filterProcedia PDF Downloads 489
8098 Frequency Selective Filters for Estimating the Equivalent Circuit Parameters of Li-Ion Battery
Authors: Arpita Mondal, Aurobinda Routray, Sreeraj Puravankara, Rajashree Biswas
Abstract:The most difficult part of designing a battery management system (BMS) is battery modeling. A good battery model can capture the dynamics which helps in energy management, by accurate model-based state estimation algorithms. So far the most suitable and fruitful model is the equivalent circuit model (ECM). However, in real-time applications, the model parameters are time-varying, changes with current, temperature, state of charge (SOC), and aging of the battery and this make a great impact on the performance of the model. Therefore, to increase the equivalent circuit model performance, the parameter estimation has been carried out in the frequency domain. The battery is a very complex system, which is associated with various chemical reactions and heat generation. Therefore, it’s very difficult to select the optimal model structure. As we know, if the model order is increased, the model accuracy will be improved automatically. However, the higher order model will face the tendency of over-parameterization and unfavorable prediction capability, while the model complexity will increase enormously. In the time domain, it becomes difficult to solve higher order differential equations as the model order increases. This problem can be resolved by frequency domain analysis, where the overall computational problems due to ill-conditioning reduce. In the frequency domain, several dominating frequencies can be found in the input as well as output data. The selective frequency domain estimation has been carried out, first by estimating the frequencies of the input and output by subspace decomposition, then by choosing the specific bands from the most dominating to the least, while carrying out the least-square, recursive least square and Kalman Filter based parameter estimation. In this paper, a second order battery model consisting of three resistors, two capacitors, and one SOC controlled voltage source has been chosen. For model identification and validation hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests have been carried out on a 2.6 Ah LiFePO₄ battery.
Keywords: equivalent circuit model, frequency estimation, parameter estimation, subspace decompositionProcedia PDF Downloads 76
8097 Time Delay Estimation Using Signal Envelopes for Synchronisation of Recordings
Authors: Sergei Aleinik, Mikhail Stolbov
Abstract:In this work, a method of time delay estimation for dual-channel acoustic signals (speech, music, etc.) recorded under reverberant conditions is investigated. Standard methods based on cross-correlation of the signals show poor results in cases involving strong reverberation, large distances between microphones and asynchronous recordings. Under similar conditions, a method based on cross-correlation of temporal envelopes of the signals delivers a delay estimation of acceptable quality. This method and its properties are described and investigated in detail, including its limits of applicability. The method’s optimal parameter estimation and a comparison with other known methods of time delay estimation are also provided.
Keywords: cross-correlation, delay estimation, signal envelope, signal processingProcedia PDF Downloads 378
8096 VaR Estimation Using the Informational Content of Futures Traded Volume
Authors: Amel Oueslati, Olfa Benouda
Abstract:New Value at Risk (VaR) estimation is proposed and investigated. The well-known two stages Garch-EVT approach uses conditional volatility to generate one step ahead forecasts of VaR. With daily data for twelve stocks that decompose the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index, this paper incorporates the volume in the first stage volatility estimation. Afterwards, the forecasting ability of this conditional volatility concerning the VaR estimation is compared to that of a basic volatility model without considering any trading component. The results are significant and bring out the importance of the trading volume in the VaR measure.
Keywords: Garch-EVT, value at risk, volume, volatilityProcedia PDF Downloads 218
8095 Depth Estimation in DNN Using Stereo Thermal Image Pairs
Authors: Ahmet Faruk Akyuz, Hasan Sakir Bilge
Abstract:Depth estimation using stereo images is a challenging problem in computer vision. Many different studies have been carried out to solve this problem. With advancing machine learning, tackling this problem is often done with neural network-based solutions. The images used in these studies are mostly in the visible spectrum. However, the need to use the Infrared (IR) spectrum for depth estimation has emerged because it gives better results than visible spectra in some conditions. At this point, we recommend using thermal-thermal (IR) image pairs for depth estimation. In this study, we used two well-known networks (PSMNet, FADNet) with minor modifications to demonstrate the viability of this idea.
Keywords: thermal stereo matching, deep neural networks, CNN, Depth estimationProcedia PDF Downloads 196
8094 Online Pose Estimation and Tracking Approach with Siamese Region Proposal Network
Authors: Cheng Fang, Lingwei Quan, Cunyue Lu
Abstract:Human pose estimation and tracking are to accurately identify and locate the positions of human joints in the video. It is a computer vision task which is of great significance for human motion recognition, behavior understanding and scene analysis. There has been remarkable progress on human pose estimation in recent years. However, more researches are needed for human pose tracking especially for online tracking. In this paper, a framework, called PoseSRPN, is proposed for online single-person pose estimation and tracking. We use Siamese network attaching a pose estimation branch to incorporate Single-person Pose Tracking (SPT) and Visual Object Tracking (VOT) into one framework. The pose estimation branch has a simple network structure that replaces the complex upsampling and convolution network structure with deconvolution. By augmenting the loss of fully convolutional Siamese network with the pose estimation task, pose estimation and tracking can be trained in one stage. Once trained, PoseSRPN only relies on a single bounding box initialization and producing human joints location. The experimental results show that while maintaining the good accuracy of pose estimation on COCO and PoseTrack datasets, the proposed method achieves a speed of 59 frame/s, which is superior to other pose tracking frameworks.
Keywords: computer vision, pose estimation, pose tracking, Siamese networkProcedia PDF Downloads 82