Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: M. Inbar Daeribi

4 Resistance towards Education System through Street Library Movement: A Study in Sukabumi, Indonesia

Authors: M. Inbar Daeribi, Vara Leoni

Abstract:

Street Library Movement has been established and started to grow in some cities in Indonesia as a social movement. In the beginning, this movement emerged as a response to Indonesian lack of reading culture. Nevertheless, this study found out that street library movement is not only a literacy movement for developing reading culture. Furthermore, this movement is also a resistance towards education system in Indonesia. Street library movement is a critical consciousness driven by autonomous working group (community) as counter-public form towards Indonesia’s education condition legitimated by the government. This study, conducted in qualitative method with street library movement in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia as the object of study, will examine resistance forms of this movement and its social impacts. By studying this paper, it can be explained how street library movement served as an engine for social development.

Keywords: street library movement, social movement, resistance, education system

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3 Population Diversity Studies in Dendrocalamus strictus Roxb. (Nees.) Through Morphological Parameters

Authors: Anugrah Tripathi, H. S. Ginwal, Charul Kainthola

Abstract:

Bamboos are considered as valuable resources which have the potential of meeting current economic, environmental and social needs. Bamboo has played a key role in humankind and its livelihood since ancient time. Distributed in diverse areas across the globe, bamboo makes an important natural resource for hundreds of millions of people across the world. In some of the Asian countries and northeast part of India, bamboo is the basis of life on many horizons. India possesses the largest bamboo-bearing area across the world and a great extent of species richness, but this rich genetic resource and its diversity have dwindled in the natural forest due to forest fire, over exploitation, lack of proper management policies, and gregarious flowering behavior. Bamboos which are well known for their peculiar, extraordinary morphology, show a lot of variation in many scales. Among the various bamboo species, Dendrocalamus strictus is the most abundant bamboo resource in India, which is a deciduous, solid, and densely tufted bamboo. This species can thrive in wide gradients of geographical as well as climatic conditions. Due to this, it exhibits a significant amount of variation among the populations of different origins for numerous morphological features. Morphological parameters are the front-line criteria for the selection and improvement of any forestry species. Study on the diversity among eight important morphological characters of D. strictus was carried out, covering 16 populations from wide geographical locations of India following INBAR standards. Among studied 16 populations, three populations viz. DS06 (Gaya, Bihar), DS15 (Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh), and DS16 (Bhogpur, Pinjore, Haryana) were found as superior populations with higher mean values for parametric characters (clump height, no. of culms/ clump, circumference of clump, internode diameter and internode length) and with the higher sum of ranks in non-parametric characters (straightness, disease, and pest incidence and branching pattern). All of these parameters showed an ample amount of variations among the studied populations and revealed a significant difference among the populations. Variation in morphological characters is very common in a species having wide distribution and is usually evident at various levels, viz., between and within the populations. They are of paramount importance for growth, biomass, and quick production gains. Present study also gives an idea for the selection of the population on the basis of these morphological parameters. From this study on morphological parameters and their variation, we may find an overview of best-performing populations for growth and biomass accumulation. Some of the studied parameters also provide ideas to standardize mechanisms of selecting and sustainable harvesting of the clumps by applying simpler silvicultural systems so that they can be properly managed in homestead gardens for the community utilization as well as by commercial growers to meet the requirement of industries and other stakeholders.

Keywords: Dendrocalamus strictus, homestead garden, gregarious flowering, stakeholders, INBAR

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2 Determination of the Runoff Coefficient in Urban Regions, an Example from Haifa, Israel

Authors: Ayal Siegel, Moshe Inbar, Amatzya Peled

Abstract:

This study examined the characteristic runoff coefficient in different urban areas. The main area studied is located in the city of Haifa, northern Israel. Haifa spreads out eastward from the Mediterranean seacoast to the top of the Carmel Mountain range with an elevation of 300 m. above sea level. For this research project, four watersheds were chosen, each characterizing a different part of the city; 1) Upper Hadar, a spacious suburb on the upper mountain side; 2) Qiryat Eliezer, a crowded suburb on a level plane of the watershed; 3) Technion, a large technical research university which is located halfway between the top of the mountain range and the coast line. 4) Keret, a remote suburb, on the southwestern outskirts of Haifa. In all of the watersheds found suitable, instruments were installed to continuously measure the water level flowing in the channels. Three rainfall gauges scattered in the study area complete the hydrological requirements for this research project. The runoff coefficient C in peak discharge events was determined by the Rational Formula. The main research finding is the significant relationship between the intensity of rainfall, and the impervious area which is connected to the drainage system of the watershed. For less intense rainfall, the full potential of the connected impervious area will not be exploited. As a result, the runoff coefficient value decreases as do the peak discharge rate and the runoff yield from the storm event. The research results will enable application to other areas by means of hydrological model to be be set up on GIS software that will make it possible to estimate the runoff coefficient of any given city watershed.

Keywords: runoff coefficient, rational method, time of concentration, connected impervious area.

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1 Broad Host Range Bacteriophage Cocktail for Reduction of Staphylococcus aureus as Potential Therapy for Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Tamar Lin, Nufar Buchshtab, Yifat Elharar, Julian Nicenboim, Rotem Edgar, Iddo Weiner, Lior Zelcbuch, Ariel Cohen, Sharon Kredo-Russo, Inbar Gahali-Sass, Naomi Zak, Sailaja Puttagunta, Merav Bassan

Abstract:

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disorder that is characterized by dry skin and flares of eczematous lesions and intense pruritus. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that AD is associated with increased colonization by Staphylococcus aureus, which contributes to disease pathogenesis through the release of virulence factors that affect both keratinocytes and immune cells, leading to disruption of the skin barrier and immune cell dysfunction. The aim of the current study is to develop a bacteriophage-based product that specifically targets S. aureus. Methods: For the discovery of phage, environmental samples were screened on 118 S. aureus strains isolated from skin samples, followed by multiple enrichment steps. Natural phages were isolated, subjected to Next-generation Sequencing (NGS), and analyzed using proprietary bioinformatics tools for undesirable genes (toxins, antibiotic resistance genes, lysogeny potential), taxonomic classification, and purity. Phage host range was determined by an efficiency of plating (EOP) value above 0.1 and the ability of the cocktail to completely lyse liquid bacterial culture under different growth conditions (e.g., temperature, bacterial stage). Results: Sequencing analysis demonstrated that the 118 S. aureus clinical strains were distributed across the phylogenetic tree of all available Refseq S. aureus (~10,750 strains). Screening environmental samples on the S. aureus isolates resulted in the isolation of 50 lytic phages from different genera, including Silviavirus, Kayvirus, Podoviridae, and a novel unidentified phage. NGS sequencing confirmed the absence of toxic elements in the phages’ genomes. The host range of the individual phages, as measured by the efficiency of plating (EOP), ranged between 41% (48/118) to 79% (93/118). Host range studies in liquid culture revealed that a subset of the phages can infect a broad range of S. aureus strains in different metabolic states, including stationary state. Combining the single-phage EOP results of selected phages resulted in a broad host range cocktail which infected 92% (109/118) of the strains. When tested in vitro in a liquid infection assay, clearance was achieved in 87% (103/118) of the strains, with no evidence of phage resistance throughout the study (24 hours). A S. aureus host was identified that can be used for the production of all the phages in the cocktail at high titers suitable for large-scale manufacturing. This host was validated for the absence of contaminating prophages using advanced NGS methods combined with multiple production cycles. The phages are produced under optimized scale-up conditions and are being used for the development of a topical formulation (BX005) that may be administered to subjects with atopic dermatitis. Conclusions: A cocktail of natural phages targeting S. aureus was effective in reducing bacterial burden across multiple assays. Phage products may offer safe and effective steroid-sparing options for atopic dermatitis.

Keywords: atopic dermatitis, bacteriophage cocktail, host range, Staphylococcus aureus

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