Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2804

Search results for: hearing impaired children

2804 Hearing Aids Maintenance Training for Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children with the Help of Motion Graphic Tools

Authors: M. Mokhtarzadeh, M. Taheri Qomi, M. Nikafrooz, A. Atashafrooz

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using motion graphics as a learning medium on training hearing aids maintenance skills to hearing-impaired children. The statistical population of this study consisted of all children with hearing loss in Ahvaz city, at age 4 to 7 years old. As the sample, 60, whom were selected by multistage random sampling, were randomly assigned to two groups; experimental (30 children) and control (30 children) groups. The research method was experimental and the design was pretest-posttest with the control group. The intervention consisted of a 2-minute motion graphics clip to train hearing aids maintenance skills. Data were collected using a 9-question researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of covariance. Results showed that the training of hearing aids maintenance skills with motion graphics was significantly effective for those children. The results of this study can be used by educators, teachers, professionals, and parents to train children with disabilities or normal students.

Keywords: hearing aids, hearing aids maintenance skill, hearing impaired children, motion graphics

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
2803 Educating Children Who Are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in Southern Africa: Challenges and Triumphs

Authors: Emma Louise McKinney

Abstract:

There is a global move to integrate children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired into regular classrooms with their hearing peers with an inclusive education framework. This paper examines the current education situation for children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in South Africa, Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Qualitative data for this paper was obtained from the author’s experiences working as the Southern African Education Advisor for an international organization funding disability projects. It examines some of the challenges facing these children and their teachers relating to education. Challenges include cultural stigma relating to disability and deafness, a lack of hearing screening and early identification of deafness, schools in rural areas, special schools, specialist teacher training, equipment, understanding of how to implement policy, support, appropriate teaching methodologies, and sign language training and proficiency. On the other hand, in spite of the challenges some teachers are able to provide quality education to children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired. This paper examines both the challenges as well as what teachers are doing to overcome these.

Keywords: education of children who are deaf and hearing impaired, Southern African experiences, challenges, triumphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2802 Phonological Characteristics of Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children

Authors: Akbar Darouie, Mamak Joulaie

Abstract:

In regard of phonological skills development importance and its influence on other aspects of language, this study has been performed. Determination of some phonological indexes in children with hearing impairment and comparison with hearing children was the objective. A sample of convenience was selected from a rehabilitation center and a kindergarten in Karaj, Iran. Participants consisted of 12 hearing impaired and 12 hearing children (age range: 5 years and 6 months to 6 years and 6 months old). Hearing impaired children suffered from severe to profound hearing loss while three of them were cochlear implanted and the others were wearing hearing aids. Conversational speech of these children was recorded and 50 first utterances were selected to analyze. Percentage of consonant correct (PCC) and vowel correct (PVC), initial and final consonant omission error, cluster consonant omission error and syllabic structure variety were compared in two groups. Data were analyzed with t test (version 16th SPSS). Comparison between PCC and PVC averages in two groups showed a significant difference (P< 0/01). There was a significant difference about final consonant emission error (P<0/001) and initial consonant emission error (P<0/01) too. Also, the differences between two groups on cluster consonant omission were significant (P<0/001). Therefore, some changes were seen in syllabic structures in children with hearing impairment compared to typical group. This study demonstrates some phonological differences in Farsi language between two groups of children. Therefore, it seems, in clinical practices we must notice this issue.

Keywords: hearing impairment, phonology, vowel, consonant

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
2801 Bahasa Melayu Hand Coded and Malaysian Sign Language Acquisition of Hearing Impaired Students at Early Intervention

Authors: Abdul Rahim Razalli, Nordin Mamat, Lee Kean Low

Abstract:

The objective of the study is to examine the acquisition of Bahasa Melayu hand coded and Malaysian Sign Language of hearing impaired children and the factors that influencing the acquisition of Malay language at early intervention. A qualitative research design was chosen to answer two research questions. Two sets of instruments have been used to obtain information of proficiency and factors that influence it. Five children with hearing problems, four teachers and three parents were selected as the respondents through purposive sampling technique. The findings show that pupils with hearing problems who mastered Bahasa Melayu hand coded have better acquisition of Bahasa Melayu as compared to those who acquired Malaysian Sign Language. The study also found that the parents, pupils, teachers and environmental factors have an impact on the acquisition of Bahasa Melayu hand coded. The implications of this study show that early intervention of Bahasa Melayu hand coded and the parents, pupils, teachers and environmental factors do help in the language proficiency of children with hearing problems. A more comprehensive study should be undertaken at a higher level to see the impact on an early intervention program for Malay language acquisition of hearing impaired children.

Keywords: Bahasa Melayu hand coded, Malaysian sign Language, hearing impaired children, early intervention

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
2800 Techniques to Characterize Subpopulations among Hearing Impaired Patients and Its Impact for Hearing Aid Fitting

Authors: Vijaya K. Narne, Gerard Loquet, Tobias Piechowiak, Dorte Hammershoi, Jesper H. Schmidt

Abstract:

BEAR, which stands for better hearing rehabilitation is a large-scale project in Denmark designed and executed by three national universities, three hospitals, and the hearing aid industry with the aim to improve hearing aid fitting. A total of 1963 hearing impaired people were included and were segmented into subgroups based on hearing-loss, demographics, audiological and questionnaires data (i.e., the speech, spatial and qualities of hearing scale [SSQ-12] and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing-Aids [IOI-HA]). With the aim to provide a better hearing-aid fit to individual patients, we applied modern machine learning techniques with traditional audiograms rule-based systems. Results show that age, speech discrimination scores, and audiogram configurations were evolved as important parameters in characterizing sub-population from the data-set. The attempt to characterize sub-population reveal a clearer picture about the individual hearing difficulties encountered and the benefits derived from more individualized hearing aids.

Keywords: hearing loss, audiological data, machine learning, hearing aids

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2799 Learning Programming for Hearing Impaired Students via an Avatar

Authors: Nihal Esam Abuzinadah, Areej Abbas Malibari, Arwa Abdulaziz Allinjawi, Paul Krause

Abstract:

Deaf and hearing-impaired students face many obstacles throughout their education, especially with learning applied sciences such as computer programming. In addition, there is no clear signs in the Arabic Sign Language that can be used to identify programming logic terminologies such as while, for, case, switch etc. However, hearing disabilities should not be a barrier for studying purpose nowadays, especially with the rapid growth in educational technology. In this paper, we develop an Avatar based system to teach computer programming to deaf and hearing-impaired students using Arabic Signed language with new signs vocabulary that is been developed for computer programming education. The system is tested on a number of high school students and results showed the importance of visualization in increasing the comprehension or understanding of concepts for deaf students through the avatar.

Keywords: hearing-impaired students, isolation, self-esteem, learning difficulties

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2798 Resilience among Children with and without Hearing Loss: A Comparative Study in Pakistan

Authors: Bushra Akram, Amina Tariq

Abstract:

Objective: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to compare the level of resilience among children with and without hearing loss. Methodology: In this descriptive cross sectional study total 500 children (with hearing loss = 250 and without hearing loss = 250) were recruited conveniently. Children with hearing loss were recruited from the special schools whereas children without hearing loss were selected from regular schools located in cities of Gujrat and Jhelum of Pakistan. Respondents’ age ranged from 9-14 years. Resiliency scale named RSCA (Resiliency Scales for children and adolescents) developed by Sandra Prince Embury (2006) was used. RSCA consist of three core theoretical areas: MAS (Sense of Mastery Scale), REL (Sense of Relatedness Scale) and REA (Emotional Reactivity Scale). Results: Findings indicated that there was a significant difference in the resilience level of participants with and without hearing loss. The mean comparison showed that the children with hearing loss showed lower scores on MAS (X̅ = 43.32, SD = 7.55) as well as on REL (X̅ = 49.96, SD = 7.65) as compared to their counterparts on MAS (X̅ = 53.96, SD = 9.90, t= -7.31***) and on REL (X̅ = 68.43, SD = 14.57,t= -10.18***). However children with hearing loss showed higher scores on REA (X̅ = 42.12, SD = 5.84) as compared to hearing participants (X̅ = 28.84, SD = 13.97, t = -8.20***). The findings revealed no significance difference in the resilience level of hearing and deaf children on the basis of their gender and age. Research Outcomes and Future Scope: Children with hearing loss showed a lower level of resilience, therefore, needs a program to develop resilience for better social-emotional adjustment and enhancement of their psychological well-being. In the end, the researcher gave recommendations for future research.

Keywords: children with hearing loss, psychological Wellbeing, resiliency scales for children and adolescents, resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
2797 Healthcare in COVID-19 and It’s Impact on Children with Cochlear Implants

Authors: Amirreza Razzaghipour, Mahdi Khalili

Abstract:

References from the World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control for deceleration the spread of the Novel COVID-19, comprises social estrangement, frequent handwashing, and covering your mouth when around others. As hearing healthcare specialists, the influence of existenceinvoluntary to boundary social interactions on persons with hearing impairment was significant for us to understand. We found ourselves delaying cochlear implant (CI) surgeries. All children, and chiefly those with hearing loss, are susceptible to reductions in spoken communication. Hearing plans, such as cochlear implants, provide children with hearing loss access to spoken communication and provision language development. when provided early and used consistently, these supplies help children with hearing loss to engage in spoken connections. Cochlear implant (CI) is a standard medical-surgical treatment for bilateral severe to profound hearing loss with no advantage with the hearing aid. Hearing is one of the most important senses in humans. Pediatric hearing loss establishes one of the most important public health challenges. Children with hearing loss are recognized early and habilitated via hearing aids or with cochlear implants (CIs). Suitable care and maintenance as well as continuous auditory verbal therapy (AVT) are also essential in reaching for the successful attainment of language acquisition. Children with hearing loss posture important challenges to their parents, particularly when there is limited admission to their hearing care providers. The disruption in the routine of their hearing and therapy follow-up services has had substantial effects on the children as well as their parents.

Keywords: healthcare, covid-19, cochlear implants, spoken communication, hearing loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2796 The Accommodation of Hearing Loss Viewers in the Contemporary Afrikaans Television Industry

Authors: Hanri Kriel

Abstract:

It is evident that a gap in the television and film industry exists in the viewing experience of South African hard-of-hearing (including hearing-impaired, deaf, and deafblind) viewers, pointing out the inconsistent application of captioning (communicating all audio-related information) and subtitles (only language translation). The purpose of this study is thus to address the hard-of-hearing and hearing-impaired viewers' need to have the same viewing experience as the non-hearing-impaired viewer by contributing to the efficacy of captioning in the contemporary. Afrikaans television industry, thereby enhancing hard-of-hearing viewers' entertainment experience. This study will investigate how the contemporary Afrikaans television industry accommodates its hard-of-hearing and hearing-impaired viewers through the utilisation of captions, specifically in a prime-time show, on an Afrikaans programme on DSTV. The research will also determine how this accommodation of the hard-of-hearing and hearing-impaired viewers can be improved to best align with internationally accepted captioning standards. The study will be executed through a pre-test followed by an intervention phase based on the case study and an evaluation phase. This research project is set out in phases, namely: Phase 1: A literature review; Phase 2: Empirical study and data collection (Phase 2 has four sub-stages, i.e., Stage 1-The pilot survey or pre-test, Stage 2-A second survey with a new group of participants that are hard-of-hearing and hearing-impaired to obtain their insight on their subtitling and captioning preferences. Stage 3–Intervention, a designing a strategy for post-testing will be executed. Stage 4–The practical evaluation is to analyse and collect data and gain valuable insights into the 'new' developed captioning system. After this, the project will continue into Phase 3: Critical analysis. In this phase, the data collection will be described, and Phase 4 involves the conclusion and recommendations when the final project will be submitted. Possible findings of this study include that captioning benefits hard-of-hearing and hearing-impaired viewers and that captioning has a positive impact on viewers and therefore be implemented on all South African television programmes and films. The execution of this study will present the best way to accommodate the hard-of-hearing and hearing-impaired television and film viewers. It will further point out the benefits of using captions for the hard-of-hearing viewer. The analysis and interpretation of the captioning needs of the hard-of-hearing television viewers in the contemporary Afrikaans community will lead to a newly developed system with captions that can be applied in the television and film industry. The study will also minimize the current gap in literature and research regarding captioning for Afrikaans hard-of-hearing viewers in Afrikaans television programming.

Keywords: captions, hearing loss, South Africa, television

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2795 Influence of Auditory Visual Information in Speech Perception in Children with Normal Hearing and Cochlear Implant

Authors: Sachin, Shantanu Arya, Gunjan Mehta, Md. Shamim Ansari

Abstract:

The cross-modal influence of visual information on speech perception can be illustrated by the McGurk effect which is an illusion of hearing of syllable /ta/ when a listener listens one syllable, e.g.: /pa/ while watching a synchronized video recording of syllable, /ka/. The McGurk effect is an excellent tool to investigate multisensory integration in speech perception in both normal hearing and hearing impaired populations. As the visual cue is unaffected by noise, individuals with hearing impairment rely more than normal listeners on the visual cues.However, when non congruent visual and auditory cues are processed together, audiovisual interaction seems to occur differently in normal and persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, this study aims to observe the audiovisual interaction in speech perception in Cochlear Implant users compares the same with normal hearing children. Auditory stimuli was routed through calibrated Clinical audiometer in sound field condition, and visual stimuli were presented on laptop screen placed at a distance of 1m at 0 degree azimuth. Out of 4 presentations, if 3 responses were a fusion, then McGurk effect was considered to be present. The congruent audiovisual stimuli /pa/ /pa/ and /ka/ /ka/ were perceived correctly as ‘‘pa’’ and ‘‘ka,’’ respectively by both the groups. For the non- congruent stimuli /da/ /pa/, 23 children out of 35 with normal hearing and 9 children out of 35 with cochlear implant had a fusion of sounds i.e. McGurk effect was present. For the non-congruent stimulus /pa/ /ka/, 25 children out of 35 with normal hearing and 8 children out of 35 with cochlear implant had fusion of sounds.The children who used cochlear implants for less than three years did not exhibit fusion of sound i.e. McGurk effect was absent in this group of children. To conclude, the results demonstrate that consistent fusion of visual with auditory information for speech perception is shaped by experience with bimodal spoken language during early life. When auditory experience with speech is mediated by cochlear implant, the likelihood of acquiring bimodal fusion is increased and it greatly depends on the age of implantation. All the above results strongly support the need for screening children for hearing capabilities and providing cochlear implants and aural rehabilitation as early as possible.

Keywords: cochlear implant, congruent stimuli, mcgurk effect, non-congruent stimuli

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
2794 Needs Analysis Survey of Hearing Impaired Students’ Teachers in Elementary Schools for Designing Curriculum Plans and Improving Human Resources

Authors: F. Rashno Seydari, M. Nikafrooz

Abstract:

This paper intends to study needs analysis of hearing-impaired students’ teachers in elementary schools all over Iran. The subjects of this study were 275 teachers who were teaching hearing-impaired students in elementary schools. The participants were selected by a quota sampling method. To collect the data, questionnaires of training needs consisting of 41 knowledge items and 31 performance items were used. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS software in the form of descriptive analyses (frequency and mean) and inferential analyses (one sample t-test, paired t-test, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient). The findings of the study indicated that teachers generally have considerable needs in knowledge and performance domains. In 32 items out of the total 41 knowledge domain items and in the 27 items out of the total 31 performance domain items, the teachers had considerable needs. From the quantitative point of view, the needs of the performance domain were more than those of the knowledge domain, so they have to be considered as the first priority in training these teachers. There was no difference between the level of the needs of male and female teachers. There was a significant difference between the knowledge and performance domain needs and the teachers’ teaching experience, 0.354 and 0.322 respectively. The teachers who had been trained in working with hearing-impaired students expressed more training needs (both knowledge and performance).

Keywords: educational needs analysis, teachers of hearing impaired students, knowledge domain, function domain

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2793 Experiences and Aspirations of Hearing Impaired Learners in Inclusive Classrooms

Authors: Raymon P. Española

Abstract:

Hearing impaired students are admitted to regular high schools in the context of inclusive education. In this setting, several academic difficulties and social struggles are disregarded by many educators. The study aimed to describe the aspirations and lived experiences in mainstream classrooms of hearing impaired students. In the research process, the participants were interviewed using sign language. Thematic analysis of interview responses was done, supplemented by interviews with teachers and classroom observations. The study revealed four patterns of experiences: academic difficulties, coping mechanisms, identification with hearing peers, and impression management. This means that these learners were struggling in inclusive classrooms, where identification with and modeling the positive qualities of hearing peers were done to cope with academic difficulties and alter negative impressions about them. By implication, these learners tended to socially immerse themselves rather than resort to isolation. Along with this tendency was the aspiration for achievement as they were eager to finish post-secondary technical-vocational education. This means aspiring for continuing social immersion into the mainstream. All these findings provide insights to K-12 educators to increase the use of collaborative techniques and experiential learning strategies, as well as to adequately address the special educational needs of these students.

Keywords: descriptive, experiences and aspirations of hearing impaired learners, inclusive classrooms, Surigao City Philippines

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
2792 What Children Do and Do Not Like about Taking Part in Sport: Using Focus Groups to Investigate Thoughts and Feelings of Children with Hearing Loss

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare, P. Leighton

Abstract:

Limited participation in physical activity and sport has been linked to poorer mental and physical health in children. Studies have shown that children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sport are also more likely to continue their participation into their adult life. Deaf or hard of hearing children should have the same opportunities to participate in sport and receive the benefits as their hearing peers. Anecdotal evidence suggests this isn’t always the case. This is concerning given there are 45,000 children in the UK with permanent hearing loss. The aim of this study was to understand what encourages or discourages deaf or hard of hearing children to take part in sports. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethics committee. We conducted eight focus groups with deaf or hard of hearing children aged 10 to 15 years. A total of 45 children (19 male, 26 female) recruited from local schools and sports clubs took part. Information was gathered on the children’s thoughts and feelings about participation in sport. This included whether they played sports and who with, whether they did or did not like sport, and why they got involved in sport. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Several key themes were identified as being associated with levels of sports participation. These included friendships, family and communication. Deaf or hard of hearing children with active siblings had participated in more sports. Communication was a common theme throughout regardless of the type of hearing-assistive technology a child used. Children found communication easier during sport if they were allowed to use their technology and had particular difficulty during sports such as swimming. Children expressed a desire not to have to identify themselves at a club as having a hearing loss. This affected their confidence when participating in sport. Not surprisingly, children who are deaf or hard of hearing are more likely to participate in sport if they have a good support network of parents, coaches and friends. The key barriers to participation for these children are communication, lack of visual information, lack of opportunity and a lack of awareness. By addressing these issues more deaf and hard of hearing children will take part in sport and will continue their participation.

Keywords: barrier, children, deaf, participation, hard of hearing, sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
2791 Architecture for Hearing Impaired: A Study on Conducive Learning Environments for Deaf Children with Reference to Sri Lanka

Authors: Champa Gunawardana, Anishka Hettiarachchi

Abstract:

Conducive Architecture for learning environments is an area of interest for many scholars around the world. Loss of sense of hearing leads to the assumption that deaf students are visual learners. Comprehending favorable non-hearing attributes of architecture can lead to effective, rich and friendly learning environments for hearing impaired. The objective of the current qualitative investigation is to explore the nature and parameters of a sense of place of deaf children to support optimal learning. The investigation was conducted with hearing-impaired children (age: between 8-19, Gender: 15 male and 15 female) of Yashodhara deaf and blind school at Balangoda, Sri Lanka. A sensory ethnography study was adopted to identify the nature of perception and the parameters of most preferred and least preferred spaces of the learning environment. The common perceptions behind most preferred places in the learning environment were found as being calm and quiet, sense of freedom, volumes characterized by openness and spaciousness, sense of safety, wide spaces, privacy and belongingness, less crowded, undisturbed, availability of natural light and ventilation, sense of comfort and the view of green colour in the surroundings. On the other hand, the least preferred spaces were found to be perceived as dark, gloomy, warm, crowded, lack of freedom, smells (bad), unsafe and having glare. Perception of space by deaf considering the hierarchy of sensory modalities involved was identified as; light - color perception (34 %), sight - visual perception (32%), touch - haptic perception (26%), smell - olfactory perception (7%) and sound – auditory perception (1%) respectively. Sense of freedom (32%) and sense of comfort (23%) were the predominant psychological parameters leading to an optimal sense of place perceived by hearing impaired. Privacy (16%), rhythm (14%), belonging (9%) and safety (6%) were found as secondary factors. Open and wide flowing spaces without visual barriers, transparent doors and windows or open port holes to ease their communication, comfortable volumes, naturally ventilated spaces, natural lighting or diffused artificial lighting conditions without glare, sloping walkways, wider stairways, walkways and corridors with ample distance for signing were identified as positive characteristics of the learning environment investigated.

Keywords: deaf, visual learning environment, perception, sensory ethnography

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
2790 Auditory and Language Skills Development after Cochlear Implantation in Children with Multiple Disabilities

Authors: Tamer Mesallam, Medhat Yousef, Ayna Almasaad

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation (CI) in children with additional disabilities can be a fundamental and supportive intervention. Although, there may be some positive impacts of CI on children with multiple disabilities such as better outcomes of communication skills, development, and quality of life, the families of those children complain from the post-implant habilitation efforts that considered as a burden. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of CI children with different co-disabilities through using the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS) and the Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) as outcome measurement tools. METHODS: The study sample comprised 25 hearing-impaired children with co-disability who received cochlear implantation. Age and gender-matched control group of 25 cochlear-implanted children without any other disability has been also included. The participants' auditory skills and speech outcomes were assessed using MAIS and MUSS tests. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in the different outcomes measure between the two groups. However, the outcomes of some multiple disabilities subgroups were comparable to the control group. Around 40% of the participants with co-disabilities experienced advancement in their methods of communication from behavior to oral mode. CONCLUSION: Cochlear-implanted children with multiple disabilities showed variable degrees of auditory and speech outcomes. The degree of benefits depends on the type of the co-disability. Long-term follow-up is recommended for those children.

Keywords: children with disabilities, Cochlear implants, hearing impairment, language development

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2789 Pediatric Hearing Aid Use: A Study Based on Data Logging Information

Authors: Mina Salamatmanesh, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Tim Ramsay, Josee Lagacé, Lindsey Sikora, JoAnne Whittingham

Abstract:

Introduction: Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common disorders that presents at birth and in early childhood. Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been adopted based on the assumption that with early identification of HL, children will have access to optimal amplification and intervention at younger ages, therefore, taking advantage of the brain’s maximal plasticity. One particular challenge for parents in the early years is achieving consistent hearing aid (HA) use which is critical to the child’s development and constitutes the first step in the rehabilitation process. This study examined the consistency of hearing aid use in young children based on data logging information documented during audiology sessions in the first three years after hearing aid fitting. Methodology: The first 100 children who were diagnosed with bilateral HL before 72 months of age since 2003 to 2015 in a pediatric audiology clinic and who had at least two hearing aid follow-up sessions with available data logging information were included in the study. Data from each audiology session (age of child at the session, average hours of use per day (for each ear) in the first three years after HA fitting) were collected. Clinical characteristics (degree of hearing loss, age of HA fitting) were also documented to further understanding of factors that impact HA use. Results: Preliminary analysis of the results of the first 20 children shows that all of them (100%) have at least one data logging session recorded in the clinical audiology system (Noah). Of the 20 children, 17(85%) have three data logging events recorded in the first three years after HA fitting. Based on the statistical analysis of the first 20 cases, the median hours of use in the first follow-up session after the hearing aid fitting in the right ear is 3.9 hours with an interquartile range (IQR) of 10.2h. For the left ear the median is 4.4 and the IQR is 9.7h. In the first session 47% of the children use their hearing aids ≤5 hours, 12% use them between 5 to 10 hours and 22% use them ≥10 hours a day. However, these children showed increased use by the third follow-up session with a median (IQR) of 9.1 hours for the right ear and 2.5, and of 8.2 hours for left ear (IQR) IQR is 5.6 By the third follow-up session, 14% of children used hearing aids ≤5 hours, while 38% of children used them ≥10 hours. Based on the primary results, factors like age and level of HL significantly impact the hours of use. Conclusion: The use of data logging information to assess the actual hours of HA provides an opportunity to examine the: a) challenges of families of young children with HAs, b) factors that impact use in very young children. Data logging when used collaboratively with parents, can be a powerful tool to identify problems and to encourage and assist families in maximizing their child’s hearing potential.

Keywords: hearing loss, hearing aid, data logging, hours of use

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2788 Long-Term Otitis Media with Effusion and Related Hearing Loss and Its Impact on Developmental Outcomes

Authors: Aleema Rahman

Abstract:

Introduction: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of long-term otitis media with effusion (OME) and hearing loss in a prospective longitudinal cohort studyand to study the relationship between the condition and educational and psychosocial outcomes. Methods: Analysis of data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) will be undertaken. ALSPAC is a longitudinal birth cohort study carried out in the UK, which has collected detailed measures of hearing on ~7000 children from the age of seven. A descriptive analysis of the data will be undertaken to estimate the prevalence of OME and hearing loss (defined as having average hearing levels > 20dB and type B tympanogram) at 7, 9, 11, and 15 years as well as that of long-term OME and hearing loss. Logistic and linear regression analyses will be conducted to examine associations between long-term OME and hearing loss and educational outcomes (grades obtained from standardised national attainment tests) and psychosocial outcomes such as anxiety, social fears, and depression at ages 10-11 and 15-16 years. Results: Results will be presented in terms of the prevalence of OME and hearing loss in the population at each age. The prevalence of long-term OME and hearing loss, defined as having OME and hearing loss at two or more time points, will also be reported. Furthermore, any associations between long-term OME and hearing loss and the educational and psychosocial outcomes will be presented. Analyses will take into account demographic factors such as sex and social deprivation and relevant confounders, including socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and IQ. Discussion: Findings from this study will provide new epidemiological information on the prevalence of long-term OME and hearing loss. The research will provide new knowledge on the impact of OME for the small group of children who do not grow out of condition by age 7 but continue to have hearing loss and need clinical care through later childhood. The study could have clinical implications and may influence service delivery for this group of children.

Keywords: educational attainment, hearing loss, otitis media with effusion, psychosocial development

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2787 Factors Affecting Access to Education: The Experiences of Parents of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Authors: Hanh Thi My Nguyen

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to examine the experiences of parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing in supporting their children to access education in Vietnam. Parents play a crucial role in supporting their children to gain full access to education. It was widely reported that parents of those children confronted a range of problems to support their children to access education. To author’s best knowledge, there has been a lack of research exploring the experiences of those parents in literature. This research examines factors affecting those parents in supporting their children to access education. To conduct the study, qualitative approach using a phenomenological research design was chosen to explore the central phenomena. Ten parents of children who were diagnosed as deaf or hard of hearing and aged 6-9 years were recruited through the support of the Association of Parents of Children with Hearing Impairment. Participants were interviewed via telephone with a mix of open and closed questions; interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The research results show that there are nine main factors that affected the parents in this study in making decisions relating to education for their children including: lack of information resources, perspectives of those parents on communication approaches, the families’ financial capacity, the psychological impact on the participants after their children’ diagnosis, the attitude of family members, attitude of school administrators, lack of local schools and qualified teachers, and current education system for the deaf in Vietnam. Apart from those factors, the lack of knowledge of the participants’ partners about deaf education and the partners’ employment are barriers to educational access and successful communication with their child.

Keywords: access to education, deaf, hard of hearing, parents experience

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2786 Audiological Profile of Patients Referred to the Audiology Unit of a Public Hospital in Mauritius

Authors: Taslima Foondun, Lidia Pottas, Maggi Soer

Abstract:

Objective: To describe the audiological profile of patients referred to the audiology unit of a public hospital in Mauritius over three years. Design: A retrospective study reviewed the audiological records of patients. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential analyses, including chi-square tests and binary logistic regression. Study sample: There were 1474 patients assessed at the audiology unit between January 2019 and October 2021. Results: 922 patients (62.6%) presented with hearing loss (34.2%, children: 79.7%, adults). A significant association was found between the cause and type of hearing loss. Acute otitis media (9.5%) and otitis media with effusion (7.7%) were leading causes of conductive hearing loss in children. Sensorineural (SNHL) was predominant in adults and was significantly associated with noise-induced hearing loss (12.4%) and presbycusis (28.3%). There was a significant association between age and type of hearing loss at the 1% level. The presence of syndrome/craniofacial anomalies was a significant risk factor in children, an ear infection, family history, and noise exposure in adults. Conclusion: The causes of hearing loss found are preventable. The results of this study can be used to establish protocols for the provision of services to the population with hearing loss and to initiate awareness campaigns.

Keywords: audiology, audiometry, health care sector, hearing loss, Mauritius

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2785 Development of a Method to Prepare In-School Tactile Guide Maps for Visually Impaired School Children

Authors: K. Doi, T. Nishimura, M. Kawano, H. Fujimoto, Y. Tanaka, M. Sawada, S. Oouchi, T. Kaneko, K. Kanamori

Abstract:

As part of reasonable accommodation for people with disabilities in Japan, which has ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, tactile guide maps are necessary. Such maps can enable visually impaired children to attend schools of special needs education (visual impairments) to grasp the arrangement of classrooms on their school campuses. However, it takes many years to be able to use a tactile guide map without difficulty. Thus, information support, in which audio information is added in addition to tactile information, is required. In the present research, a method to prepare an in-school tactile guide map with an additional audio reading function was developed. This map can enable visually impaired school children attending schools of special needs education (visual impairments) to grasp the arrangement of classrooms on their school campuses.

Keywords: accessible design, visually impaired, braille, tactile map, in-school tactile guide map

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2784 Challenges in Early Diagnosis of Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA) in Pediatric Population: A Single Case Report

Authors: Asha Manoharan, Sooraj A. O, Anju K. G

Abstract:

Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) refers to the presence of congenital sensorineural hearing loss with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct. The Audiological symptoms of EVA are fluctuating and progressive in nature and the diagnosis of EVAS can be confirmed only with radiological evaluation. Hence it is difficult to differentiate EVA from conditions like Meniere’s disease, semi-circular dehiscence, etc based on audiological findings alone. EVA in adults is easy to identify due to distinct vestibular symptoms. In children, EVA can remain either unidentified or misdiagnosed until the vestibular symptoms are evident. Motor developmental delay, especially the ones involving a change of body alignment, has been reported in the pediatric population with EVA. So, it should be made mandatory to recommend radiological evaluation in young children with fluctuating hearing loss reporting with motor developmental delay. This single case study of a baby with Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA) primarily aimed to address the following: a) Challenges while diagnosing young patients with EVA and fluctuating hearing loss, b) Importance of radiological evaluation in audiological diagnosis in the pediatric population, c) Need for regular monitoring of hearing, hearing aid performance, and cochlear implant mapping closely for potential fluctuations in such populations, d) Importance of reviewing developmental, language milestones in very young children with fluctuating hearing loss.

Keywords: enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA), motor delay, radiological evaluation, fluctuating hearing loss, cochlear implant

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2783 Duration of Isolated Vowels in Infants with Cochlear Implants

Authors: Paris Binos

Abstract:

The present work investigates developmental aspects of the duration of isolated vowels in infants with normal hearing compared to those who received cochlear implants (CIs) before two years of age. Infants with normal hearing produced shorter vowel duration since this find related with more mature production abilities. First isolated vowels are transparent during the protophonic stage as evidence of an increased motor and linguistic control. Vowel duration is a crucial factor for the transition of prelexical speech to normal adult speech. Despite current knowledge of data for infants with normal hearing more research is needed to unravel productions skills in early implanted children. Thus, isolated vowel productions by two congenitally hearing-impaired Greek infants (implantation ages 1:4-1:11; post-implant ages 0:6-1:3) were recorded and sampled for six months after implantation with a Nucleus-24. The results compared with the productions of three normal hearing infants (chronological ages 0:8-1:1). Vegetative data and vocalizations masked by external noise or sounds were excluded. Participants had no other disabilities and had unknown deafness etiology. Prior to implantation the infants had an average unaided hearing loss of 95-110 dB HL while the post-implantation PTA decreased to 10-38 dB HL. The current research offers a methodology for the processing of the prelinguistic productions based on a combination of acoustical and auditory analyses. Based on the current methodological framework, duration measured through spectrograms based on wideband analysis, from the voicing onset to the end of the vowel. The end marked by two co-occurring events: 1) The onset of aperiodicity with a rapid change in amplitude in the waveform and 2) a loss in formant’s energy. Cut-off levels of significance were set at 0.05 for all tests. Bonferroni post hoc tests indicated that difference was significant between the mean duration of vowels of infants wearing CIs and their normal hearing peers. Thus, the mean vowel duration of CIs measured longer compared to the normal hearing peers (0.000). The current longitudinal findings contribute to the existing data for the performance of children wearing CIs at a very young age and enrich also the data of the Greek language. The above described weakness for CI’s performance is a challenge for future work in speech processing and CI’s processing strategies.

Keywords: cochlear implant, duration, spectrogram, vowel

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2782 EEG and ABER Abnormalities in Children with Speech and Language Delay

Authors: Bharati Mehta, Manish Parakh, Bharti Bhandari, Sneha Ambwani

Abstract:

Speech and language delay (SLD) is seen commonly as a co-morbidity in children having severe resistant focal and generalized, syndromic and symptomatic epilepsies. It is however not clear whether epilepsy contributes to or is a mere association in the pathogenesis of SLD. Also, it is acknowledged that Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABER), besides used for evaluating hearing threshold, also aid in prognostication of neurological disorders and abnormalities in the hearing pathway in the brainstem. There is no circumscribed or surrogate neurophysiologic laboratory marker to adjudge the extent of SLD. The current study was designed to evaluate the abnormalities in Electroencephalography (EEG) and ABER in children with SLD who do not have an overt hearing deficit or autism. 94 children of age group 2-8 years with predominant SLD and without any gross motor developmental delay, head injury, gross hearing disorder, cleft lip/palate and autism were selected. Standard video Electroencephalography using the 10:20 international system and ABER after click stimulus with intensities 110 db until 40 db was performed in all children. EEG was abnormal in 47.9% (n= 45; 36 boys and 9 girls) children. In the children with abnormal EEG, 64.5% (n=29) had an abnormal background, 57.8% (n=27) had presence of generalized interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), 20% (n=9) had focal epileptiform discharges exclusively from left side and 33.3% (n=15) had multifocal IEDs occurring both in isolation or associated with generalised abnormalities. In ABER, surprisingly, the peak latencies for waves I, III & V, inter-peak latencies I-III & I-V, III-V and wave amplitude ratio V/I, were found within normal limits in both ears of all the children. Thus in the current study it is certain that presence of generalized IEDs in EEG are seen in higher frequency with SLD and focal IEDs are seen exclusively in left hemisphere in these children. It may be possible that even with generalized EEG abnormalities present in these children, left hemispheric abnormalities as a part of this generalized dysfunction may be responsible for the speech and language dysfunction. The current study also emphasizes that ABER may not be routinely recommended as diagnostic or prognostic tool in children with SLD without frank hearing deficit or autism, thus reducing the burden on electro physiologists, laboratories and saving time and financial resources.

Keywords: ABER, EEG, speech, language delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
2781 Lip Localization Technique for Myanmar Consonants Recognition Based on Lip Movements

Authors: Thein Thein, Kalyar Myo San

Abstract:

Lip reading system is one of the different supportive technologies for hearing impaired, or elderly people or non-native speakers. For normal hearing persons in noisy environments or in conditions where the audio signal is not available, lip reading techniques can be used to increase their understanding of spoken language. Hearing impaired persons have used lip reading techniques as important tools to find out what was said by other people without hearing voice. Thus, visual speech information is important and become active research area. Using visual information from lip movements can improve the accuracy and robustness of a speech recognition system and the need for lip reading system is ever increasing for every language. However, the recognition of lip movement is a difficult task because of the region of interest (ROI) is nonlinear and noisy. Therefore, this paper proposes method to detect the accurate lips shape and to localize lip movement towards automatic lip tracking by using the combination of Otsu global thresholding technique and Moore Neighborhood Tracing Algorithm. Proposed method shows how accurate lip localization and tracking which is useful for speech recognition. In this work of study and experiments will be carried out the automatic lip localizing the lip shape for Myanmar consonants using the only visual information from lip movements which is useful for visual speech of Myanmar languages.

Keywords: lip reading, lip localization, lip tracking, Moore neighborhood tracing algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
2780 Transition from Early Education to Pre-School Education in Children with Hearing Loss in Turkey: Problems and Recommendations

Authors: Şule Yanık, Emel Ertürk-Mustul, Zerrin Turan, Hasan Gürgür

Abstract:

It is known that there are policies that will support the early special education (ESE) for children requiring special care including the children with hearing loss (CHL) in many countries that give importance to early childhood (0-6 years) education, accordingly ESE services have been gradually increasing and these services provide positive contributions to the child and family. These services begin with medical diagnostics, provision of the use of assistive technologies for hearing and the orientation of children towards early education program (EEP) for the CHL. In 0-3 years of age EEP, education and support services are provided to the children and their families. In 3-6 years of age, children are supported in a pre-school education program (PSE) in which their peers and teachers are present. Therefore, the children with hearing loss and their families are going through a series of medical, educational and social transition process after diagnosed with hearing loss. Depending on their age and development, CHL also go through a transition period from hospital to home, from home to EEP and from EEP to PSE. It is seen that there is no legal regulation regarding the transition process in Turkey and hence different processes have been carried out in the transition process from EEP to PSE. The aim of this study is to reveal the problems confronted by the CHL during the transition period from EEP to PSE and the solution proposals for these problems. In this study, a document review was made by reviewing the national and international studies about transition processes of the CHL in Turkey from EEP to PSE. Accordingly, in the study carried out in two stages, firstly, a review of the body of literature was performed by creating key words related to the subject. Secondly, the problems confronted by the CHL in Turkey during the transition period from EEP to PSE and the solution proposals for these problems were demonstrated by analyzing the obtained data. According to the body of literature, it is seen that there are no laws concerning the transition processes of the children who require special care including the CHL in Turkey from EEP (sending) to PSE (receiving), and correspondingly numerous problems have been experienced during the transition period. It seems that the EEP adopts family-centered approaches for strengthening the families of the CHL. However, PSE program aims to prepare the children to school life by focusing on their social and academical development rather with the adoption of children-centered approaches. Therefore, while the families feel an inseparable part of the team in EEP, they indicated that they felt like a stranger in the school team after their children have started to PSE. Therefore, families find the transition processes worrisome and state that they are not satisfied with the process. We discovered that in the process of transition from EEP to PSE, families are not informed, there is a limited number of PSE options available, children cannot adapt to the new educational environment and cannot benefit from the existing PSE.

Keywords: early education program, early special education, children with hearing loss, transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
2779 The Effect of Speech-Shaped Noise and Speaker’s Voice Quality on First-Grade Children’s Speech Perception and Listening Comprehension

Authors: I. Schiller, D. Morsomme, A. Remacle

Abstract:

Children’s ability to process spoken language develops until the late teenage years. At school, where efficient spoken language processing is key to academic achievement, listening conditions are often unfavorable. High background noise and poor teacher’s voice represent typical sources of interference. It can be assumed that these factors particularly affect primary school children, because their language and literacy skills are still low. While it is generally accepted that background noise and impaired voice impede spoken language processing, there is an increasing need for analyzing impacts within specific linguistic areas. Against this background, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of speech-shaped noise and imitated dysphonic voice on first-grade primary school children’s speech perception and sentence comprehension. Via headphones, 5 to 6-year-old children, recruited within the French-speaking community of Belgium, listened to and performed a minimal-pair discrimination task and a sentence-picture matching task. Stimuli were randomly presented according to four experimental conditions: (1) normal voice / no noise, (2) normal voice / noise, (3) impaired voice / no noise, and (4) impaired voice / noise. The primary outcome measure was task score. How did performance vary with respect to listening condition? Preliminary results will be presented with respect to speech perception and sentence comprehension and carefully interpreted in the light of past findings. This study helps to support our understanding of children’s language processing skills under adverse conditions. Results shall serve as a starting point for probing new measures to optimize children’s learning environment.

Keywords: impaired voice, sentence comprehension, speech perception, speech-shaped noise, spoken language processing

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2778 Basic Examination of Easily Distinguishable Tactile Symbols Attached to Containers and Packaging

Authors: T. Nishimura, K. Doi, H. Fujimoto, Y. Hoshikawa, T. Wada

Abstract:

In Japan, it is expected that reasonable accommodation for persons with disabilities will progress further. In particular, there is an urgent need to enhance information support for visually impaired persons who have difficulty accessing information. Recently, tactile symbols have been attached to various surfaces, such as the content labels of containers and packaging of various everyday products. The advantage of tactile symbols is that they are useful for visually impaired persons who cannot read Braille. The method of displaying tactile symbols is prescribed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, the quantitative data on the shapes and dimensions of tactile symbols is insufficient. In this study, through an evaluation experiments, we examine the easy-to-distinguish shapes and dimensions of tactile symbols used for various applications, including the content labels on containers and packaging. Visually impaired persons participated in the experiments. They used tactile symbols on a daily basis. The details and processes of the experiments were orally explained to the participants prior to the experiments, and the informed consent of the participants was obtained. They were instructed to touch the test pieces of tactile symbols freely with both hands. These tactile symbols were selected because they were likely to be easily distinguishable symbols on the content labels of top surfaces of containers and packaging based on a hearing survey that involved employees of an organization of visually impaired and a social welfare corporation, as well as academic experts of support technology for visually impaired. The participants then answered questions related to ease of distinguishing of tactile symbols on a scale of 5 (where 1 corresponded to ‘difficult to distinguish’ and 5 corresponded to ‘easy to distinguish’). Hearing surveys were also performed in an oral free answer manner with the participants after the experiments. This study revealed the shapes and dimensions regarding easily distinguishable tactile symbols attached to containers and packaging. We expect that this knowledge contributes to improvement of the quality of life of visually impaired persons.

Keywords: visual impairment, accessible design, tactile symbol, containers and packaging

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2777 A Case Study on Expanding Access to Higher Education of Students with Hearing Impairment

Authors: Afaf Manzoor, Abdul Hameed

Abstract:

Children with hearing impairment face several challenges in accessing primary and secondary education in general and higher education in particular in Pakistan. A large number of these children are excluded from formal education system through segregated special institutions. The enrollment rate of these children at school level is very low and it continues decreasing as they move on the ladder of education. Negligible number of students with hearing impairment gets any chance to be enrolled at tertiary or higher education institutes. The segregated system of education at primary and secondary level makes it even more difficult to adjust in an inclusive classroom at a higher level not only for students with hearing impairment but for their teachers and peers as well. A false belief of teachers and parents about low academic profile of students with hearing impairment is one of the major challenges to overcome for their participation at higher education. This case study was conducted to document an innovative step taken by the Department of Special Education Needs, University of Management & Technology, Lahore Pakistan. The prime objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction level of students with hearing impairment in BS 4 Years and MA Special Education programs at Lahore campus. Structured interviews were of 40 students with hearing impairment to assess the satisfaction on service delivery (admission process, classroom pedagogy, content, assessment/results, access to other services centers i.e. library, cafeteria, hostel, co-curricular activities) and campus life. Their peers without disabilities were also interviewed to assess their acceptance level. The findings of the study revealed positive results about their educational as well as social inclusion in the university. The students also shared their fears at the time of admission and how fear eventually faded out with the passage of time due to the proper academic support system. The findings of the study will be shared in detail with the audience during the presentation.

Keywords: students with hearing impairment, higher education, inclusive education, marginalization

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2776 The Effect of Hemsball Shooting Techniques on Fine Motor Skill Level of Chidren with Hearing Disabilities

Authors: Meltem Işık, Fatma Gür, İbrahim Kılıç

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the effects of hemsball shooting techniques on the fine motor skill level of children with hearing disabilities. A total number of 26 children with hearing disabilities, ages ranging between 7 and 11 and which were equally divided into experimental group and control group participated in the study. In this context, an exercise training program dedicated to hemsball shooting techniques was introduced to the experimental group 3 days a week in one hour sessions for a period of 10 weeks. BOT-2 fine motor skills test which includes three dimensions (fine motor accuracy, fine motor task completion, and dexterity) was selected as the data collection method. Descriptive statistics along with two-factor ANOVA which was focused on repetitive measurements of the differences between pretest and posttest scores of both groups were used in the analysis of the data collected. The results of this study showed that hemsball shooting techniques have a statistically significant effect on the fine motor skill level.

Keywords: hemsball shooting techniques, BOT-2 test, fine motor skills, hearing disabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
2775 A Comparative Study on Vowel Articulation in Malayalam Speaking Children Using Cochlear Implant

Authors: Deepthy Ann Joy, N. Sreedevi

Abstract:

Hearing impairment (HI) at an early age, identified before the onset of language development can reduce the negative effect on speech and language development of children. Early rehabilitation is very important in the improvement of speech production in children with HI. Other than conventional hearing aids, Cochlear Implants are being used in the rehabilitation of children with HI. However, delay in acquisition of speech and language milestones persist in children with Cochlear Implant (CI). Delay in speech milestones are reflected through speech sound errors. These errors reflect the temporal and spectral characteristics of speech. Hence, acoustical analysis of the speech sounds will provide a better representation of speech production skills in children with CI. The present study aimed at investigating the acoustic characteristics of vowels in Malayalam speaking children with a cochlear implant. The participants of the study consisted of 20 Malayalam speaking children in the age range of four and seven years. The experimental group consisted of 10 children with CI, and the control group consisted of 10 typically developing children. Acoustic analysis was carried out for 5 short (/a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/) and 5 long vowels (/a:/, /i:/, /u:/, /e:/, /o:/) in word-initial position. The responses were recorded and analyzed for acoustic parameters such as Vowel duration, Ratio of the duration of a short and long vowel, Formant frequencies (F₁ and F₂) and Formant Centralization Ratio (FCR) computed using the formula (F₂u+F₂a+F₁i+F₁u)/(F₂i+F₁a). Findings of the present study indicated that the values for vowel duration were higher in experimental group compared to the control group for all the vowels except for /u/. Ratio of duration of short and long vowel was also found to be higher in experimental group compared to control group except for /i/. Further F₁ for all vowels was found to be higher in experimental group with variability noticed in F₂ values. FCR was found be higher in experimental group, indicating vowel centralization. Further, the results of independent t-test revealed no significant difference across the parameters in both the groups. It was found that the spectral and temporal measures in children with CI moved towards normal range. The result emphasizes the significance of early rehabilitation in children with hearing impairment. The role of rehabilitation related aspects are also discussed in detail which can be clinically incorporated for the betterment of speech therapeutic services in children with CI.

Keywords: acoustics, cochlear implant, Malayalam, vowels

Procedia PDF Downloads 70