Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Engin Aktaş

45 An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry

Authors: Gizem Arslan Özgen, Kutay Yücetürk, Metin Tanoğlu, Engin Aktaş

Abstract:

Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).

Keywords: composite propeller shaft, hybridization, epoxy matrix, static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling strength, fundamental natural bending frequency.

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
44 Reliability-based Condition Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines using SHM data

Authors: Caglayan Hizal, Hasan Emre Demirci, Engin Aktas, Alper Sezer

Abstract:

Offshore wind turbines consist of a long slender tower with a heavy fixed mass on the top of the tower (nacelle), together with a heavy rotating mass (blades and hub). They are always subjected to environmental loads including wind and wave loads in their service life. This study presents a three-stage methodology for reliability-based condition assessment of offshore wind-turbines against the seismic, wave and wind induced effects considering the soil-structure interaction. In this context, failure criterions are considered as serviceability limits of a monopile supporting an Offshore Wind Turbine: (a) allowable horizontal displacement at pile head should not exceed 0.2 m, (b) rotations at pile head should not exceed 0.5°. A Bayesian system identification framework is adapted to the classical reliability analysis procedure. Using this framework, a reliability assessment can be directly implemented to the updated finite element model without performing time-consuming methods. For numerical verification, simulation data of the finite model of a real offshore wind-turbine structure is investigated using the three-stage methodology.

Keywords: Offshore wind turbines, SHM, reliability assessment, soil-structure interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
43 Structural Health Monitoring-Integrated Structural Reliability Based Decision Making

Authors: Caglayan Hizal, Kutay Yuceturk, Ertugrul Turker Uzun, Hasan Ceylan, Engin Aktas, Gursoy Turan

Abstract:

Monitoring concepts for structural systems have been investigated by researchers for decades since such tools are quite convenient to determine intervention planning of structures. Despite the considerable development in this regard, the efficient use of monitoring data in reliability assessment, and prediction models are still in need of improvement in their efficiency. More specifically, reliability-based seismic risk assessment of engineering structures may play a crucial role in the post-earthquake decision-making process for the structures. After an earthquake, professionals could identify heavily damaged structures based on visual observations. Among these, it is hard to identify the ones with minimum signs of damages, even if they would experience considerable structural degradation. Besides, visual observations are open to human interpretations, which make the decision process controversial, and thus, less reliable. In this context, when a continuous monitoring system has been previously installed on the corresponding structure, this decision process might be completed rapidly and with higher confidence by means of the observed data. At this stage, the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) procedure has an important role since it can make it possible to estimate the system reliability based on a recursively updated mathematical model. Therefore, integrating an SHM procedure into the reliability assessment process comes forward as an important challenge due to the arising uncertainties for the updated model in case of the environmental, material and earthquake induced changes. In this context, this study presents a case study on SHM-integrated reliability assessment of the continuously monitored progressively damaged systems. The objective of this study is to get instant feedback on the current state of the structure after an extreme event, such as earthquakes, by involving the observed data rather than the visual inspections. Thus, the decision-making process after such an event can be carried out on a rational basis. In the near future, this can give wing to the design of self-reported structures which can warn about its current situation after an extreme event.

Keywords: condition assessment, vibration-based SHM, reliability analysis, seismic risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
42 Geometric Properties of Some q-Bessel Functions

Authors: İbrahim Aktaş, Árpád Baricz

Abstract:

In this paper, the radii of star likeness of the Jackson and Hahn-Exton q-Bessel functions are considered, and for each of them three different normalizations is applied. By applying Euler-Rayleigh inequalities for the first positive zeros of these functions tight lower, and upper bounds for the radii of starlikeness of these functions are obtained. The Laguerre-Pólya class of real entire functions plays an important role in this study. In particular, we obtain some new bounds for the first positive zero of the derivative of the classical Bessel function of the first kind.

Keywords: bessel function, lommel function, radius of starlikeness and convexity, Struve function

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41 An Evaluation of Medical Waste in Health Facilities through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Method: Turkey-Amasya Public Hospitals Union Model

Authors: Murat Iskender Aktaş, Sadi Ergin, Rasime Acar Aktaş

Abstract:

In the light of fast-paced changes and developments in the health sector, the Ministry of Health started a new structuring with decree law numbered 663 within the scope of the Project of Transformation in Health. Accordingly, hospitals should ensure patient satisfaction through more efficient, more effective use of resources and sustainable finance by placing patients in the centre and should operate to increase efficiency to its maximum level while doing these. Within this study, in order to find out how efficient the hospitals were in terms of medical waste management between the years 2011-2014, the data from six hospitals of Amasya Public Hospitals Union were evaluated separately through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. First of all, input variables were determined. Input variables were the number of patients admitted to polyclinics, the number of inpatients in clinics, the number of patients who were operated and the number of patients who applied to the laboratory. Output variable was the cost of medical wastes in Turkish liras. Each hospital’s total medical waste level before and after public hospitals union; the amounts of average medical waste per patient admitted to polyclinics, per inpatient in clinics, per patient admitted to laboratory and per operated patient were compared within each group. In addition, average medical waste levels and costs were compared for Turkey in general and Europe in general. Paired samples t-test was used to find out whether the changes (increase-decrease) after public hospitals union were statistically significant. The health facilities that were unsuccessful in terms of medical waste management before and after public hospital union and the factors that caused this failure were determined. Based on the results, for each health facility that was ineffective in terms of medical waste management, the level of improvement required for each input was determined. The results of the study showed that there was an improvement in medical waste management applications after the health facilities became a member of public hospitals union; their medical waste levels were lower than the average of Turkey and Europe while the averages of cost of disposal were the highest.

Keywords: medical waste management, cost of medical waste, public hospitals, data envelopment analysis

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40 The Determination of Pb and Zn Phytoremediation Potential and Effect of Interaction between Cadmium and Zinc on Metabolism of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Esculentum)

Authors: Nurdan Olguncelik Kaplan, Aysen Akay

Abstract:

Nowadays soil pollution has become a global problem. External added polluters to the soil are destroying and changing the structure of the soil and the problems are becoming more complex and in this sense the correction of these problems is going to be harder and more costly. Cadmium has got a fast mobility in the soil and plant system because of that cadmium can interfere very easily to the human and animal food chain and in the same time this can be very dangerous. The cadmium which is absorbed and stored by the plants is causing to many metabolic changes of the plants like; protein synthesis, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme (nitrate reductase) activation, photo and chlorophyll synthesis. The biological function of cadmium is not known over the plants and it is not a necessary element. The plant is generally taking in small amounts the cadmium and this element is competing with the zinc. Cadmium is causing root damages. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is an important nutraceutical because of its high content of flavonoids, minerals and vitamins, and their nutritionally balanced amino-acid composition. Buckwheat has relatively high biomass productivity, is adapted to many areas of the world, and can flourish in sterile fields; therefore buckwheat plants are widely used for the phytoremediation process.The aim of this study were to evaluate the phytoremediation capacity of the high-yielding plant Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in soils contaminated with Cd and Zn. The soils were applied to differrent doses cd(0-12.5-25-50-100 mg Cd kg−1 soil in the form of 3CdSO4.8H2O ) and Zn (0-10-30 mg Zn kg−1 soil in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O) and incubated about 60 days. Later buckwheat seeds were sown and grown for three mounth under greenhouse conditions. The test plants were irrigated by using pure water after the planting process. Buckwheat seeds (Gunes and Aktas species) were taken from Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research. After harvest, Cd and Zn concentrations of plant biomass and grain, yield and translocation factors (TFs) for Cd and Cd were determined. Cadmium accumulation in biomass and grain significantly increased in dose-dependent manner. Long term field trials are required to further investigate the potential of buckwheat to reclaimed the soil. But this could be undertaken in conjunction with actual remediation schemes. However, the differences in element accumulation among the genotypes were affected more by the properties of genotypes than by the soil properties. Gunes genotype accumulated higher lead than Aktas genotypes.

Keywords: buckwheat, cadmium, phytoremediation, zinc

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39 Iterative White Balance Adjustment Process in Production Line

Authors: Onur Onder, Celal Tanuca, Mahir Ozil, Halil Sen, Alkım Ozkan, Engin Ceylan, Ali Istek, Ozgur Saglam

Abstract:

White balance adjustment of LCD TVs is an important procedure which has a direct influence on quality perception. Existing methods adjust RGB gain and offset values in different white levels during production. This paper suggests an iterative method in which the gamma is pre-adjusted during the design stage, and only 80% white is adjusted during production by modifying only RGB gain values (offset values are not modified). This method reduces the white balance adjustment time, contributing to the total efficiency of the production. Experiment shows that the adjustment results are well within requirements.

Keywords: color temperature, LCD panel deviation, LCD TV manufacturing, white balance

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38 Photocatalytic Glucose Electrooxidation Applications of Titanium Dioxide Supported CD and CdTe Catalysts

Authors: Hilal Kivrak, Aykut ÇağLar, Nahit Aktaş, Ali Osman Solak

Abstract:

At present, Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ catalysts are prepared via sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction method. These catalysts are characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These Cd/TiO₂ and CdTe/TiO₂ are employed as catalysts for the photocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are used to investigate their glucose electrooxidation activities of catalysts at long and under UV illumination (ʎ=354 nm). CdTe/TiO₂ catalyst is showed the best photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation activity compared to Cd/TiO₂ catalyst.

Keywords: cadmium, NaBH4 reduction method, photocatalytic glucose electrooxidation, Tellerium, TiO2

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37 Numerical Simulation of Truck Collision with Road Blocker

Authors: Engin Metin Kaplan, Kemal Yaman

Abstract:

In this study, the crash of a medium heavy vehicle onto a designed Road blocker (vehicle barrier) is studied numerically. Structural integrity of the Road blocker is studied by nonlinear dynamic methods under the loading conditions which are defined in the standards. NASTRAN® and LS-DYNA® which are commercial software are used to solve the problem. Outer geometry determination, alignment of the inner part and material properties of the road blocker are studied linearly to yield design parameters. Best design parameters are determined to achieve the most structurally optimized road blocker. Strain and stress values of the vehicle barrier are obtained by solving the partial differential equations.

Keywords: vehicle barrier, truck collision, road blocker, crash analysis

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36 Implementation and Modeling of a Quadrotor

Authors: Ersan Aktas, Eren Turanoğuz

Abstract:

In this study, the quad-electrical rotor driven unmanned aerial vehicle system is designed and modeled using fundamental dynamic equations. After that, mechanical, electronical and control system of the air vehicle are designed and implemented. Brushless motor speeds are altered via electronic speed controllers in order to achieve desired controllability. The vehicle's fundamental Euler angles (i.e., roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle) are obtained via AHRS sensor. These angles are provided as an input to the control algorithm that run on soft the processor on the electronic card. The vehicle control algorithm is implemented in the electronic card. Controller is designed and improved for each Euler angles. Finally, flight tests have been performed to observe and improve the flight characteristics.

Keywords: quadrotor, UAS applications, control architectures, PID

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35 Design and Implementation of DC-DC Converter with Inc-Cond Algorithm

Authors: Mustafa Engin Başoğlu, Bekir Çakır

Abstract:

The most important component affecting the efficiency of photovoltaic power systems are solar panels. Efficiency of these systems are significantly affected because of being low efficiency of solar panel. Therefore, solar panels should be operated under maximum power point conditions through a power converter. In this study, design boost converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) operation has been designed and performed with Incremental Conductance (Inc-Cond) algorithm by using direct duty control. Furthermore, it is shown that performance of boost converter with MPPT operation fails under low load resistance connection.

Keywords: boost converter, incremental conductance (Inc-Cond), MPPT, solar panel

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34 Uplink Throughput Prediction in Cellular Mobile Networks

Authors: Engin Eyceyurt, Josko Zec

Abstract:

The current and future cellular mobile communication networks generate enormous amounts of data. Networks have become extremely complex with extensive space of parameters, features and counters. These networks are unmanageable with legacy methods and an enhanced design and optimization approach is necessary that is increasingly reliant on machine learning. This paper proposes that machine learning as a viable approach for uplink throughput prediction. LTE radio metric, such as Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP), Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ), and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) are used to train models to estimate expected uplink throughput. The prediction accuracy with high determination coefficient of 91.2% is obtained from measurements collected with a simple smartphone application.

Keywords: drive test, LTE, machine learning, uplink throughput prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
33 Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory

Authors: Ömer Aktaş, Olga A. Suvorova, Oleg Tretyakov

Abstract:

The boundary value problem on non-canonical and arbitrary shaped contour is solved with a numerically effective method called Analytical Regularization Method (ARM) to calculate propagation parameters. As a result of regularization, the equation of first kind is reduced to the infinite system of the linear algebraic equations of the second kind in the space of L2. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.

Keywords: analytical regularization method, electromagnetic theory evolutionary equations of time-domain, TM Field

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32 Mechanochemical Behaviour of Aluminium–Boron Oxide–Melamine Ternary System

Authors: Ismail Seckin Cardakli, Mustafa Engin Kocadagistan, Ersin Arslan

Abstract:

In this study, mechanochemical behaviour of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system was investigated by high energy ball milling. According to the reaction Al + B₂O₃ = Al₂O₃ + B, stochiometric amount of aluminium and boron oxide with melamine up to ten percent of total weight was used in the experiments. The powder characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after leaching of product by 1M HCl acid. Results show that mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR) between aluminium and boron oxide takes place after four hours high energy ball milling. Al₂O₃/h-BN composite powder is obtained as the product of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system.

Keywords: high energy ball milling, hexagonal boron nitride, mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction, melamine

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
31 Utilization of Rice and Corn Bran with Dairy By-Product in Tarhana Production

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nihat Akin

Abstract:

Tarhana is a traditional Turkish fermented food. It is widely consumed as soup and includes many different ingredients such as wheat flour, various vegetables, and spices, yoghurt, bakery yeast. It can also be enriched by adding other ingredients. Thus, its nutritional properties can be enhanced. In this study, tarhana was supplemented with two different types of brans (rice bran and corn bran) and WPC (whey protein concentrate powder) to improve its nutritional and functional properties. Some chemical properties of tarhana containing two different brans and their levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) and WPC (0, 5, 10%) were investigated. The results indicated that addition of WPC increased ash content in tarhanas which were fortified with rice and corn bran. The highest antioxidant and phenolic content values were obtained with addition of rice bran in tarhana formulation. Compared to tarhana with corn bran, rice bran addition gave higher oil content values. The cellulose content of tarhana samples was determined between 0.75% and 2.74% and corn bran showed an improving effect on cellulose contents of samples. In terms of protein content, addition of WPC into the tarhana raised protein content for the samples.

Keywords: corn, rice, tarhana, whey

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
30 Secure Cryptographic Operations on SIM Card for Mobile Financial Services

Authors: Kerem Ok, Serafettin Senturk, Serdar Aktas, Cem Cevikbas

Abstract:

Mobile technology is very popular nowadays and it provides a digital world where users can experience many value-added services. Service Providers are also eager to offer diverse value-added services to users such as digital identity, mobile financial services and so on. In this context, the security of data storage in smartphones and the security of communication between the smartphone and service provider are critical for the success of these services. In order to provide the required security functions, the SIM card is one acceptable alternative. Since SIM cards include a Secure Element, they are able to store sensitive data, create cryptographically secure keys, encrypt and decrypt data. In this paper, we design and implement a SIM and a smartphone framework that uses a SIM card for secure key generation, key storage, data encryption, data decryption and digital signing for mobile financial services. Our frameworks show that the SIM card can be used as a controlled Secure Element to provide required security functions for popular e-services such as mobile financial services.

Keywords: SIM card, mobile financial services, cryptography, secure data storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
29 Determination of Organizational Cynicism Levels of Health Care Workers

Authors: Murat İskender Aktaş, Selma Söyük

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to specify the levels of organizational cynicism health workers. Organizational cynicism concept is evaluated in three sub-branches and these are cognitive, affective, and behavioral. The main objective of the work is to answer the questions about the relationship of demographic characteristics like sub-branches of cynicism and age, marital status, education level, total working hours, occupational groups and income levels. As works in our country are analyzed, there have been studies about cynicism in health and other sectors. However, there were no master’s thesis or organizational cynicism research found about the public health professionals. This is why the aim was chosen as to specify the levels of organizational cynicism of public health professionals. The average of the answers of the health workers to the questions about cynicism levels are 2.86. As organizational cynicism is evaluated according to the sub-branches, cognitive subscale average score is 3.21 affective subscale average score is 2.68 and behavioral subscale average score is counted as 2.67. As the results are analyzed, it is seen that the behavioral subscale has the highest average. This shows that the workers are often criticizing the internal complaints and organizational information with their friends out of the organization.

Keywords: cynicism, organizational cynicism, health care workers

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28 Determination of the Some IGF and IGFBP2 Polymorphisms and Their Association with Growth and Egg Traits in Atak-S Chickens

Authors: Huseyi̇n Das, Bülent Tarim, Sunay Demi̇r, Nurçi̇n Küçükkent, Sevi̇l Cengi̇z, Engi̇n Tülek, Veci̇hi̇ Aksakal

Abstract:

Atak-S laying hens are a high-performance strain obtained by crossing of the Rhode Island Red (RIR) X the Barred Plymouth Rock (BR) and are being produced in the Ankara Poultry Research Institute since 1997. Phenotypic and genetic improving studies are continued for this strain. In this study, 2 from IGF and 1 from IGFBP2, totally 3 different SNP polymorphisms were examined in 200 Atak-S chickens. Genotypes of SNPs were compared using ANOVA to body weight and egg number thorough 32 weeks of age, body weight at sexual maturity, age at sexual maturity and also egg quality traits such as egg shell breaking strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, albumen index, yolk index, shape index. Only IGF(a) locus was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while, the other loci were not. As a result of the performance comparisons to the 3 SNP loci, it was determined that there has a significant association (P<0.05) between only TC genotypes of the IGF(b) locus and body weight at 32 weeks of age, but there was not any association to the other traits.

Keywords: Atak-S, Igf, Igfbp2, single nucleotide polymorphism

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27 Chemical Demulsification for Treating Crude Oil Emulsion

Authors: Miran Sabah Ibrahim, Nahit Aktas

Abstract:

The utilization of emulsifiers is highly important in the process of breaking emulsions. This examination employed five commercial demulsifiers in various temperatures for evaluating the separation efficiency. Furthermore, two different crude oils (Khurmala and Demir Dagh crude oil) were utilized for preparing emulsion. The outcomes revealed that the application commercial demulsifiers for Khurmala crude oil at 55°C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) the separation efficiency were (78, 80.6, 78, 86 and 90 %) respectively. However, at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) separation efficiency were (87, 85, 91.3, 94 and 97 %) respectively. Nonetheless, utilizing Demir Dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) resulted in the separation efficiency of (63.3, 66.6, 65, 73 and 76.6 %) respectively, and at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) were (77, 76.6, 80, 82 and 85 %) respectively. The combinations of FD-6144 and RI35Q at 55°C and ratio of (1:1) and (1:3) for Khurmala crude oil led to (96 and 90.6 %) efficiency respectively. However, the efficiency decreased to (98.6 and 93.3 %) respectively at 65 °C. The same combinations applied on Demir Dagh Crude oil and the results were (78 and 63.3 %) at 55 °C and (86.6 and 71 %) at 65 °C. Three different brine concentrations (NaCl) (0.5, 2 and 3.5 %) were prepared and utilized. It was found that the optimum NaCl concentration was at 3.5 % NaCl concentration for both khurmala and Demir dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 65 °C.

Keywords: demulsifier, emulsion, breaking emulsion, emulsifying agent (surfactant)

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
26 Effect of Sewing Speed on the Physical Properties of Firefighter Sewing Threads

Authors: Adnan Mazari, Engin Akcagun, Antonin Havelka, Funda Buyuk Mazari, Pavel Kejzlar

Abstract:

This article experimentally investigates various physical properties of special fire retardant sewing threads under different sewing speeds. The aramid threads are common for sewing the fire-fighter clothing due to high strength and high melting temperature. 3 types of aramid threads with different linear densities are used for sewing at different speed of 2000 to 4000 r/min. The needle temperature is measured at different speeds of sewing and tensile properties of threads are measured before and after the sewing process respectively. The results shows that the friction and abrasion during the sewing process causes a significant loss to the tensile properties of the threads and needle temperature rises to nearly 300oC at 4000 r/min of machine speed. The Scanning electron microscope images are taken before and after the sewing process and shows no melting spots but significant damage to the yarn. It is also found that machine speed of 2000r/min is ideal for sewing firefighter clothing for higher tensile properties and production.

Keywords: Kevlar, needle temperautre, nomex, sewing

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25 Effects of Some Legume Flours and Gums on Some Properties of Turkish Noodle

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nermin Bilgiçli, Tayyibe Erten, Perihan Kübra Çiçek

Abstract:

In this research, different wheat-legume flour blends were used in Turkish noodle preparation with the aid of some gums (xanthan and guar). Chickpea, common bean and soy flours were used in noodle formulation at 20% level with and without gum (1%) addition. Some physical, chemical and sensory properties of noodles were determined. Water uptake, volume increase and cooking loss values of the noodles changed between 92.03-116.37%, 125.0-187.23% and 4.88-8.10%, respectively. Xanthan or guar gam addition decreased cooking loss values of legume fortified noodles. Both legume flour and gum addition significantly (p<0.05) affected the color values of the noodles. The lowest lightness (L*), redness (a*) and the highest yellowness (b*) values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. Protein and ash values of noodles ranged between 15.14 and 21.82%; 1.62 and 2.50%, respectively, and the highest values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. As a result of sensory evaluation, noodles containing chickpea flour and guar gum were rated with higher taste, odor, appearance and texture scores compared to other noodle samples.

Keywords: noodle, legume, soy, chickpea, common bean, gum

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24 Poly (Acrylonitrile-Co-Methylacrylate)/Poly N-Methyl Pyrrole and Pyrrole Nanocomposites

Authors: Fatma Zehra Engin Sagirli, Eyup Sabri Kayali, A. Sezai Sarac

Abstract:

In this study, Poly (acrylonitrile-co-methylacrylate)/N-Methyl Pyrrole and Pyrrole ([P(AN-co-MA)]-NMPy and [P(AN-co-MA)]-PPy) core–shell nanoparticles were obtained by in situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDBS and SDS) by using ammonium per sulphate in the aqueous medium. The spectroscopic characterizations during the formation of nanocomposites were studied using Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer (Uv-Vis). Electrical conductivity of the emulsion solution was measured by Conductivity Meter from aqueous sample solution. Also, yield of the powder nanocomposites was measured. SDBS and SDS used for investigation of surfactant effect on yield, electrical conductivity and polymerization process. Determination of polymerization yield, (FTIR-ATR) and (Uv-Vis) prove that the SDBS surfactant become more incorporated into the conducting polymers and there is strong interaction between the [P(AN-co-MA)]-PPy derivatives which prepared by these surfactants. The similar inclusion of SDS into conducting polymers was not observed, there is a remarkable difference at nanocomposites which prepared with SDS.

Keywords: nanocomposites, core-shell, pyrole, surfactant

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23 The Effect of Advertising on Brand Choices of Z Generation Children and Their Social Media Consumption Habits

Authors: Hüseyin Altubaş, Hasret Aktaş, A. Mücahid Zengin

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Children determine the direction of the power of consumption. They affect the decisions of their parents but they also reached to a significant purchasing power themselves. Children, who are turning interactive behavior to normal behavior are becoming the decision makers in a company’s survival. Companies that analyze this effective target audience can communicate successfully with children. Children, who are interactive individuals, are closer to advertising. They are almost talking better with advertising. They are not afraid to express their likings, as well as their dislikes. Children have an interactive lifestyle and they were exposed to the vast changes in technology after year 2000. They do not know a life without internet, they spend mobile life in internet. This Z generation is the new determinants of brands. Z generation finds it appropriate to be brand ambassadors and they completely changed traditional media and traditional consumer behavior. These children live social reality with virtual reality and they feed brands differently. Brands that interact with Z generation are affected by this feeding positively, while brands that keep interaction in traditional levels are affected negatively. In this research we examine the communication, advertising and brand behaviors of Z generation. We especially analyze this generation’s interaction with social media brands and their interactive attitudes.

Keywords: social media, Z generation, children, advertising, brand choice

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22 The Effects of Microstructure of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Fe Alloys on Micro Hardness, Tensile Strength, and Electrical Resistivity

Authors: Sevda Engin, Ugur Buyuk, Necmettin Marasli

Abstract:

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention because of microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity influenced by eutectic structures. In this research, we examined processing of Al–Si–Fe (Al–11.7wt.%Si–1wt.%Fe) eutectic by directional solidification. The alloy was prepared by vacuum furnace and directionally solidified in Bridgman-type equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 8.25 m/s to 164.80 m/s. The Al–Si–Fe system showed an eutectic transformation, which resulted in the matrix Al, Si and Al5SiFe plate phases. The eutectic spacing between (λ_Si-λ_Si, λ_(Al_5 SiFe)-λ_(Al_5 SiFe)) was measured. Additionally, the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity of the alloy were determined using directionally solidified samples. The effects of growth rates on microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity for directionally solidified Al–Si–Fe eutectic alloy were investigated, and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained. It was found that the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity were affected by both eutectic spacing and the solidification parameter.

Keywords: directional solidification, aluminum alloy, microstructure, electrical properties, tensile test, hardness test

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21 Torture and Turkey: Legal Situation Related to Torture in Turkey and the Issue of Impunity of Torture

Authors: Zeynep Üskül Engin

Abstract:

Looking upon the world’s history, one can easily understand that the most drastic and evil comes to the human from his own kind. Human, proving that Hobbs was actually right, finally have agreed on taking some necessary measures after the destructive effects of the great World Wars. Surely after this, human rights have been more commonly mentioned in written form and now the priority of the values and goals of a democratic society is to protect its individuals. Due to this fact, the right of living is found to be valuable and all the existing forms of torture, anti-human and humiliating activities have been banned. Turkey, having signed the international papers of human rights, has aimed for eliminating torture through changing its laws and regulations to a certain extent. Monitoring Turkey’s experience, it is likely to say that during certain periods of time systematic torture has been applied. The urge to enter the European Union and verdicts against Turkey, have led to considerable progress in human rights. Besides, changes in law and the comprehensive training for the police, judges, medical and prison staff have resulted in positive improvement related to this issue. Certainly, this current legal update does not completely mean the total elimination of the practice of torture; however, in the commitment of this crime, the ones who have committed are standing a trial and facing severe punishments. In this article, Turkey, with a notorious reputation in international arena is going to be examined through its policy towards torture and defects in practice.

Keywords: torture, human rights, impunity of torture, sociology

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20 Effects of Fourth Alloying Additive on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Ag-Cu Alloy

Authors: Ugur Buyuk, Sevda Engin

Abstract:

Among the various alloy systems being considered as lead-free solder candidates, Sn-Ag-Cu alloys have been recognized as the most promising because of their excellent reliability and compatibility with current components. Thus, Sn-Ag-Cu alloys have recently attracted considerable attention and have been proposed by the Japanese, the EU and the US consortiums to replace conventional Sn-Pb eutectic solder. However, many problems or unknown characteristics of the Sn-Ag-Cu alloy system such as the best composition, the large undercooling in solidification, and the formation of large intermetallics still exist. It is expected that the addition of some solidification nuclei for Sn-Ag-Cu alloys will refine the solidification microstructure and will suppress undercooling.In the present work, the effects of the fourth elements, i.e., Zn, Ni, Bi, In and Co, on microstructural and mechanical properties of Sn-3.5Ag-0.9Cu lead-free solder were investigated. Sn-3.5Ag-0.9Cu-0.5X (X= Zn, Ni, Bi, In, Co (wt.)) alloys were prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient and growth rates by using a Bridgman type directional solidification furnace. The microstructure, microhardness and ultimate tensile strength of alloys were measured. The effects of fourth elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–Ag-Cu eutectic alloys were investigated. The results obtained in the present work were compared with the previous experimental results.

Keywords: lead-free solders, microhardness, microstructure, tensile strength

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19 Determination of the Seed Vigor of Soybean Cultivated as Main and Second Crop in Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine the difference in seed vigor between the seed lots cultivated in main and second crop of soybean in Turkey. Seeds from soybean cv. Cinsoy and Umut-2002 were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, emergence, cool test at 18°C for 10 days, and cold test at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Result showed that the initial oil contents of Cinsoy and Umut-2002 and seeds were determined to be 19.8 and 20.1% in main crop, and 18.7 and 22.1% in second crop, respectively. It was determined that a clear difference between main and second crop soybean seed lots for seed vigor was found. Germination and emergence percentage were higher in the seed from second crop cultivation of the cultivars. There was no significant difference in germination percentage in cool and cold test while seedling growth was better in the seeds of second crop soybean. The highest seed vigor index (477.6) was found in the seeds of the cultivars grown at second crop. Standard germination percentage did not give a sensitive separation for determining seed vigor of soybean lots. It was concluded that second crop soybean seeds were found the most suitable for seed production while main crop soybean gave higher protein lower oil content.

Keywords: Glycine max L., germination, emergence, protein content, vigor test

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18 An Experimental Study on Heat and Flow Characteristics of Water Flow in Microtube

Authors: Zeynep Küçükakça, Nezaket Parlak, Mesut Gür, Tahsin Engin, Hasan Küçük

Abstract:

In the current research, the single phase fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are experimentally investigated. The experiments are conducted to cover transition zone for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 100 to 4800 by fused silica and stainless steel microtubes having diameters of 103-180 µm. The applicability of the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) method is revealed and an experimental method is developed to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer is supplied by a water jacket surrounding the microtubes and heat transfer coefficients are obtained by LMTD method. The results are compared with data obtained by the correlations available in the literature in the study. The experimental results indicate that the Nusselt numbers of microtube flows do not accord with the conventional results when the Reynolds number is lower than 1000. After that, the Nusselt number approaches the conventional theory prediction. Moreover, the scaling effects in micro scale such as axial conduction, viscous heating and entrance effects are discussed. On the aspect of fluid characteristics, the friction factor is well predicted with conventional theory and the conventional friction prediction is valid for water flow through microtube with a relative surface roughness less than about 4 %.

Keywords: microtube, laminar flow, friction factor, heat transfer, LMTD method

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17 TACTICAL: Ram Image Retrieval in Linux Using Protected Mode Architecture’s Paging Technique

Authors: Sedat Aktas, Egemen Ulusoy, Remzi Yildirim

Abstract:

This article explains how to get a ram image from a computer with a Linux operating system and what steps should be followed while getting it. What we mean by taking a ram image is the process of dumping the physical memory instantly and writing it to a file. This process can be likened to taking a picture of everything in the computer’s memory at that moment. This process is very important for tools that analyze ram images. Volatility can be given as an example because before these tools can analyze ram, images must be taken. These tools are used extensively in the forensic world. Forensic, on the other hand, is a set of processes for digitally examining the information on any computer or server on behalf of official authorities. In this article, the protected mode architecture in the Linux operating system is examined, and the way to save the image sample of the kernel driver and system memory to disk is followed. Tables and access methods to be used in the operating system are examined based on the basic architecture of the operating system, and the most appropriate methods and application methods are transferred to the article. Since there is no article directly related to this study on Linux in the literature, it is aimed to contribute to the literature with this study on obtaining ram images. LIME can be mentioned as a similar tool, but there is no explanation about the memory dumping method of this tool. Considering the frequency of use of these tools, the contribution of the study in the field of forensic medicine has been the main motivation of the study due to the intense studies on ram image in the field of forensics.

Keywords: linux, paging, addressing, ram-image, memory dumping, kernel modules, forensic

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16 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Samet Aktaş, Nurtekin Erkmen, Faruk Guven, Halil Taskin

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: small-sided games, soccer, heart rate, lactate

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