Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Wasiu Olaniyi

22 Study on Hybridization between Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1809)

Authors: Wasiu Olaniyi, Ofelia Omitogun

Abstract:

Hybridization has been of importance in both research and commercial aquaculture due to its benefits such as increased growth rate, sex ratio manipulation, production of sterile species and many other desirable economic traits. In this study, we successfully produced hybrids between crosses of Clariid catfish species of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis for stock improvement. Milt and eggs from parent broodstock of C. gariepinus and H. bidorsalis were collected for both intrageneric and interspecific hybridization, viz: same parent species crosses (♀C. gariepinus ×♂C. gariepinus; ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis) and inter-specific crosses (♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus; ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis). These crosses were made in triplicates whereby the data on latency period, fertility, hatchability, deformity, and survival were recorded. A phenotypic form of distinction was registered in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis that was smooth-greyed while its reciprocal cross was marpatic. The parent species C. gariepinus had greyed-marpatic color while the H. bidorsalis was yellowish-brown. Fertility data revealed the significant difference (p < 0.05) between the hybrid cross ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (88.00 ± 1.00%) compared to its reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (71.67 ± 10.41%) which further had carried over effects to hatchability. The reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus recorded the highest deformity (11.67 ± 3.06%) that was significantly different (p < 0.05) from the rest of the crosses. Also, an outcome of equal sex ratio in the hybrids compared with the two parent species was shown. Specific growth rate (SGR) data revealed highest significant difference (p < 0.05) in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.64 ± 0.09%), followed by the cross of ♀C. gariepinus × ♂ C. gariepinus (1.91 ± 0.02%) while there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (2.20 ± 0.57%) and ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.19 ± 0.19%). The SGR analysis proved that the crosses ♀C. gariepinus × ♂C. gariepinus had slow growth performance compared to its hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. Critical evaluation based on survival and specific growth performance showed the superiority of the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. The least survival in reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (27.33%) can be explained by significant deformity (11.67%) recorded due to maternal effects. Hence, the survival of hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis was better.

Keywords: aquaculture, hybridization, Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis

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21 A Risk Management Approach for Nigeria Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Olaniyi O. Omoyajowo

Abstract:

To be successful in today’s competitive global environment, manufacturing industry must be able to respond quickly to changes in technology. These changes in technology introduce new risks and hazards. The management of risk/hazard in a manufacturing process recommends method through which the success rate of an organization can be increased. Thus, there is a continual need for manufacturing industries to invest significant amount of resources in risk management, which in turn optimizes the production output and profitability of any manufacturing industry (if implemented properly). To help improve the existing risk prevention and mitigation practices in Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) in Nigeria Manufacturing Industries (NMI), the researcher embarks on this research to develop a systematic Risk Management process.

Keywords: manufacturing management, risk, risk management, SMEs

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20 Intelligent Grading System of Apple Using Neural Network Arbitration

Authors: Ebenezer Obaloluwa Olaniyi

Abstract:

In this paper, an intelligent system has been designed to grade apple based on either its defective or healthy for production in food processing. This paper is segmented into two different phase. In the first phase, the image processing techniques were employed to extract the necessary features required in the apple. These techniques include grayscale conversion, segmentation where a threshold value is chosen to separate the foreground of the images from the background. Then edge detection was also employed to bring out the features in the images. These extracted features were then fed into the neural network in the second phase of the paper. The second phase is a classification phase where neural network employed to classify the defective apple from the healthy apple. In this phase, the network was trained with back propagation and tested with feed forward network. The recognition rate obtained from our system shows that our system is more accurate and faster as compared with previous work.

Keywords: image processing, neural network, apple, intelligent system

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19 Empirical Prediction of the Effect of Rain Drops on Dbs System Operating in Ku-Band (Case Study of Abuja)

Authors: Tonga Agadi Danladi, Ajao Wasiu Bamidele, Terdue Dyeko

Abstract:

Recent advancement in microwave communications technologies especially in telecommunications and broadcasting have resulted in congestion on the frequencies below 10GHz. This has forced microwave designers to look for high frequencies. Unfortunately for frequencies greater than 10GHz rain becomes one of the main factors of attenuation in signal strength. At frequencies from 10GHz upwards, rain drop sizes leads to outages that compromises the availability and quality of service this making it a critical factor in satellite link budget design. Rain rate and rain attenuation predictions are vital steps to be considered when designing microwave satellite communication link operating at Ku-band frequencies (112-18GHz). Unreliable rain rates data in the tropical regions of the world like Nigeria from radio communication group of the international Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) makes it difficult for microwave engineers to determine a realistic rain margin that needs to be accommodated in satellite link budget design in such region. This work presents an empirical tool for predicting the amount of signal due to rain on DBS signal operating at the Ku-band.

Keywords: attenuation, Ku-Band, microwave communication, rain rates

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18 Women Entrepreneurial Skills in Maize Processing and Value Addition in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Wasiu Oyeleke Oyediran

Abstract:

Maize is a common staple food for human consumption and livestock feeds. It provides employment and means of livelihood for women in both rural areas and urban centres in Nigeria. However, the entrepreneurial skills of women engaged in its processing and value addition has not been fully enhanced. This study was therefore carried out to investigate rural women entrepreneurial skills in maize processing and value addition in Ogun State, Nigeria. Snow ball sampling technique was used in the selection of 70 respondents for this study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and chi-square. Results revealed that majority (50.0%) of the respondents were 31 - 40 years of age and 60% of the respondents had spent 6 – 10 years in maize processing. The respondents have great entrepreneurial skills in popcorn (85.7%), corn cake (80.0%), corn balls (64.3%) and kokoro (52.9%) making. The majority of the respondents accessed information and entrepreneurial skills through fellow processors (88.6%) and friends and neighbours (62.9%). Major constraints to maize processing and value addition were scarcity of raw materials during off season periods (95.7%), ineffective preservation methods (88.6%), lack of modern processing equipment (82.9%), and high cost of processing machines (72.9%). Result of chi-square showed that there is significant association between personal characteristics of the respondents and entrepreneurial skills of the women at p < 0.05. It is hereby recommended that subsidized processing equipment should be made available to the maize processors in the study area by the government and NGOs.

Keywords: women, entreprenuerial skills, maize prcessing, value addition

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17 Identification System for Grading Banana in Food Processing Industry

Authors: Ebenezer O. Olaniyi, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Khashman Adnan

Abstract:

In the food industry high quality production is required within a limited time to meet up with the demand in the society. In this research work, we have developed a model which can be used to replace the human operator due to their low output in production and slow in making decisions as a result of an individual differences in deciding the defective and healthy banana. This model can perform the vision attributes of human operators in deciding if the banana is defective or healthy for food production based. This research work is divided into two phase, the first phase is the image processing where several image processing techniques such as colour conversion, edge detection, thresholding and morphological operation were employed to extract features for training and testing the network in the second phase. These features extracted in the first phase were used in the second phase; the classification system phase where the multilayer perceptron using backpropagation neural network was employed to train the network. After the network has learned and converges, the network was tested with feedforward neural network to determine the performance of the network. From this experiment, a recognition rate of 97% was obtained and the time taken for this experiment was limited which makes the system accurate for use in the food industry.

Keywords: banana, food processing, identification system, neural network

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16 Data Mining of Students' Performance Using Artificial Neural Network: Turkish Students as a Case Study

Authors: Samuel Nii Tackie, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Ebenezer O. Olaniyi, Adnan Khashman

Abstract:

Artificial neural networks have been used in different fields of artificial intelligence, and more specifically in machine learning. Although, other machine learning options are feasible in most situations, but the ease with which neural networks lend themselves to different problems which include pattern recognition, image compression, classification, computer vision, regression etc. has earned it a remarkable place in the machine learning field. This research exploits neural networks as a data mining tool in predicting the number of times a student repeats a course, considering some attributes relating to the course itself, the teacher, and the particular student. Neural networks were used in this work to map the relationship between some attributes related to students’ course assessment and the number of times a student will possibly repeat a course before he passes. It is the hope that the possibility to predict students’ performance from such complex relationships can help facilitate the fine-tuning of academic systems and policies implemented in learning environments. To validate the power of neural networks in data mining, Turkish students’ performance database has been used; feedforward and radial basis function networks were trained for this task; and the performances obtained from these networks evaluated in consideration of achieved recognition rates and training time.

Keywords: artificial neural network, data mining, classification, students’ evaluation

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15 Modernization of Garri-Frying Technologies with Respect to Women Anthromophic Quality in Nigeria

Authors: Adegbite Bashiru Adeniyi, Olaniyi Akeem Olawale, Ayobamidele Sinatu Juliet

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The study was carried out in the 6 South Western states of Nigeria to analyze socio-economic characteristic of garri processors and their anthropometric qualities with respect to modern technologies used in garri processing. About 20 respondents were randomly selected from each of the 6 workstations purposively considered for the study due to their daily processing activities already attracted high patronage of customers. These include Oguntolu village (Ogun State), Igoba-Akure (Ondo State), Imo-Ilesa (Osun State), Odo Oba-Ileri (Oyo State), Irasa village (Ekiti State) and Epe in Lagos state. Interview schedule was conducted for 120 respondents to elicit information. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools. It was observed from the findings that respondents were in their most productive age range (36-45 years) except Ogun state where majority (45%) were relatively older than 45 years. A fewer processors were much younger than 26 years old. It furthers revealed that not less than 55% have body weight greater than 50.0 kilogram, also not less than 70% were taller than 1.5 meter. So also, the hand length and hand thickness of the majority were long and bulky which are considered suitable for operating some modern and improved technologies in garri-frying process. This information could be used by various technological developers to enhance production of modern equipment and tools for a greater efficiency.

Keywords: agro-business, anthromorphic, modernization, proficiency

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14 Decline in Melon Yield and Its Contribution to Young Farmers' Diversification into Watermelon Farming in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Oyediran Wasiu Oyeleke

Abstract:

Melon is a popular economic cucurbit in Southwest, Nigeria. In recent time, many young farmers are shifting from melon to watermelon farming due to poor yield and low monetary returns. Hence, this study was carried out to assess the decline in melon yield and its contribution to young farmers’ diversification into watermelon farming in Oyo state, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting 75 respondents from five villages in Ibarapa block of the Oyo State Agricultural Development Project (ADP). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Results show that majority of the respondents (77.3%) were between 31-40 years of age and 46.70% had secondary school education. Most of the respondents (80%) cultivated more than 3 ha of land for watermelon. Majority of the respondents (74.7%) intercropped melon with other crops while watermelon was cultivated as a sole crop. None of the respondents either grew improved melon seeds (certified seeds) or applied fertilizers but all respondents cultivated treated watermelon seeds, applied fertilizers, and agro-chemicals. The average yields of melon fell from 376.53kg/ha in 2009 to 280.70kg/ha in 2011. However, the respondents were shifting into watermelon production because of available quality seeds and its early maturity, easy harvest, and high sales. There was a significant relationship between melon output and young farmers’ diversification to watermelon in the study area at p < 0.05. The study concluded that decline in the melon yield discouraged youth to continue melon farming in the study area. It is hereby recommended that certified melon seeds should be made available while extension service providers should provide training support for the young farmers in order to reposition and boost melon production in the study area.

Keywords: decline, melon yield, contribution, watermelon, diversification, young farmers

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13 Technical Non-Destructive Evaluation of Burnt Bridge at CH. 57+450 Along Abuja-Abaji-Lokoja Road, Nigeria

Authors: Abraham O. Olaniyi, Oluyemi Oke, Atilade Otunla

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The structural performance of bridges decreases progressively throughout their service life due to many contributing factors (fatigue, carbonation, fire incidents etc.). Around the world, numerous bridges have attained their estimated service life and many have approached this limit. The structural integrity assessment of the burnt composite bridge located at CH57+450, Koita village along Abuja-Abaji-Lokoja road, Nigeria, is presented as a case study and shall be forthwith referred to as the 'Koita bridge' in this paper. From the technical evaluation, the residual compressive strength of the concrete piers was found to be below 16.0 N/mm2. This value is very low compared to the expected design value of 30.0 N/mm2. The pier capping beam at pier location 1 has a very low residual compressive strength. The cover to the reinforcement of certain capping beams has an outline of reinforcement which signifies poor concrete cover and the mean compressive strength is also less than 20.0 N/mm2. The steel girder indicated black colouration as a result of the fire incident without any significant structural defect like buckling or warping of the steel section. This paper reviews the structural integrity assessment and repair methodology of the Koita bridge; a composite bridge damaged by fire, highlighting the various challenges of limited obtainable guidance documents about the bridge. The objectives are to increase the understanding of processes and versatile equipment required to test and assess a fire-damaged bridge in order to improve the quality of structural appraisal and rehabilitation; thus, eliminating the prejudice associated with current visual inspection techniques.

Keywords: assessment, bridge, rehabilitation, sustainability

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12 Enhancing Students’ Performance in Basic Science and Technology in Nigeria Using Moodle LMS

Authors: Olugbade Damola, Adekomi Adebimbo, Sofowora Olaniyi Alaba

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One of the major problems facing education in Nigeria is the provision of quality Science and Technology education. Inadequate teaching facilities, non-usage of innovative teaching strategies, ineffective classroom management, lack of students’ motivation and poor integration of ICT has resulted in the increase in percentage of students who failed Basic Science and Technology in Junior Secondary Certification Examination for National Examination Council in Nigeria. To address these challenges, the Federal Government came up with a road map on education. This was with a view of enhancing quality education through integration of modern technology into teaching and learning, enhancing quality assurance through proper monitoring and introduction of innovative methods of teaching. This led the researcher to investigate how MOODLE LMS could be used to enhance students’ learning outcomes in BST. A sample of 120 students was purposively selected from four secondary schools in Ogbomoso. The experimental group was taught using MOODLE LMS, while the control group was taught using the conventional method. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The result showed that MOODLE LMS was an effective learning platform in teaching BST in junior secondary schools (t=4.953, P<0.05). Students’ attitudes towards BST was also enhanced through MOODLE LMS (t=15.632, P<0.05). The use of MOODLE LMS significantly enhanced students’ retention (t=6.640, P<0.05). In conclusion, the Federal Government efforts at enhancing quality assurance through integration of modern technology and e-learning in Secondary schools proved to have yielded good result has students found MOODLE LMS to be motivating and interactive. Attendance was improved.

Keywords: basic science and technology, MOODLE LMS, performance, quality assurance

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11 Fatty Acid Profile and Dietary Fibre Contents of Some Standardized Soups and Dishes Consumed in Nigeria

Authors: Olufunke O. Obanla, Oluseye O. Onabanjo, Silifat A. Sanni, Mojisola O. Adegunwa, Wasiu A. O. Afolabi, Omolola O. Oyawoye, Atinuke Titilola Lano-Maduagu

Abstract:

Background: Dietary fat is implicated in the increasing development of chronic diseases in developing countries while dietary fibre plays a major role in the management of these diseases. Accurate nutrient composition data for composite dishes unique to a population is essential for the development of a nutrient database and the calculation of dietary intake. Methods: Representative samples of standardized Nigerian soups and dishes were analyzed for fatty acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) and dietary fibre using an enzymatic-gravimetric standard method of AOAC. Results: The total Saturated Fatty acids (SFAs) ranged from 0.74+0.3g/100g to 73.82+0.07g/100g. The total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ranged from 2.16+1.13g/100g for Yam pottage to 22.25+0.58g/100g for Okazi soup and eba, and from 0.42+0.10g/100g for Yam pottage to 10.22+0.1g/100g for Pounded yam with egusi ball soup, respectively. Trans fat was observed in Alapafubu and Tuwo shinkafa (2.80+0.2g/100g), Yam pottage (0.20+0.15g/100g), Steamed bean pudding (1.28+0.53g/100g) and Ikokore (5.33+0.41g/100g). The Total Dietary Fibre (TDF) contents of the dishes ranged from 12.95+2.99g/100g in Jollof rice to 62.00+0.94g/100g in Melon seed and vegetable soup, the Soluble Dietary Fibre (SDF) ranged from 2.05+0.32g/100g in Steamed bean pudding to 7.81+0.74g/100g in Ikokore while the Insoluble Dietary Fibre (IDF) ranged from 8.20+0.43g/100g in Jollof rice to 57.91+4.69g/100g in melon seed and vegetable soup. Conclusions: The study has indicated that some Nigerian dishes are characterized by high SFAs, TFAs and dietary fibre, moderate MUFAs and very low levels of PUFAs. High levels of SFAs in some soups and dishes are a major public health concern.

Keywords: healthy diet, dietary fibre, fatty acid profile, chronic diseases, Nigerian dishes

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10 Review of Strategies for Hybrid Energy Storage Management System in Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Adeola A. Ogunleye, Tola M. Osifeko

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Electric Vehicles (EV) appear to be gaining increasing patronage as a feasible alternative to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) for having low emission and high operation efficiency. The EV energy storage systems are required to handle high energy and power density capacity constrained by limited space, operating temperature, weight and cost. The choice of strategies for energy storage evaluation, monitoring and control remains a challenging task. This paper presents review of various energy storage technologies and recent researches in battery evaluation techniques used in EV applications. It also underscores strategies for the hybrid energy storage management and control schemes for the improvement of EV stability and reliability. The study reveals that despite the advances recorded in battery technologies there is still no cell which possess both the optimum power and energy densities among other requirements, for EV application. However combination of two or more energy storages as hybrid and allowing the advantageous attributes from each device to be utilized is a promising solution. The review also reveals that State-of-Charge (SoC) is the most crucial method for battery estimation. The conventional method of SoC measurement is however questioned in the literature and adaptive algorithms that include all model of disturbances are being proposed. The review further suggests that heuristic-based approach is commonly adopted in the development of strategies for hybrid energy storage system management. The alternative approach which is optimization-based is found to be more accurate but is memory and computational intensive and as such not recommended in most real-time applications.

Keywords: battery state estimation, hybrid electric vehicle, hybrid energy storage, state of charge, state of health

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9 Ecotourism Development in Ikogosi Warmspring, Nigeria: Implications on Its Floristic Composition and Structure

Authors: Oluwatobi Emmanuel Olaniyi, Babafemi George Ogunjemite

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The high rate of infrastructural development in Ikogosi warm spring towards harnessing her great ecotourism potentials calls for a serious concern, as more forest areas are been opened up for public access and the landscape is modified. On this note, we investigated the implication of ecotourism development on the floristic composition and forest structure in Ikogosi. The study aimed at identifying the past and present status of infrastructural development, assessing and comparing the floristic composition and structure of the built- up/ recreational areas and undisturbed forested areas, to infer on the impact of ecotourism development on the study site. We conducted stakeholder interview and field observation to identify the past and present status of infrastructural development respectively. A total of ten quadrants were employed in the vegetation assessment to characterize the woody tree species composition, diameter at breast height and height, to obtain mean indices characterizing each part of the site. These indices were compared using T – test analysis. A total of 49 different woody tree species distributed in 21 families were identified in the built-in/ recreational areas while 67 different woody tree species belonging to 25 families were recorded in the undeveloped forested areas. Although, the latter has a higher mean diameter at breast height of woody trees, it was not significantly different from the former (T-test = -0.74, p = 0.46). On the contrary, the built-up area had a higher mean trees height than the undeveloped areas, but the difference was not statistically significant (T-test= 1.04, p = 0.30). Despite these, the slight reduction in richness and diversity of the woody tree species in the built- up/ recreational areas implies mitigating the negative effects of infrastructural development on the warm spring's vegetation.

Keywords: ecosystem services, forest structure, vegetation assessment, warm-spring

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8 Influence of Online Media on Governance in Nigeria: The United States-Based Sahara Reporters as a Case Study

Authors: Sheriff Folarin, Oluwafunke Folarin, Hadassah Hussaini, Victor Jubril, Olaniyi Ayodele

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Using a famous, unrestrained and fiery United States-based, Nigerian-owned Sahara Reporters as a case study, this paper examined the impact of online-based media on governance in Nigeria. The discourse is premised on the thesis that the internet has changed the face of journalism and that the mainstream but online-based media have made journalism more participatory than ever. Everyone who has something to say finds it easy to say it quickly and conveniently, unhinged or without being censored. This has made online journalism very popular and the number of online-based news platforms to be on the increase. As these platforms have given the citizens a means to interact and added to the content of the news, they have also succeeded in promoting partisanship. It thus becomes necessary to study the impact of the rabid news platform, Sahara Reporters, on governance in Africa’s biggest democracy, Nigeria. Few studies have examined the impact on governance of mainstream-online media platforms and those studies that did, have only focused on social media, such as Facebook and Twitter. This paper is a product of a bigger study, in which the research design entailed semi-structured interviews with participants from different sectors of the society and an analysis of contents from the Sahara Reporters website, from which data were collected. The findings revealed that through uncensored reporting and citizen participation on the platform of Sahara Reporters, there had been a significant people influence on governance in Nigeria, with government at two levels (national and state) sometimes shifting or yielding grounds, particularly from 2011-2016. The study also recognized the presence of counter-forces in the online community who want to discredit the information on the site. Through the lens of media dependency theory, the study concluded that the public now increasingly depends on online news media for information and the more news these media provide, the more the people depend on it, making it easy for them to influence governance.

Keywords: governance, media, online news, Sahara reporters

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7 Stability of Total Phenolic Concentration and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts from Pomegranate Co-Products Subjected to In vitro Digestion

Authors: Olaniyi Fawole, Umezuruike Opara

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Co-products obtained from pomegranate juice processing contain high levels of polyphenols with potential high added values. From value-addition viewpoint, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of polyphenolic concentrations in pomegranate fruit co-products in different solvent extracts and assess the effect on the total antioxidant capacity using the FRAP, DPPH˙ and ABTS˙+ assays during simulated in vitro digestion. Pomegranate juice, marc and peel were extracted in water, 50% ethanol (50%EtOH) and absolute ethanol (100%EtOH) and analysed for total phenolic concentration (TPC), total flavonoids concentration (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity in DPPH˙, ABST˙+ and FRAP assays before and after in vitro digestion. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and total flavonoid concentration (TFC) were in the order of peel > marc > juice throughout the in vitro digestion irrespective of the extraction solvents used. However, 50% ethanol extracted 1.1 to 12-fold more polyphenols than water and ethanol solvents depending on co-products. TPC and TFC increased significantly in gastric digests. In contrast, after the duodenal, polyphenolic concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those obtained in gastric digests. Undigested samples and gastric digests showed strong and positive relationships between polyphenols and the antioxidant activities measured in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, with correlation coefficients (r2) ranging between 0.930 – 0.990 whereas, the correlation between polyphenols (TPC and TFC) and radical cation scavenging activity (in ABTS) were moderately positive in duodenal digests. Findings from this study also showed that the concentration of pomegranate polyphenols and antioxidant thereof during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion may not reflect the pre-digested phenolic concentration. Thus, this study highlights the need to provide biologically relevant information on antioxidants by providing data reflecting their stability and activity after in vitro digestion.

Keywords: by-product, DPPH, polyphenols, value addition

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6 Effects of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack Beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at Different Spacing and Weeding Regimes on Crops Productivity

Authors: Oluseun S. Oyelakin, Olalekan W. Olaniyi

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Ido town in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo state, Nigeria to determine the effects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at different spacing and weeding regimes on crops productivity. The treatments were 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement involving two spatial crop arrangements. Spacing of 75 cm x 50 cm and 90 cm x 42 cm (41.667 cm) with two plants per stand resulted in plant population of approximately 53,000 plants/hectare. Also, Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two cropping patterns (sole and intercrop), three weeding regimes (weedy check, weeds once, and weed twice) with three replicates was used. Data were analyzed with SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and statistical means separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) (P ≤ 0.05). Intercropping and crop spacing did not have significant influence on the growth parameters and yield parameters. The maize grain yield of 1.11 t/ha obtained under sole maize was comparable to 1.05 t/ha from maize/jack beans. Weeding regime significantly influenced growth and yields of maize in intercropping with Jack beans. Weeding twice resulted in significantly higher growth than that of the other weeding regimes. Plant height at 6 Weeks After Sowing (WAS) under weeding twice regime (3 and 6 WAS) was 83.9 cm which was significantly different from 67.75 cm and 53.47 cm for weeding once (3 WAS) and no weeding regimes respectively. Moreover, maize grain yield of 1.3 t/ha obtained from plots weeded twice was comparable to that of 1.23 t/ha from single weeding and both were significantly higher than 0.71 t/ha maize grain yield obtained from the no weeding control. The dry matter production of Jack beans reduced at some growth stages due to intercropping of maize with Jack beans though with no significance effect on the other growth parameters of the crop. There was no effect on the growth parameters of Jack beans in maize/jack beans intercrop based on cropping spacing while comparable growth and dry matter production in Jack beans were produced in maize/Jack beans mixture with single weeding.

Keywords: crop spacing, intercropping, growth parameter, weeding regime, sole cropping, WAS, week after sowing

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5 Microbiological Assessment of Soft Cheese (Wara), Raw Milk and Dairy Drinking Water from Selected Farms in Ido, Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Blessing C. Nwachukwu, Michael O. Taiwo, Wasiu A. Abibu, Isaac O. Ayodeji

Abstract:

Milk is an important source of micro and macronutrients for humans. Soft Cheese (Wara) is an example of a by-product of milk. In addition, water is considered as one of the most vital resources in cattle farms. Due to the high consumption rate of milk and soft cheese and the traditional techniques involved in their production in Nigeria, there was a need for a microbiological assessment which will be of utmost public health importance. The study thus investigated microbial risk assessments associated with consumption of milk and soft cheese (Wara). It also investigated common pathogens present in dairy water in farms and antibiotic sensitivity profiling for implicated pathogens were conducted. Samples were collected from three different Fulani dairy herds in Ido local government, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and subjected to microbiological evaluation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Aspergillus flavus was the only isolated fungal isolate from Wara while Staphylococcus aureus, Vibro cholera, Hafnia alvei, Proteus mirabilis, Escherishia coli, Psuedomonas aeuroginosa, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumonia were the bacteria genera isolated from Wara, dairy milk and dairy drinking water. Bacterial counts from Wara from the three selected farms A, B and C were 3.5×105 CFU/ml, 4.0×105 CFU/ml and 5.3×105 CFU/ml respectively while the fungal count was 3CFU/100µl. The total bacteria count from dairy milk from the three selected farms A, B and C were Farms 2.0 ×105 CFU/ml, 3.5 × 105 CFU/ml and 6.5 × 105 CFU/ml respectively. 1.4×105 CFU/ml, 1.9×105 CFU/ml and 4.9×105 CFU/ml were the recorded bacterial counts from dairy water from farms A, B and C respectively. The highest antimicrobial resistance of 100% was recorded in Wara with Enrofloxacin, Gentamycin, Cefatriaxone and Colistin. The highest antimicrobial susceptibility of 100% was recorded in Raw milk with Enrofloxacin and Gentamicin. Highest antimicrobial intermediate response of 100% was recorded in Raw milk with Streptomycin. The study revealed that most of the cheeses sold at Ido local Government are contaminated with pathogens. Further research is needed on standardizing the production method to prevent pathogens from gaining access. The presence of bacteria in raw milk indicated contamination due to poor handling and unhygienic practices. Thus, drinking unpasteurized milk is hazardous as it increases the risk of zoonoses. Also, the Provision of quality drinking water is crucial for optimum productivity of dairy. Health education programs aiming at increasing awareness of the importance of clean water for animal health will be helpful.

Keywords: dairy, raw milk, soft cheese, Wara

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4 Adaptation of Projection Profile Algorithm for Skewed Handwritten Text Line Detection

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Tola. M. Osifeko, Adeola A. Ogunleye

Abstract:

Text line segmentation is an important step in document image processing. It represents a labeling process that assigns the same label using distance metric probability to spatially aligned units. Text line detection techniques have successfully been implemented mainly in printed documents. However, processing of the handwritten texts especially unconstrained documents has remained a key problem. This is because the unconstrained hand-written text lines are often not uniformly skewed. The spaces between text lines may not be obvious, complicated by the nature of handwriting and, overlapping ascenders and/or descenders of some characters. Hence, text lines detection and segmentation represents a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Text line detection methods that rely on the traditional global projection profile of the text document cannot efficiently confront with the problem of variable skew angles between different text lines. Hence, the formulation of a horizontal line as a separator is often not efficient. This paper presents a technique to segment a handwritten document into distinct lines of text. The proposed algorithm starts, by partitioning the initial text image into columns, across its width into chunks of about 5% each. At each vertical strip of 5%, the histogram of horizontal runs is projected. We have worked with the assumption that text appearing in a single strip is almost parallel to each other. The algorithm developed provides a sliding window through the first vertical strip on the left side of the page. It runs through to identify the new minimum corresponding to a valley in the projection profile. Each valley would represent the starting point of the orientation line and the ending point is the minimum point on the projection profile of the next vertical strip. The derived text-lines traverse around any obstructing handwritten vertical strips of connected component by associating it to either the line above or below. A decision of associating such connected component is made by the probability obtained from a distance metric decision. The technique outperforms the global projection profile for text line segmentation and it is robust to handle skewed documents and those with lines running into each other.

Keywords: connected-component, projection-profile, segmentation, text-line

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3 Determinants of Unmet Need for Contraception among Currently Married Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Osun State, South-West Nigeria

Authors: Abiola O. Temitayo-Oboh, Olugbenga L. Abodunrin, Wasiu O. Adebimpe, Micheal C. Asuzu

Abstract:

Introduction: Many women who are sexually active would prefer to avoid becoming pregnant but are not using any method of contraception. These women are considered to have an unmet need for contraception. In an ideal situation, all women who want to space or limit their births and are exposed to the risk of conception would use some kind of conception; in practice, however, some women fail to use contraception which put them at risk of having mistimed or unwanted births, induced abortion, or maternal death. This study, therefore, aimed to assess the determinants of unmet need for contraception among currently married women in rural and urban communities of Osun State, South-West Nigeria. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional comparative study, which was carried out among currently married women. Three hundred and twenty respondents each were selected for the rural and urban groups from four Local Government Areas using multi-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and focus group discussion (FGD) guide; data analysis was done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 and detailed content analysis method respectively. Statistical analysis of the difference between proportions was done by the use of the Chi-square test and T-test was used to compare the means of the continuous variables. The study also utilized descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analytical techniques to examine the effect of some variables on unmet need. Level of statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05 for all values. Results: Two hundred and ninety-six (92.5%) of the rural and 306 (95.6%) of the urban study population had heard of contraception, 365 (57.0 %) of the total respondents had good knowledge [162 (50.6 %) for rural respondents and 203 (63.4 %) for urban respondents]. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Five hundred and twenty-one (81.4%) respondents had a positive attitude towards contraception [243 (75.9%) in the rural and 278 (86.9%) in the urban area], and the difference was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). Only 47 (14.7%) and 59 (18.4%) of rural and urban women were current contraceptive users respectively. The total unmet need for contraception among rural women was 138 (43.1%) of which 82 (25.6%) was for spacing and 56 (17.5%), for limiting. While the total unmet need for contraception among urban women was 145 (45.3%) of which 96 (30.0%) was for spacing and 49 (15.3%) for limiting. Number of living children, knowledge of contraceptive methods, discussion with health workers about family planning, couples discussion about family planning and availability of family planning services were found to be predictors of women’s unmet need for contraception (p < 0.05). Conclusion: It is, therefore, recommended that there is need to intensify reproductive health education in bridging the knowledge gap, improving attitude and modifying practices regarding use of contraception in Nigeria. Hence, this will help to enhance the utilization of family planning services among Nigerian women.

Keywords: contraception, married women, Nigeria, rural, urban, unmet need

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2 The Ideal Memory Substitute for Computer Memory Hierarchy

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Olabanji F. Omotoye, Adeola A. Ogunleye

Abstract:

Computer system components such as the CPU, the Controllers, and the operating system, work together as a team, and storage or memory is the essential parts of this team apart from the processor. The memory and storage system including processor caches, main memory, and storage, form basic storage component of a computer system. The characteristics of the different types of storage are inherent in the design and the technology employed in the manufacturing. These memory characteristics define the speed, compatibility, cost, volatility, and density of the various storage types. Most computers rely on a hierarchy of storage devices for performance. The effective and efficient use of the memory hierarchy of the computer system therefore is the single most important aspect of computer system design and use. The memory hierarchy is becoming a fundamental performance and energy bottleneck, due to the widening gap between the increasing demands of modern computer applications and the limited performance and energy efficiency provided by traditional memory technologies. With the dramatic development in the computers systems, computer storage has had a difficult time keeping up with the processor speed. Computer architects are therefore facing constant challenges in developing high-speed computer storage with high-performance which is energy-efficient, cost-effective and reliable, to intercept processor requests. It is very clear that substantial advancements in redesigning the existing memory physical and logical structures to meet up with the latest processor potential is crucial. This research work investigates the importance of computer memory (storage) hierarchy in the design of computer systems. The constituent storage types of the hierarchy today were investigated looking at the design technologies and how the technologies affect memory characteristics: speed, density, stability and cost. The investigation considered how these characteristics could best be harnessed for overall efficiency of the computer system. The research revealed that the best single type of storage, which we refer to as ideal memory is that logical single physical memory which would combine the best attributes of each memory type that make up the memory hierarchy. It is a single memory with access speed as high as one found in CPU registers, combined with the highest storage capacity, offering excellent stability in the presence or absence of power as found in the magnetic and optical disks as against volatile DRAM, and yet offers a cost-effective attribute that is far away from the expensive SRAM. The research work suggests that to overcome these barriers it may then mean that memory manufacturing will take a total deviation from the present technologies and adopt one that overcomes the associated challenges with the traditional memory technologies.

Keywords: cache, memory-hierarchy, memory, registers, storage

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1 Adaptation of Hough Transform Algorithm for Text Document Skew Angle Detection

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Olabanji F. Omotoye, Adeola A. Ogunleye

Abstract:

The skew detection and correction form an important part of digital document analysis. This is because uncompensated skew can deteriorate document features and can complicate further document image processing steps. Efficient text document analysis and digitization can rarely be achieved when a document is skewed even at a small angle. Once the documents have been digitized through the scanning system and binarization also achieved, document skew correction is required before further image analysis. Research efforts have been put in this area with algorithms developed to eliminate document skew. Skew angle correction algorithms can be compared based on performance criteria. Most important performance criteria are accuracy of skew angle detection, range of skew angle for detection, speed of processing the image, computational complexity and consequently memory space used. The standard Hough Transform has successfully been implemented for text documentation skew angle estimation application. However, the standard Hough Transform algorithm level of accuracy depends largely on how much fine the step size for the angle used. This consequently consumes more time and memory space for increase accuracy and, especially where number of pixels is considerable large. Whenever the Hough transform is used, there is always a tradeoff between accuracy and speed. So a more efficient solution is needed that optimizes space as well as time. In this paper, an improved Hough transform (HT) technique that optimizes space as well as time to robustly detect document skew is presented. The modified algorithm of Hough Transform presents solution to the contradiction between the memory space, running time and accuracy. Our algorithm starts with the first step of angle estimation accurate up to zero decimal place using the standard Hough Transform algorithm achieving minimal running time and space but lacks relative accuracy. Then to increase accuracy, suppose estimated angle found using the basic Hough algorithm is x degree, we then run again basic algorithm from range between ±x degrees with accuracy of one decimal place. Same process is iterated till level of desired accuracy is achieved. The procedure of our skew estimation and correction algorithm of text images is implemented using MATLAB. The memory space estimation and process time are also tabulated with skew angle assumption of within 00 and 450. The simulation results which is demonstrated in Matlab show the high performance of our algorithms with less computational time and memory space used in detecting document skew for a variety of documents with different levels of complexity.

Keywords: hough-transform, skew-detection, skew-angle, skew-correction, text-document

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