Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11519

Search results for: impact assessment

11519 Creation of a Care Robot Impact Assessment

Authors: Eduard Fosch-Villaronga

Abstract:

This paper pioneers Care Robot Impact Assessment (CRIA), a methodology used to identify, analyze, mitigate and eliminate the risks posed by the insertion of non-medical personal care robots (PCR) in medical care facilities. Its precedent instruments (Privacy and Surveillance Impact Assessment (PIA and SIA)) fall behind in coping with robots. Indeed, personal care robots change dramatically how care is delivered. The paper presents a specific risk-sector methodology, identifies which robots are under its scope and presents some of the challenges introduced by these robots.

Keywords: ethics, impact assessment, law, personal care robots

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11518 Optimising GIS in Cushioning the Environmental Impact of Infrastructural Projects

Authors: Akerele Akintunde Hareef

Abstract:

GIS is an integrating tool for storing, retrieving, manipulating, and analyzing spatial data. It is a tool which defines an area with respect to features and other relevant thematic delineations. On the other hand, Environmental Impact Assessment in short is both positive and negative impact of an infrastructure on an environment. Impact of infrastructural projects on the environment is an aspect of development that barely get extensive portion of pre-project execution phase and when they do, the effects are most times not implemented to cushion the impact they have on human and the environment. In this research, infrastructural projects like road constructions, water reticulation projects, building constructions, bridge etc. have immense impact on the environment and the people that reside in location of construction. Hence, the need for this research tends to portray the relevance of Environmental Impact assessment in calculating the vulnerability of human and the environment to imbalance necessitated by this infrastructural development and how the use of GIS application can be optimally applied to annul or minimize the effect.

Keywords: environmental impact assessment (EIA), geographic information system (GIS), infrastructural projects, environment

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11517 Lean Impact Analysis Assessment Models: Development of a Lean Measurement Structural Model

Authors: Catherine Maware, Olufemi Adetunji

Abstract:

The paper is aimed at developing a model to measure the impact of Lean manufacturing deployment on organizational performance. The model will help industry practitioners to assess the impact of implementing Lean constructs on organizational performance. It will also harmonize the measurement models of Lean performance with the house of Lean that seems to have become the industry standard. The sheer number of measurement models for impact assessment of Lean implementation makes it difficult for new adopters to select an appropriate assessment model or deployment methodology. A literature review is conducted to classify the Lean performance model. Pareto analysis is used to select the Lean constructs for the development of the model. The model is further formalized through the use of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in defining the underlying latent structure of a Lean system. An impact assessment measurement model developed can be used to measure Lean performance and can be adopted by different industries.

Keywords: impact measurement model, lean bundles, lean manufacturing, organizational performance

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11516 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Aluminum Production Process

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Wael El Hasan, Mahmoud Alijla, Ammar Manawi, Abdelbaki Benamour

Abstract:

The production of aluminium alloys and ingots -starting from the processing of alumina to aluminium, and the final cast product- was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The studied aluminium supply chain consisted of a carbon plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the production of 1 ton of aluminium metal were investigated. The impact of the aluminium production was assessed in eight impact categories. The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it comes to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power plant.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, aluminium production, supply chain, ecological impacts

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11515 Measuring Ecological Footprint: Life Cycle Assessment Approach

Authors: Binita Shah, Seema Unnikrishnan

Abstract:

In the recent time, an increasing interest in the analysis and efforts to reduce the environmental impacts generated by man-made activities has been seen widely being discussed and implemented by the society. The industrial processes are expressing their concern and showing keen interest in redesigning and amending the operation process leading to better environmental performance by upgrading technologies and adjusting the financial inputs. There are various tools available for the assessment of process and production of goods on the environment. Most methods look at a particular impact on the ecosystem. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the most widely accepted and scientifically founded methodologies to assess the overall environmental impacts of products and processes. This paper looks at the tools used in India for environmental impact assessment.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, ecological footprint, measuring sustainability, India

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11514 Environmental Impact Assessment of Conventional Tyre Manufacturing Process

Authors: G. S. Dangayach, Gaurav Gaurav, Alok Bihari Singh

Abstract:

The popularity of vehicles in both industrialized and developing economies led to a rise in the production of tyres. People have become increasingly concerned about the tyre industry's possible environmental impact in the last two decades. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts of industrial tyres throughout their life cycle, which included four stages: manufacture, transportation, consumption, and end-of-life. The majority of prior studies focused on tyre recycling and disposal. Only a few studies have been conducted on the environmental impact of tyre production process. LCA methodology was employed to determine the environmental impact of tyre manufacture process (gate to gate) at an Indian firm. Comparative analysis was also conducted to identify the environmental hotspots in various stages of tire manufacturing. This study is limited to gate-to-gate analysis of manufacturing processes with the functional unit of a single tyre weighing 50 kg. GaBi software was used to do both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Different environmental impact indicators are measured in terms of CO2, SO2, NOx, GWP (global warming potential), AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), POCP (photochemical oxidant formation potential), and HTP (toxic human potential). The results demonstrate that the major contributor to environmental pollution is electricity. The Banbury process has a very high negative environmental impact, which causes respiratory problems to workers and operators.

Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental impact indicators, tyre manufacturing process, environmental impact assessment

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11513 A Comparative Study on the Impact of Global Warming of Applying Low Carbon Factor Concrete Products

Authors: Su-Hyun Cho, Chang-U Chae

Abstract:

Environmental impact assessment techniques have been developed as a result of the worldwide efforts to reduce the environmental impact of global warming. By using the quantification method in the construction industry, it is now possible to manage the greenhouse gas is to systematically evaluate the impact on the environment over the entire construction process. In particular, the proportion of greenhouse gas emissions at the production stage of construction material occupied is high, and efforts are needed in particular in the construction field. In this study, intended for concrete products for the construction materials, by using the LCA evaluation method, we compared the results of environmental impact assessment and carbon emissions of developing products that have been applied low-carbon technologies compared to existing products. As a results, by introducing a raw material of industrial waste, showed carbon reduction. Through a comparison of the carbon emission reduction effect of low-carbon technologies, it is intended to provide academic data for the evaluation of greenhouse gases in the construction sector and the development of low-carbon technologies of the future.

Keywords: CO₂ emissions, CO₂ reduction, ready-mixed concrete, environmental impact assessment

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11512 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Roofing System for Abu Dhabi

Authors: Iyasu Eibedingil

Abstract:

The construction industry is one of the major factors responsible for causing a negative impact on the environment. It has the largest share in the use of natural resources including land use, material extraction, and greenhouse gases emissions. For this reason, it is imperative to reduce its environmental impact through the construction of sustainable buildings with less impact. These days, it is possible to measure the environmental impact by using different tools such as the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Given this premise, this study explored the environmental impact of two types of roofing systems through comparative life cycle assessment approach. The tiles were analyzed to select the most environmentally friendly roofing system for the villa at Khalifa City A, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. These products are available in various forms; however, in this study concrete roof tiles and clay roof tiles were considered. The results showed that concrete roof tiles have lower environmental impact. In all scenarios considered, manufacturing the roof tiles locally, using recovered fuels for firing clay tiles, and using renewable energy (electricity from PV plant) showed that the concrete roof tiles were found to be excellent in terms of its embodied carbon, embodied the energy and various other environmental performance indicators.

Keywords: clay roof tile, concrete roof tile, life cycle assessment, sensitivity analysis

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11511 A Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Oil and Gas Critical Infrastructures in the Niger Delta

Authors: Justin A. Udie, Subhes C. Bhatthacharyya, Leticia Ozawa-Meida

Abstract:

The impact of climate change is severe in the Niger Delta and critical oil and gas infrastructures are vulnerable. This is partly due to lack of specific impact assessment framework to assess impact indices on both existing and new infrastructures. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the assessment of climate change impact on critical oil and gas infrastructure in the region. Comparative and documentary methods as well as analysis of frameworks were used to develop a flexible, integrated and conceptual four dimensional framework underpinning; 1. Scoping – the theoretical identification of inherent climate burdens, review of exposure, adaptive capacities and delineation of critical infrastructure; 2. Vulnerability assessment – presents a systematic procedure for the assessment of infrastructure vulnerability. It provides real time re-scoping, practical need for data collection, analysis and review. Physical examination of systems is encouraged to complement the scoped data and ascertain the level of exposure to relevant climate risks in the area; 3. New infrastructure – consider infrastructures that are still at developmental level. It seeks to suggest the inclusion of flexible adaptive capacities in original design of infrastructures in line with climate threats and projections; 4. The Mainstreaming Climate Impact Assessment into government’s environmental decision making approach. Though this framework is designed specifically for the estimation of exposure, adaptive capacities and criticality of vulnerable oil and gas infrastructures in the Niger Delta to climate burdens; it is recommended for researchers and experts as a first-hand generic and practicable tool which can be used for the assessment of other infrastructures perceived as critical and vulnerable. The paper does not provide further tools that synch into the methodological approach but presents pointers upon which a pragmatic methodology can be developed.

Keywords: adaptation, assessment, conceptual, climate, change, framework, vulnerability

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11510 Juvenile Justice in Maryland: The Evidence Based Approach to Youth with History of Victimization and Trauma

Authors: Gabriela Wasileski, Debra L. Stanley

Abstract:

Maryland efforts to decrease the juvenile criminality and recidivism shifts towards evidence based sentencing. While in theory the evidence based sentencing has an impact on the reduction of juvenile delinquency and drug abuse; the assessment of juveniles’ risk and needs usually lacks crucial information about juvenile’s prior victimization. The Maryland Comprehensive Assessment and Service Planning (MCASP) Initiative is the primary tool for developing and delivering a treatment service plan for juveniles at risk. Even though it consists of evidence-based screening and assessment instruments very little is currently known regarding the effectiveness and the impact of the assessment in general. In keeping with Maryland’s priority to develop successful evidence-based recidivism reduction programs, this study examined results of assessments based on MCASP using a representative sample of the juveniles at risk and their assessment results. Specifically, it examined: (1) the results of the assessments in an electronic database (2) areas of need that are more frequent among delinquent youth in a system/agency, (3) the overall progress of youth in an agency’s care (4) the impact of child victimization and trauma experiences reported in the assessment. The project will identify challenges regarding the use of MCASP in Maryland, and will provide a knowledge base to support future research and practices.

Keywords: Juvenile Justice, assessment of risk and need, victimization and crime, recidivism

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11509 The Advancement of Environmental Impact Assessment for 5th Transmission Natural Gas Pipeline Project in Thailand

Authors: Penrug Pengsombut, Worawut Hamarn, Teerawuth Suwannasri, Kittiphong Songrukkiat, Kanatip Ratanachoo

Abstract:

PTT Public Company Limited or simply PTT has played an important role in strengthening national energy security of the Kingdom of Thailand by transporting natural gas to customers in power, industrial and commercial sectors since 1981. PTT has been constructing and operating natural gas pipeline system of over 4,500-km network length both onshore and offshore laid through different area classifications i.e., marine, forest, agriculture, rural, urban, and city areas. During project development phase, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is conducted and submitted to the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) for approval before project construction commencement. Knowledge and experiences gained and revealed from EIA in the past projects definitely are developed to further advance EIA study process for newly 5th Transmission Natural Gas Pipeline Project (5TP) with approximately 415 kilometers length. The preferred pipeline route is selected and justified by SMARTi map, an advance digital one-map platform with consists of multiple layers geographic and environmental information. Sensitive area impact focus (SAIF) is a practicable impact assessment methodology which appropriate for a particular long distance infrastructure project such as 5TP. An environmental modeling simulation is adopted into SAIF methodology for impact quantified in all sensitive areas whereas other area along pipeline right-of-ways is typically assessed as an impact representative. Resulting time and cost deduction is beneficial to project for early start.

Keywords: environmental impact assessment, EIA, natural gas pipeline, sensitive area impact focus, SAIF

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11508 Organizational Performance and Impact of Social Innovation

Authors: Alfonso Unceta, Javier Castro-Spila

Abstract:

This paper offers a conceptual and empirical exploration between the organizational performance and the impact of social innovation. The paper contributes on the social innovation field in three domains: a) It provides analytical and empirical evidence linking organizational performance to the impact of social innovation; b) it provides a first outline of impact assessment of social innovation when it is developed by a diversity of heterogeneous actors (systemic social innovation); c) it provides a first outline for the development of innovation policies to support social innovations according to a typology of organizations and a typology of impact.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, social innovation impact, organizational performance, RESINDEX, Basque Country

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11507 Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology of the Tirana–Elbasan Road Project

Authors: Aurora Cerri, Niko Pollojani

Abstract:

The Tirana – Elbasan Road project is the most important highway project in Albania, constructed in the period May 2011 - ongoing. This project included construction of 38 km highway category road including 2.6 km of tunnel. It serves as a corridor connecting the Tirana, Capital of Albania and South-East area, and in the near future it is expected to continue in the direction of Macedonian border. Environmental Impact Assesment procedure for this project is provided by the Albanian Environmental Law No. 10431. This law establishes the regulation of procedures for identifying, assessment and reporting on the effects of certain projects on the environment, and the associated administrative procedures, during the decision-making process by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism for issuing environmental permit, and ensures that all relevant information concerning the environment are provided and considered. Due to the nature and size of the project, during the environmental impact assessment process, the European Union legislation, namely the EIA Directive 85/337 / EEC is considered. Moreover, in some cases, due to the lack of national standards and practical guidelines, when necessary those of EU member countries are considered. This paper presents an analysis of the EIA procedure followed on ‘Tirana – Elbasan’ Road project, with a focus on the application of the main stages of the procedure such as: screening, scoping, review, the EIA report; and consideration of alternatives, measures for impact prevention and reduction, and the public hearing T/discussion.

Keywords: highway, environmental impact assesment, Tirana, prevention

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11506 Strategic Planning in South African Higher Education

Authors: Noxolo Mafu

Abstract:

This study presents an overview of strategic planning in South African higher education institutions by tracing its trends and mystique in order to identify its impact. Over the democratic decades, strategic planning has become integral to institutional survival. It has been used as a potent tool by several institutions to catch up and surpass counterparts. While planning has always been part of higher education, strategic planning should be considered different. Strategic planning is primarily about development and maintenance of a strategic fitting between an institution and its dynamic opportunities. This presupposes existence of sets of stages that institutions pursue of which, can be regarded for assessment of the impact of strategic planning in an institution. The network theory serves guides the study in demystifying apparent organisational networks in strategic planning processes.

Keywords: network theory, strategy, planning, strategic planning, assessment, impact

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11505 Analysis of the Impact of NVivo and EndNote on Academic Research Productivity

Authors: Sujit K. Basak

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of literature review software on researchers. The aim of this study was achieved by analyzing models in terms of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and acceptance level. Collected data was analyzed using WarpPLS 4.0 software. This study used two theoretical frameworks namely Technology Acceptance Model and the Training Needs Assessment Model. The study was experimental and was conducted at a public university in South Africa. The results of the study showed that acceptance level has a high impact on research workload and productivity followed by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

Keywords: technology acceptance model, training needs assessment model, literature review software, research productivity

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11504 Analysis of Human Toxicity Potential of Major Building Material Production Stage Using Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Rakhyun Kim, Sungho Tae

Abstract:

Global environmental issues such as abnormal weathers due to global warming, resource depletion, and ecosystem distortions have been escalating due to rapid increase of population growth, and expansion of industrial and economic development. Accordingly, initiatives have been implemented by many countries to protect the environment through indirect regulation methods such as Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), in addition to direct regulations such as various emission standards. Following this trend, life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques that provide quantitative environmental information, such as Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), for buildings are being developed in the construction industry. However, at present, the studies on the environmental database of building materials are not sufficient to provide this support adequately. The purpose of this study is to analysis human toxicity potential of major building material production stage using life cycle assessment. For this purpose, the theoretical consideration of the life cycle assessment and environmental impact category was performed and the direction of the study was set up. That is, the major material in the global warming potential view was drawn against the building and life cycle inventory database was selected. The classification was performed about 17 kinds of substance and impact index, such as human toxicity potential, that it specifies in CML2001. The environmental impact of analysis human toxicity potential for the building material production stage was calculated through the characterization. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of building material in the same category was analyze based on the characterization impact which was calculated in this study. In this study, establishment of environmental impact coefficients of major building material by complying with ISO 14040. Through this, it is believed to effectively support the decisions of stakeholders to improve the environmental performance of buildings and provide a basis for voluntary participation of architects in environment consideration activities.

Keywords: human toxicity potential, major building material, life cycle assessment, production stage

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11503 Life Cycle Assessment of Bioethanol from Feedstocks in Thailand

Authors: Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul

Abstract:

An analysis of mass balance, energy performance, and environmental impact assessment were performed to evaluate bioethanol production in Thailand. Thailand is an agricultural country. Thai government plans to increase the use of alternative energy to 20 percent by 2022. One of the primary campaigns is to promote a bioethanol production from abundant biomass resources such as bitter cassava, molasses and sugarcane. The bioethanol production is composed of three stages: cultivation, pretreatment, and bioethanol conversion. All of mass, material, fuel, and energy were calculated to determine the environmental impact of three types of bioethanol production: bioethanol production from cassava (CBP), bioethanol production from molasses (MBP), and bioethanol production from rice straw (RBP). The results showed that bioethanol production from cassava has the best environmental performance. CBP contributes less impact when compared to the other processes.

Keywords: bioethanol production, biofuel, LCA, chemical engineering

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11502 The Impact of Teachers’ Beliefs and Perceptions about Formative Assessment in the University ESL Class Assistant Lecturer: Barzan Hadi Hama Karim University of Halabja

Authors: Barzan Hadi Hama Karim

Abstract:

The topic of formative assessment and its implementation in Iraqi Kurdistan have not attracted the attention of researchers and educators. Teachers’ beliefs about formative assessment as well as their assessment roles have remained unexplored. This paper reports on the research results of our survey which is conducted in 20014 to examine issues relating to formative assessment in the university ESL classroom settings. The paper portrays the findings of a qualitative study on the formative assessment role and beliefs of a group of teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in the departments of English Languages in Iraqi Kurdistan universities. Participants of the study are 25 Kurdish EFL teachers from different departments of English languages. Close-ended and open-ended questionnaire is used to collect teacher’s beliefs and perceptions about the importance of formative assessment to improve the process of teaching and learning English language. The result of the study shows that teachers do not play a significant role in the assessment process because of top-down managerial approaches and educational system. The results prove that the teachers’ assessment beliefs and their key role in assessment should not be neglected. Our research papers pursued the following questions: What is the nature of formative assessment in a second language classroom setting? Do the teacher’s assessment practices reflect what she thinks about formative assessment? What are the teachers’ perceptions regarding the benefits of formative assessment for teaching and learning English language at the university level?

Keywords: formative assessment, teachers’ beliefs and perceptions, assessment, education reform, ESL

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11501 Tsunami Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure: Development and Application of Functions for Infrastructure Impact Assessment

Authors: James Hilton Williams

Abstract:

Recent tsunami events, including the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, Japan, and the 2015 Illapel Tsunami, Chile, have highlighted the potential for tsunami impacts on the built environment. International research in the tsunami impacts domain has been largely focused toward impacts on buildings and casualty estimations, while only limited attention has been placed on the impacts on infrastructure which is critical for the recovery of impacted communities. New Zealand, with 75% of the population within 10 km of the coast, has a large amount of coastal infrastructure exposed to local, regional and distant tsunami sources. To effectively manage tsunami risk for New Zealand critical infrastructure, including energy, transportation, and communications, the vulnerability of infrastructure networks and components must first be determined. This research develops infrastructure asset vulnerability, functionality and repair- cost functions based on international post-event tsunami impact assessment data from technologically similar countries, including Japan and Chile, and adapts these to New Zealand. These functions are then utilized within a New Zealand based impact framework, allowing for cost benefit analyses, effective tsunami risk management strategies and mitigation options for exposed critical infrastructure to be determined, which can also be applied internationally.

Keywords: impact assessment, infrastructure, tsunami impacts, vulnerability functions

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11500 Arsenic Removal by Membrane Technology, Adsorption and Ion Exchange: An Environmental Lifecycle Assessment

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Paula Saavalainen, Kumudini V. Marathe, Riitta L. Keiski, Ganapati D. Yadav

Abstract:

Co-contamination of groundwaters by arsenic in different forms is often observed around the globe. Arsenic is introduced into the waters by several mechanisms and different technologies are proposed and practiced for effective removal. The assessment of three prominent technologies, namely, adsorption, ion exchange and nanofiltration was carried out in this study based on lifecycle methodology. The life of the technologies was divided into two stages: cradle to gate (C-G) and gate to gate (G-G), in order to find out the impacts in different categories of environmental burdens, human health and resource consumption. Life cycle inventory was estimated by use of models and design equations concerning with the different technologies. Regeneration was considered for each technology and over the course of its full lifetime. The impact values of adsorption technology for the C-G stage are greater by thousand times (103) and million times (106) compared to ion exchange and nanofiltration technologies, respectively. The impact of G-G stage of the lifecycle is the major contributor of the impact for all the 3 technologies due to electricity consumption during the operation. Overall, the ion Exchange technology fares well in this study of removal of As (V) only.

Keywords: arsenic, nanofiltration, lifecycle assessment, membrane technology

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11499 Rights-Based Approach to Artificial Intelligence Design: Addressing Harm through Participatory ex ante Impact Assessment

Authors: Vanja Skoric

Abstract:

The paper examines whether the impacts of artificial intelligence (AI) can be meaningfully addressed through the rights-based approach to AI design, investigating in particular how the inclusive, participatory process of assessing the AI impact would make this viable. There is a significant gap between envisioning rights-based AI systems and their practical application. Plausibly, internalizing human rights approach within AI design process might be achieved through identifying and assessing implications of AI features human rights, especially considering the case of vulnerable individuals and communities. However, there is no clarity or consensus on how such an instrument should be operationalised to usefully identify the impact, mitigate harms and meaningfully ensure relevant stakeholders’ participation. In practice, ensuring the meaningful inclusion of those individuals, groups, or entire communities who are affected by the use of the AI system is a prerequisite for a process seeking to assess human rights impacts and risks. Engagement in the entire process of the impact assessment should enable those affected and interested to access information and better understand the technology, product, or service and resulting impacts, but also to learn about their rights and the respective obligations and responsibilities of developers and deployers to protect and/or respect these rights. This paper will provide an overview of the study and practice of the participatory design process for AI, including inclusive impact assessment, its main elements, propose a framework, and discuss the lessons learned from the existing theory. In addition, it will explore pathways for enhancing and promoting individual and group rights through such engagement by discussing when, how, and whom to include, at which stage of the process, and what are the pre-requisites for meaningful and engaging. The overall aim is to ensure using the technology that works for the benefit of society, individuals, and particular (historically marginalised) groups.

Keywords: rights-based design, AI impact assessment, inclusion, harm mitigation

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11498 Colombia Fossil Fuel Policies and Their Impact on Urban Air Quality

Authors: Ruth Catacolí, Hector Garcia

Abstract:

Colombia Urban Areas shows a decreasing of their air quality, no matter the actions developed by the Government facing the mitigation of pressure factors related with air pollution. Examples of these actions were the fossil fuel quality improvement policies (FFQI). This study evaluated the impact of three FFQI in the air quality of Bogotá during the period 1990 - 2006: The phase-out of lead in the gasoline; the sulfur reduction in diesel oil consumed in Bogotá and the oxygenation of gasoline through the addition of ethanol. The results indicate that only the policy of phase-out of lead in gasoline has been effective, showing dropping of lead oxides concentration in the air. Some stakeholders believe that the FFQI evaluated in the study are environmental policies, but no one of these policies has been supported by an environmental impact assessment that shows specific benefits in air quality. The research includes some fuel policy elements to achieve positive impact on the air quality in the urban centers of Colombia.

Keywords: policy assessment, fuel quality, urban air quality, air quality management

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11497 Promoting Non-Formal Learning Mobility in the Field of Youth

Authors: Juha Kettunen

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for the assessment of research and development projects. The assessment map is developed in this study based on the strategy map of the balanced scorecard approach. The assessment map is applied in a project that aims to reduce the inequality and risk of exclusion of young people from disadvantaged social groups. The assessment map denotes that not only funding but also necessary skills and qualifications should be carefully assessed in the implementation of the project plans so as to achieve the objectives of projects and the desired impact. The results of this study are useful for those who want to develop the implementation of the Erasmus+ Programme and the project teams of research and development projects.

Keywords: non-formal learning, youth work, social inclusion, innovation

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11496 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of High Barrier Polymer Packaging for Selecting Resource Efficient and Environmentally Low-Impact Materials

Authors: D. Kliaugaitė, J. K, Staniškis

Abstract:

In this study tree types of multilayer gas barrier plastic packaging films were compared using life cycle assessment as a tool for resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials selection. The first type of multilayer packaging film (PET-AlOx/LDPE) consists of polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer AlOx (PET-AlOx) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). The second type of polymer film (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) is made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and co-extrusion film PE-EVOH-PE as barrier layer. And the third one type of multilayer packaging film (PET-PVOH/LDPE) is formed from polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer PVOH (PET-PVOH) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). All of analyzed packaging has significant impact to resource depletion, because of raw materials extraction and energy use and production of different kind of plastics. Nevertheless the impact generated during life cycle of functional unit of II type of packaging (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) was about 25% lower than impact generated by I type (PET-AlOx/LDPE) and III type (PET-PVOH/LDPE) of packaging. Result revealed that the contribution of different gas barrier type to the overall environmental problem of packaging is not significant. The impact are mostly generated by using energy and materials during raw material extraction and production of different plastic materials as plastic polymers material as PE, LDPE and PET, but not gas barrier materials as AlOx, PVOH and EVOH. The LCA results could be useful in different decision-making processes, for selecting resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, polymer packaging, resource efficiency, materials extraction, polyethylene terephthalate

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11495 Assessment of Master's Program in Technology

Authors: Niaz Latif, Joy L. Colwell

Abstract:

Following implementation of a master’s level graduate degree program in technology, a research-based assessment of the program was undertaken to determine how well the program met its goals and objectives, and the impact of the degree program on the objectives and the needs of its graduates. Upon review of the survey data, it was concluded that the program was meeting its goals and objectives and that the directed project option should be encouraged.

Keywords: master’s degree, graduate program, assessment, master's program in technology

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11494 Impact of Tablet Based Learning on Continuous Assessment (ESPRIT Smart School Framework)

Authors: Mehdi Attia, Sana Ben Fadhel, Lamjed Bettaieb

Abstract:

Mobile technology has become a part of our daily lives and assist learners (despite their level and age) in their leaning process using various apparatus and mobile devices (laptop, tablets, etc.). This paper presents a new learning framework based on tablets. This solution has been developed and tested in ESPRIT “Ecole Supérieure Privée d’Igénieurie et de Technologies”, a Tunisian school of engineering. This application is named ESSF: Esprit Smart School Framework. In this work, the main features of the proposed solution are listed, particularly its impact on the learners’ evaluation process. Learner’s assessment has always been a critical component of the learning process as it measures students’ knowledge. However, traditional evaluation methods in which the learner is evaluated once or twice each year cannot reflect his real level. This is why a continuous assessment (CA) process becomes necessary. In this context we have proved that ESSF offers many important features that enhance and facilitate the implementation of the CA process.

Keywords: continuous assessment, mobile learning, tablet based learning, smart school, ESSF

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11493 Level of Sustainability, Environmental Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment of Industrial Technology Research Projects in Carlos Hilado Memorial State College, Alijis Campus, Bacolod City, Negros Occidental, Philippines

Authors: Rene A. Salmingo

Abstract:

In pursuing higher educational institution’s transition to sustainable future, this research initiative was conducted. The study aimed to determine the level of sustainability, environmental impact and life cycle phase assessment of the industrial technology research projects at the Institute of Information Technology, Carlos Hilado Memorial State College (CHMSC), Alijis Campus, Bacolod City, Negros Occidental, Philippines. The research method was descriptive utilizing a researcher made questionnaire to assess the ten (10) industrial technology completed research projects. Mean was used to treat the data and instrument for Good and Scates’ validity through revisions and consultations from the environmental experts, technology specialists; and Cronbach Alpha was used to measure reliability. Results indicated that the level of sustainability and life cycle phase assessment was very high while the environmental impact of the industrial research projects was rated low. Moreover, the current research projects and environmental education courses in the college were relevant to support sustainable industrial technology research projects in the future. Hence, this research initiative will contribute to the transformation of CHMSC as a greening higher educational institution and as a center for sustainable development in the region.

Keywords: environmental impact, industrial technology research projects, life cycle phase assessment, sustainability

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11492 Evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment of Dam Using GIS/Remote Sensing-Review

Authors: Ntungamili Kenosi, Moatlhodi W. Letshwenyo

Abstract:

Negative environmental impacts due to construction of large projects such as dams have become an important aspect of land degradation. This paper will review the previous literature on the previous researches or study in the same area of study in the other parts of the world. After dam has been constructed, the actual environmental impacts are investigated and compared to the predicted results of the carried out Environmental Impact Assessment. GIS and Remote Sensing, play an important role in generating automated spatial data sets and in establishing spatial relationships. Results from other sources shows that the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) analysis was used to detect the spatial and temporal change of vegetation biomass in the study area. The result indicated that the natural vegetation biomass is declining. This is mainly due to the expansion of agricultural land and escalating human made structures in the area. Urgent environmental conservation is necessary when adjoining projects site. Less study on the evaluation of EIA on dam has been conducted in Botswana hence there is a need for the same study to be conducted and then it will be easy to be compared to other studies around the world.

Keywords: Botswana, dam, environmental impact assessment, GIS, normalized vegetation index (NDVI), remote sensing

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11491 Impact Characteristics of Fragile Cover Based on Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification

Authors: Dejin Chen, Bin Lin, Xiaohui LI, Haobin Tian

Abstract:

In order to acquire stable impact performance of cover, the factors influencing the impact force of the cover were analyzed and researched. The influence of impact factors such as impact velocity, impact weight and fillet radius of warhead was studied by Orthogonal experiment. Through the range analysis and numerical simulation, the results show that the impact velocity has significant influences on impact force of cover. The impact force decreases with the increase of impact velocity and impact weight. The test results are similar to the numerical simulation. The cover broke up into four parts along the groove.

Keywords: fragile cover, numerical simulation, impact force, epoxy foam

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11490 Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers’ Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning

Authors: Kemal Izci

Abstract:

Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student’s learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students’ learning. Thus, reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers’ practices of formative assessment will be crucial for guiding educators to support prospective teachers in using formative assessment and also eliminate limiting factors to let practicing teachers to engage in formative assessment practices during their instruction. The study, by using teacher’s change environment framework, reviews literature on formative assessment and presents a tentative model that illustrates the factors impacting teachers’ adoption of formative assessment in their teaching. The results showed that there are four main factors consisting personal, contextual, resource-related and external factors that influence teachers’ practices of formative assessment.

Keywords: assessment practices, formative assessment, teacher education, factors for use of formative assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 220