Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10324

Search results for: accessible design

10324 Accessible Tourism: A Novel Idea for Promoting Tourism in Nepal

Authors: Pankaj Pradhananga

Abstract:

Inclusive Tourism is a relatively new topic in Nepal. Though the effort of creating accessible and inclusive tourism has already begun, it is still in its infancy. A major concern for Destination Nepal is the lack of awareness and absence of mandatory law in place to encourage Tourism operating sectors for coming up with accessible Tourism products. Given the number economic and social benefits to may be derived from inclusive tourism, it is a critical time for the tourism industry to understand and develop measures towards inclusivity in the gateway to Himalaya. Nepal was struck with a devastating earthquake on April 25th, 2015 which concurrently left more than 4,000 Nepalese with physical disabilities. Nepal has had to rebuild and is continuing to rebuild a lot of infrastructure and the process of rebuilding should be barrier free and use universal design measures. With universal design in place, this would allow access for minority groups such as people with disabilities and the elderly to the historic monuments in Kathmandu valley. Four Seasons Travel ( 4ST) has been a key player in not only creating accessible tourism experiences in Nepal, but also promoting accessible tourism to other tourism operators. Dr. Scott Rains had worked closely with 4ST on accessible tourism. Additionally, it organised an accessible trek which was field tested with a traveler with vision impairment in August 2015. Another accessible trekking experience, in partnership with Washington DC based International Development Institute, was coined as ‘Wounded Heroes Trek to Nepal’, where a group of Veterans that are amputees went trekking in the Annapurna Region. The event made it to the list of UNWTO World Tourism Day celebrations. Such initiatives led by private sector in partnership with various organizations have worked to create a ‘Destination Nepal for all’. However, there is still a lot of work that needs to be done to make Nepal a truly inclusive destination. Partnerships between the private sector and DPOs ( Disabled People’s Organizations) as well as the government are also a sound opportunity for employment creation for people with disabilities. Further, partnerships between the state, tourism service providers and DPOs need to be fostered to create job opportunities for people with disabilities. This can be exemplified through the social Entrepreneurship model with the help of accessible Tourism.

Keywords: accessible tourism, disability, earthquake, inclusion

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10323 Integration of Internet-Accessible Resources in the Field of Mobile Robots

Authors: B. Madhevan, R. Sakkaravarthi, R. Diya

Abstract:

The number and variety of mobile robot applications are increasing day by day, both in an industry and in our daily lives. First developed as a tool, nowadays mobile robots can be integrated as an entity in Internet-accessible resources. The present work is organized around four potential resources such as cloud computing, Internet of things, Big data analysis and Co-simulation. Further, the focus relies on integrating, analyzing and discussing the need for integrating Internet-accessible resources and the challenges deriving from such integration, and how these issues have been tackled. Hence, the research work investigates the concepts of the Internet-accessible resources from the aspect of the autonomous mobile robots with an overview of the performances of the currently available database systems. IaR is a world-wide network of interconnected objects, can be considered an evolutionary process in mobile robots. IaR constitutes an integral part of future Internet with data analysis, consisting of both physical and virtual things.

Keywords: internet-accessible resources, cloud computing, big data analysis, internet of things, mobile robot

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10322 A Short Study on the Effects of Public Service Advertisement on Gender Bias in Accessible and Non-Accessible Format

Authors: Amrin Moger, Sagar Bhalerao, Martin Mathew

Abstract:

Advertisements play a vital role in dissemination of information regarding products and services. Advertisements as Mass Media tool is not only a source of entertainment, but also a source of information, education and entertainment. It provides information about the outside world and exposes us to other ways of life and culture. Public service advertisements (PSA) are generally aimed at public well-being. Aim of PSA is not to make profit, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness in the Society about a social issue.’ Start with the boys’ is one such PSA aims to create awareness about issue of ‘gender bias’ that is taught prevalent in the society. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are also consumers of PSA in the society. The population of persons with disability in the society also faces gender bias and discrimination. It is a double discrimination. The advertisement selected for the study gives out a strong message on gender bias and therefore must be accessible to everyone including PWDs in the society. Accessibility of PSA in the digital format can be done with the help of Universal Design (UD) in digital media application. Features of UD inclusive in nature, and it focus on eliminating established barriers through initial designs. It considers the needs of diverse people, whether they are persons with or without disability. In this research two aspects of UD in digital media: captioning and Indian sign language (ISL) is used. Hence a short survey study was under taken to know the effects of a multimedia on gender bias, in accessible format on persons with and without disability. The result demonstrated a significant difference in the opinion, on the usage accessible and non-accessible format for persons with and without disability and their understanding of message in the PSA selected for the study.

Keywords: public service advertisements, gender, disability, accessibility

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10321 Experience Report about the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in the Process of Testing an Accessible System for Learning Management

Authors: Marcos Devaner, Marcela Alves, Cledson Braga, Fabiano Alves, Wilton Bezerra

Abstract:

This article discusses the inclusion of people with disabilities in the process of testing an accessible system solution for distance education. The accessible system, team profile, methodologies and techniques covered in the testing process are presented. The testing process shown in this paper was designed from the experience with user. The testing process emerged from lessons learned from past experiences and the end user is present at all stages of the tests. Also, lessons learned are reported and how it was possible the maturing of the team and the methods resulting in a simple, productive and effective process.

Keywords: experience report, accessible systems, software testing, testing process, systems, e-learning

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10320 To Design a Full Stack Online Educational Website Using HTML, CSS and Java Script

Authors: Yash Goyal, Manish Korde, Juned Siddiqui

Abstract:

Today online education has gained more popularity so that people can easily complete their curriculum on their own time. Virtual learning has been widely used by many educators, especially in higher education institutions due to its benefits to students and faculty. A good knowledge of teaching theory and instructional design systems is required to experience meaningful learning. However, most educational websites are not designed to adapt to all screen sizes. Making the website accessible on all screen sizes is our main objective, so we have created a website that is readily accessible across all screen sizes and accepts all types of payment methods. And we see generally educational websites interface is simple and unexciting. So, we have made a user interface attractive and user friendly. It is not enough for a website to be user-friendly, but also to be familiar to admins and to reduce the workload of the admin as well. We visited so many popular websites under development that they all had issues like responsiveness, simple interface, security measures, payment methods, etc. To overcome this limitation, we have created a website which has taken care of security issues that is why we have created only one admin id and it can be control from that only. And if the user has successfully done the payment, then the admin can send him a username and password through mail individually so there will no fraud in the payment of the course.

Keywords: responsive, accessible, attractive, interface, objective, security.

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10319 Influence of Tactile Symbol Size on Its Perceptibility in Consideration of Effect of Aging

Authors: T. Nishimura, K. Doi, H. Fujimoto, T. Wada

Abstract:

We conducted perception experiments on tactile symbols to elucidate the impact of the size of these letters on the level of perceptibility. This study was based on the accessible design perspective and aimed at expanding the availability of tactile symbols for the visually impaired who are unable to read Braille characters. In particular, this study targeted people with acquired visual impairments as users of the tactile symbols. The subjects (young and elderly individuals) in this study had normal vision. They were asked to participate in the experiments to identify tactile symbols while unable to see their hand during the experiments. This study investigated the relation between the size and perceptibility of tactile symbols based on an examination using test pieces of these letters in different sizes. The results revealed that the error rates for both young and elderly subjects converged to almost 0% when 12 mm size tactile symbols were used. The findings also showed that the error rate was low and subjects could identify the symbols in 5 s when 16 mm size tactile symbols were introduced.

Keywords: accessible design, tactile sense, tactile symbols, bioinformatic

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10318 Stereoscopic Motion Design: Design Futures

Authors: Edgar Teixeira, Eurico Carrapatoso

Abstract:

As 3D displays become increasingly affordable, while production techniques and computational resources to create stereoscopic content being ever more accessible, a new dimension is literally introduced along with new expressive and immersive potentialities in support of designing for the screen. Prospective design visionaries have already at the reach of their hands an innovative and powerful visualization technology, which enables them to actively envision future trends and vanguardist directions. This paper explores the aesthetic and informational potentialities of stereoscopic motion graphics, providing insight on the application of 3D displays in design practice, proposing strategies to investigate stereoscopic communication, discussing potential repercussions to extant theory and impacts on audience.

Keywords: design, visual communication, technology, stereoscopy, 3D media

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10317 A Study of Shigeru Ban's Environmentally-Sensitive Design Approach

Authors: Duygu Merve Bulut, Fehime Yesim Gurani

Abstract:

The Japanese architect Shigeru Ban has succeeded in bringing a different understanding to the modern architectural design approach with both the material selection and the techniques he used while combining the material with the design. Ban, who reflects his respect to people and nature with his designs, has encouraged that design should be done with economic materials, easily accessible and understandable for everyone. Because of this, Ban has attracted attention and appreciated in the architectural world with his environmentally-sensitive design ideology and humanitarian projects. In order to understand Ban’s environmentally-sensitive design approach, with this article, Ban’s projects which have used natural materials; the projects of Ban’s Japenese Pavilion in Germany, Papertainer Museum in South Korea, Centre Pompidou-Metz in France and Cardboard Cathedral in New Zealand were examined and analyzed. In the following parts, 'paper tube' technology that creates awareness in architectural area, which developed and applied by Ban; has been examined in terms of building material and structure of sustainable space design. As a result of this review, Ban’s approach is evaluated in terms of its contribution to the understanding of sustainable design.

Keywords: ecological design, environmentally-sensitive design, paper tube, Shigeru Ban, sustainability

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10316 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi

Abstract:

One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Optically Accessible Engine, Spark-Ignition Engine, Sparl Orientation, Kernel Growth

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10315 Universal Design Building Standard for India: A Critical Inquiry

Authors: Sushil Kumar Solanki, Rachna Khare

Abstract:

Universal Design is a concept of built environment creation, where all people are facilitated to the maximum extent possible without using any type of specialized design. However, accessible design is a design process in which the needs of people with disabilities are specifically considered. Building standards on accessibility contains scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, building and elements by individual with disability. India is also following its prescriptive types of various building standards for the creation of physical environment for people with disabilities. These building standards are based on western models instead of research based standards to serve Indian needs. These standards lack contextual connect when reflects in its application in the urban and rural environment. This study focuses on critical and comparative study of various international building standards and codes, with existing Indian accessibility standards to understand problems and prospects of concept of Universal Design building standards for India. The result of this study is an analysis of existing state of Indian building standard pertaining to accessibility and future need of performance based Universal Design concept.

Keywords: accessibility, building standard, built-environment, universal design

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10314 The Efficacy of Open Educational Resources in Students’ Performance and Engagement

Authors: Huda Al-Shuaily, E. M. Lacap

Abstract:

Higher Education is one of the most essential fundamentals for the advancement and progress of a country. It demands to be as accessible as possible and as comprehensive as it can be reached. In this paper, we succeeded to expand the accessibility and delivery of higher education using an Open Educational Resources (OER), a freely accessible, openly licensed documents, and media for teaching and learning. This study creates a comparative design of student’s academic performance on the course Introduction to Database and student engagement to the virtual learning environment (VLE). The study was done in two successive semesters - one without using the OER and the other is using OER. In the study, we established that there is a significant increase in student’s engagement in VLE in the latter semester compared to the former. By using the latter semester’s data, we manage to show that the student’s engagement has a positive impact on students’ academic performance. Moreso, after clustering their academic performance, the impact is seen higher for students who are low performing. The results show that these engagements can be used to potentially predict the learning styles of the student with a high degree of precision.

Keywords: EDM, learning analytics, moodle, OER, student-engagement

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10313 Examining the Design of a Scaled Audio Tactile Model for Enhancing Interpretation of Visually Impaired Visitors in Heritage Sites

Authors: A. Kavita Murugkar, B. Anurag Kashyap

Abstract:

With the Rights for Persons with Disabilities Act (RPWD Act) 2016, the Indian government has made it mandatory for all establishments, including Heritage Sites, to be accessible for People with Disabilities. However, recent access audit surveys done under the Accessible India Campaign by Ministry of Culture indicate that there are very few accessibility measures provided in the Heritage sites for people with disabilities. Though there are some measures for the mobility impaired, surveys brought out that there are almost no provisions for people with vision impairment (PwVI) in heritage sites thus depriving them of a reasonable physical & intellectual access that facilitates an enjoyable experience and enriching interpretation of the Heritage Site. There is a growing need to develop multisensory interpretative tools that can help the PwVI in perceiving heritage sites in the absence of vision. The purpose of this research was to examine the usability of an audio-tactile model as a haptic and sound-based strategy for augmenting the perception and experience of PwVI in a heritage site. The first phase of the project was a multi-stage phenomenological experimental study with visually impaired users to investigate the design parameters for developing an audio-tactile model for PwVI. The findings from this phase included user preferences related to the physical design of the model such as the size, scale, materials, details, etc., and the information that it will carry such as braille, audio output, tactile text, etc. This was followed by the second phase in which a working prototype of an audio-tactile model is designed and developed for a heritage site based on the findings from the first phase of the study. A nationally listed heritage site from the author’s city was selected for making the model. The model was lastly tested by visually impaired users for final refinements and validation. The prototype developed empowers People with Vision Impairment to navigate independently in heritage sites. Such a model if installed in every heritage site, can serve as a technological guide for the Person with Vision Impairment, giving information of the architecture, details, planning & scale of the buildings, the entrances, location of important features, lifts, staircases, and available, accessible facilities. The model was constructed using 3D modeling and digital printing technology. Though designed for the Indian context, this assistive technology for the blind can be explored for wider applications across the globe. Such an accessible solution can change the otherwise “incomplete’’ perception of the disabled visitor, in this case, a visually impaired visitor and augment the quality of their experience in heritage sites.

Keywords: accessibility, architectural perception, audio tactile model , inclusive heritage, multi-sensory perception, visual impairment, visitor experience

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10312 Understanding Walkability in the Libyan Urban Space: Policies, Perceptions and Smart Design for Sustainable Tripoli

Authors: A. Abdulla Khairi Mohamed, Mohamed Gamal Abdelmonem, Gehan Selim

Abstract:

Walkability in civic and public spaces in Libyan cities is challenging due to the lack of accessibility design, informal merging into car traffic, and the general absence of adequate urban and space planning. The lack of accessible and pedestrian-friendly public spaces in Libyan cities has emerged as a major concern for the government if it is to develop smart and sustainable spaces for the 21st century. A walkable urban space has become a driver for urban development and redistribution of land use to ensure pedestrian and walkable routes between sites of living and workplaces. The characteristics of urban open space in the city centre play a main role in attracting people to walk when attending their daily needs, recreation and daily sports. There is significant gap in the understanding of perceptions, feasibility and capabilities of Libyan urban space to accommodate enhance or support the smart design of a walkable pedestrian-friendly environment that is safe and accessible to everyone. The paper aims to undertake observations of walkability and walkable space in the city of Tripoli as a benchmark for Libyan cities; assess the validity and consistency of the seven principal aspects of smart design, safety, accessibility and 51 factors that affect the walkability in open urban space in Tripoli, through the analysis of 10 local urban spaces experts (town planner, architect, transport engineer and urban designer); and explore user groups’ perceptions of accessibility in walkable spaces in Libyan cities through questionnaires. The study sampled 200 respondents in 2015-16. The results of this study are useful for urban planning, to classify the walkable urban space elements which affect to improve the level of walkability in the Libyan cities and create sustainable and liveable urban spaces.

Keywords: walkability, sustainability, liveability, accessibility

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10311 Online Dietary Management System

Authors: Kyle Yatich Terik, Collins Oduor

Abstract:

The current healthcare system has made healthcare more accessible and efficient by the use of information technology through the implementation of computer algorithms that generate menus based on the diagnosis. While many systems just like these have been created over the years, their main objective is to help healthy individuals calculate their calorie intake and assist them by providing food selections based on a pre-specified calorie. That application has been proven to be useful in some ways, and they are not suitable for monitoring, planning, and managing hospital patients, especially that critical condition their dietary needs. The system also addresses a number of objectives, such as; the main objective is to be able to design, develop and implement an efficient, user-friendly as well as and interactive dietary management system. The specific design development objectives include developing a system that will facilitate a monitoring feature for users using graphs, developing a system that will provide system-generated reports to the users, dietitians, and system admins, design a system that allows users to measure their BMI (Body Mass Index), the system will also provide food template feature that will guide the user on a balanced diet plan. In order to develop the system, further research was carried out in Kenya, Nairobi County, using online questionnaires being the preferred research design approach. From the 44 respondents, one could create discussions such as the major challenges encountered from the manual dietary system, which include no easily accessible information of the calorie intake for food products, expensive to physically visit a dietitian to create a tailored diet plan. Conclusively, the system has the potential of improving the quality of life of people as a whole by providing a standard for healthy living and allowing individuals to have readily available knowledge through food templates that will guide people and allow users to create their own diet plans that consist of a balanced diet.

Keywords: DMS, dietitian, patient, administrator

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10310 Neighbourhood Design for Independent Living of Adults with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Cate MacMillan, Nicholas J. Stevens, Johanna Rosier, Steven Boyd

Abstract:

Choosing where to live is an important decision for anybody, however, this decision is more complex if you are an adult with intellectual disability. Our research asked adults with intellectual disability, parents and carers and disability, housing and built environment decision makers what they considered important in deciding where to live. If medical advances continue to improve the longevity of adults with intellectual disability, many of these adults will outlive their parents. With appropriate community support, and in appropriately designed neighbourhoods, many will be able to live independently. Our research suggests that the key to achieving independent living as an adult with intellectual disability is not so much about the house but the type of neighbourhood and its design. This paper presents the results of interviews and details a practical approach which will better inform urban development decision-makers in establishing safe, inclusive and accessible neighbourhood design.

Keywords: inclusion, independent living, intellectual disability, neighbourhoods, systems thinking, urban design and planning

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10309 Instructional Design Strategy Based on Stories with Interactive Resources for Learning English in Preschool

Authors: Vicario Marina, Ruiz Elena, Peredo Ruben, Bustos Eduardo

Abstract:

the development group of Educational Computing of the National Polytechnic (IPN) in Mexico has been developing interactive resources at preschool level in an effort to improve learning in the Child Development Centers (CENDI). This work describes both a didactic architecture and a strategy for teaching English with digital stories using interactive resources available through a Web repository designed to be used in mobile platforms. It will be accessible initially to 500 children and worldwide by the end of 2015.

Keywords: instructional design, interactive resources, digital educational resources, story based English teaching, preschool education

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10308 Evaluation Study of Easily Identification of Tactile Symbol on Body Soap Bottle

Authors: K. Doi, T. Nishimura, H. Fujimoto, Y. Hoshikawa, T. Wada

Abstract:

Japanese industrial standard (JIS) association established one JIS (JIS S 0021) regarding packaging accessible design for people with visual impairments and elderly people in 2000. Recently, tactile symbol on shampoo bottle has been known as one of package accessible design and more effectively used. However, it has been said that people with visual impairment have been not been in trouble with difficulty of identifying body soap bottle between three bottles such as body soap bottle, shampoo bottle, and conditioner bottle. Japanese low vision association asked JIS association to solve this problem. JIS association and Japan cosmetic industry association constituted one review team for solving the problem. The review team asked our research team to make a proposal regarding new tactile symbol on body soap bottle. We conducted user survey and maker survey regarding tactile symbol on body soap bottle with easily identification. Seven test tactile symbol marks were elected in our proposed tactile symbols. In this study, we evaluate easily identification of tactile symbol on body soap bottle. Six visual impaired subjects were participated in our experiment. These subjects were asked to identify body soap bottle between three bottles such as body soap bottle, shampoo bottle, and conditioner bottle. The test tactile symbol on body soap were presented in random order. The test tactile symbols were produced by use of our originally developed 3D raised equipment. From our study, test tactile symbol marks with easily identification were made a short list of our proposed tactile symbols. This knowledge will be helpful in revision of ISO 11156.

Keywords: tactile symbol, easily identification, body soap, people with visual impairments

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10307 Inclusive Design for Regaining Lost Identity: Accessible, Aesthetic and Effortless Clothing

Authors: S. Tandon, A. Oussoren

Abstract:

Clothing is a need for all humans. Besides serving the commonly understood function of protection, it also is a means of self-expression and adornment. However, most clothing for people with disabilities is developed to respond to their functional needs merely. Such clothing aggravates feelings of inadequacy and lowers their self-esteem. Investigations into apparel-related barriers faced by women with disabilities and their expectations and desires about clothing pointed to a huge void in terms of well-designed inclusive clothing. The incredible stories and experiences shared by the participants in this research highlighted the fact that people with disabilities wanted to feel, dress, and look at how they wanted to look by wearing what they wanted to wear. Clothing should be about self-expression – reflecting their moods, taste, and style and not limited to fulfilling merely their functional needs. Inclusive Design for Regaining Lost Identity was undertaken to design and develop accessible clothing that is inclusive and fashionable to foster psycho-social well-being and to enhance the self-esteem of women with disabilities. The research explored inclusive design solutions for the saree – a traditional Indian garment for women. The saree is an elaborate garment that requires precise draping, which makes the saree complicated to wear and inconvenient to carry, particularly for women with physical disabilities. For many women in India, the saree remains the customary dress, especially for work and occasions, yet minimal advancement has been made to enhance its accessibility and ease of use. The project followed a qualitative research approach whilst incorporating a combination of methods, which consisted of a questionnaire, an interview, and co-creation workshops. The research adhered to the principles of applied research such that the designed products aim to solve a problem that is functional and purposeful. In order to reduce the complications and to simplify the wrapping of the garment fabric around the body, different combinations of pre-stitching of the layers of the saree were created to investigate the outcomes. The technology of 3D drawing and printing was employed to develop feasible fasteners keeping in mind the participants’ movement limitations and to enhance their agency with these newly designed fasteners. The underlying principle of the project is that every individual should be able to access life the way they wish to and should not have to compromise their desires due to their disability.

Keywords: accessibility, co-creation, design ethics, inclusive

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10306 Enabling Citizen Participation in Urban Planning through Geospatial Gamification

Authors: Joanne F. Hayek

Abstract:

This study explores the use of gamification to promote citizen e-participation in urban planning. The research departs from a case study: the ‘Shape Your City’ web app designed and programmed by the author and presented as part of the 2021 Dubai Design Week to engage citizens in the co-creation of the future of their city through a gamified experience. The paper documents the design and development methodology of the web app and concludes with the findings of its pilot release. The case study explores the use of mobile interactive mapping, real-time data visualization, augmented reality, and machine learning as tools to enable co-planning. The paper also details the user interface design strategies employed to integrate complex cross-sector e-planning systems and make them accessible to citizens.

Keywords: gamification, co-planning, citizen e-participation, mobile interactive mapping, real-time data visualization

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10305 3D Printing for Maritime Cultural Heritage: A Design for All Approach to Public Interpretation

Authors: Anne Eugenia Wright

Abstract:

This study examines issues in accessibility to maritime cultural heritage. Using the Pillar Dollar Wreck in Biscayne National Park, Florida, this study presents an approach to public outreach based on the concept of Design for All. Design for All advocates creating products that are accessible and functional for all users, including those with visual, hearing, learning, mobility, or economic impairments. As a part of this study, a small exhibit was created that uses 3D products as a way to bring maritime cultural heritage to the public. It was presented to the public at East Carolina University’s Joyner Library. Additionally, this study presents a methodology for 3D printing scaled photogrammetry models of archaeological sites in full color. This methodology can be used to present a realistic depiction of underwater archaeological sites to those who are incapable of accessing them in the water. Additionally, this methodology can be used to present underwater archaeological sites that are inaccessible to the public due to conditions such as visibility, depth, or protected status. This study presents a practical use for 3D photogrammetry models, as well as an accessibility strategy to expand the outreach potential for maritime archaeology.

Keywords: Underwater Archaeology, 3D Printing, Photogrammetry, Design for All

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10304 An Equitable Strategy to Amend Zero-Emission Vehicles Incentives for Travelers: A Policy Review

Authors: Marie Louis

Abstract:

Even though many stakeholders are doing their very best to promote public transportation around the world, many areas are still public transportation non-accessible. With travelers purchasing and driving their private vehicles can be considered as a threat to all three aspects of the sustainability (e.g., economical, social, environmental). However, most studies that considered simultaneously all three aspects of the sustainability concept when planning and designing public transportation for a corridor have found tradeoffs among the said three aspects.One of the tradeoffs was identified by looking at tipping points of the travel demands to question whether transit agencies/and or transportation policymakers should either operate smaller buses or provide incentives to purchase Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-Qualified low-emission vehicles or greener vehicles (e.g., hybrid). However, how and when do the department of environmental protection (DEP) and the department of revenue (DOR) figure out how much incentives to give to each traveler who lives in a zoning that is considered as public transportation inaccessible or accessible? To answer this policy question, this study aims to compare the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions when hybrid and conventional cars are used to access public transportation stops/stations. Additionally, this study also intends to review previous states that have already adopted low-emissions vehicle (LEVs) or Zero-Emissions Vehicles (ZEVs) to diminish the daily GHGs pollutants.

Keywords: LEED-qualified vehicles, public transit accessibility, hybrid vehicles incentives, sustainability trade-offs

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10303 Mnemotopic Perspectives: Communication Design as Stabilizer for the Memory of Places

Authors: C. Galasso

Abstract:

The ancestral relationship between humans and geographical environment has long been at the center of an interdisciplinary dialogue, which sees one of its main research nodes in the relationship between memory and places. Given its deep complexity, this symbiotic connection continues to look for a proper definition that appears increasingly negotiated by different disciplines. Numerous fields of knowledge are involved, from anthropology to semiotics of space, from photography to architecture, up to subjects traditionally far from these reasonings. This is the case of Design of Communication, a young discipline, now confident in itself and its objectives, aimed at finding and investigating original forms of visualization and representation, between sedimented knowledge and new technologies. In particular, Design of Communication for the Territory offers an alternative perspective to the debate, encouraging the reactivation and reconstruction of the memory of places. Recognizing mnemotopes as a cultural object of vertical interpretation of the memory-place relationship, design can become a real mediator of the territorial fixation of memories, making them increasingly accessible and perceptible, contributing to build a topography of memory. According to a mnemotopic vision, Communication Design can support the passage from a memory in which the observer participates only as an individual to a collective form of memory. A mnemotopic form of Communication Design can, through geolocation and content map-based systems, make chronology a topography rooted in the territory and practicable; it can be useful to understand how the perception of the memory of places changes over time, considering how to insert them in the contemporary world. Mnemotopes can be materialized in different format of translation, editing and narration and then involved in complex systems of communication. The memory of places, therefore, if stabilized by the tools offered by Communication Design, can make visible ruins and territorial stratifications, illuminating them with new communicative interests that can be shared and participated.

Keywords: memory of places, design of communication, territory, mnemotope, topography of memory

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10302 Obstacles to Accessible Tourism for People with Mental, Physical and Mobility Disability: A Case Study of North Cyprus

Authors: Marjan Kamyabi

Abstract:

Attending tourism in the current century is one of the key factors in the success of the tourism industry and, consequently, the prosperity of the economies of the countries. In this regard, accessible tourism can play a major role in the development of tourism, taking into account the attractions, facilities and capabilities of the development of tourism in Northern Cyprus, and given that the satisfaction of tourists from the product and destination of tourism has an undeniable role in attracting tourists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental barriers and accessibility of the tourism industry in Northern Cyprus. Another goal of this study is to introduce this consumer group to the tourism community. In order to achieve the objectives of this paper, a questionnaire was designed and provided to three tourism professionals to assess the reliability, and then, among the 200 people with physical and mental disabilities who travelled to Cyprus, The data analysis was used as a confirmatory factor analysis method. The environmental barrier for tourists with disabilities is classified in three sections of transport, attractions and accommodation, each section being separately identified separately. In general, observance of the principles and standards of proper fitting in the main sectors of the tourism industry of Northern Cyprus in the situation The facilities and transportation were identified as the first problem and obstacle for the development of tourism for people with physical and mental disabilities and, finally, suggestions and solutions for the development of tourism for people with physical and physical disabilities were presented.

Keywords: accessible tourism, environmental barriers, tourism, people with disability, accessibility

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10301 Procedure for Recommendation of Archival Documents

Authors: Marlon J. Remedios, Maria T. Morell, Jesse D. Cano

Abstract:

Diffusion and accessibility of historical collections is one of the main objectives of the institutions that aim to safeguard archival documents (General Archives). Several countries have Web applications that try to make accessible and public the large number of documents that they guard. Each of these sites has a set of features in order to facilitate access, navigability, and search for information. Different sources of information include Recommender Systems as a way of customizing content. This paper aims at describing a process for the production of archival documents relevant to the user. To comply with this, the characteristics ruling archival description, elements and main techniques that establishes the design of Recommender Systems, a set of rules to follow, and how these rules operate and the way in which take advantage of the domain knowledge are discussed. Finally, relevant issues are discussed in the design of the proposed tests and the results obtained are shown.

Keywords: archival document, recommender system, procedure, information management

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10300 The Studies of the Impact of Biomimicry and Sustainability on Urban Design

Authors: Nourhane Mohamed El Haridi, Mostafa El Arabi, Zeyad El Sayad

Abstract:

Biomimicry is defined, by Benyus the natural sciences writer, as imitating or taking inspiration from nature’s forms and processes to solve human problems. Biomimicry is the conscious emulation of life’s genius. As the design community realizes the tremendous impact human constructions have on the world, environmental designers look to new approaches like biomimicry to advance sustainable design. Building leading the declaration made by biomimicry scientists that a full imitation of nature engages form, ecosystem, and process; this paper uses a logic approach to interpret human and environmental wholeness. Designers would benefit from both integrating social theory with environmental thinking and from combining their substantive skills with techniques for getting sustainable biomimic urban design. Integrating biomimicryʹs “Life’s Principles” into a built environment process model will make biomimicry more accessible and thus more widely accepted throughout the industry, and the sustainability of all species will benefit. The Biomimicry Guild hypothesizes the incorporation of these principles, called Lifeʹs Principles, increase the likelihood of sustainability for a respective design, and make it more likely that the design will have a greater impact on sustainability for future generations of all species as mentioned by Benyus in her book. This thesis utilizes Life’s Principles as a foundation for a design process model intended for application on built environment projects at various scales. This paper takes a look at the importance of the integration of biomimicry in urban design to get more sustainable cities and better life, by analyzing the principles of both sustainability and biomimicry, and applying these ideas on futuristic or existing cities to make a biomimic sustainable city more healthier and more conductive to life, and get a better biomimic urban design. A group of experts, architects, biologists, scientists, economists and ecologists should work together to face all the financial and designing difficulties, to have better solutions and good innovative ideas for biomimic sustainable urban design, it is not the only solution, but it is one of the best studies for a better future.

Keywords: biomimicry, built environment, sustainability, urban design

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10299 Environmental Impact of a New-Build Educational Building in England: Life-Cycle Assessment as a Method to Calculate Whole Life Carbon Emissions

Authors: Monkiz Khasreen

Abstract:

In the context of the global trend towards reducing new buildings carbon footprint, the design team is required to make early decisions that have a major influence on embodied and operational carbon. Sustainability strategies should be clear during early stages of building design process, as changes made later can be extremely costly. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) could be used as the vehicle to carry other tools and processes towards achieving the requested improvement. Although LCA is the ‘golden standard’ to evaluate buildings from 'cradle to grave', lack of details available on the concept design makes LCA very difficult, if not impossible, to be used as an estimation tool at early stages. Issues related to transparency and accessibility of information in the building industry are affecting the credibility of LCA studies. A verified database derived from LCA case studies is required to be accessible to researchers, design professionals, and decision makers in order to offer guidance on specific areas of significant impact. This database could be the build-up of data from multiple sources within a pool of research held in this context. One of the most important factors that affects the reliability of such data is the temporal factor as building materials, components, and systems are rapidly changing with the advancement of technology making production more efficient and less environmentally harmful. Recent LCA studies on different building functions, types, and structures are always needed to update databases derived from research and to form case bases for comparison studies. There is also a need to make these studies transparent and accessible to designers. The work in this paper sets out to address this need. This paper also presents life-cycle case study of a new-build educational building in England. The building utilised very current construction methods and technologies and is rated as BREEAM excellent. Carbon emissions of different life-cycle stages and different building materials and components were modelled. Scenario and sensitivity analyses were used to estimate the future of new educational buildings in England. The study attempts to form an indicator during the early design stages of similar buildings. Carbon dioxide emissions of this case study building, when normalised according to floor area, lie towards the lower end of the range of worldwide data reported in the literature. Sensitivity analysis shows that life cycle assessment results are highly sensitive to future assumptions made at the design stage, such as future changes in electricity generation structure over time, refurbishment processes and recycling. The analyses also prove that large savings in carbon dioxide emissions can result from very small changes at the design stage.

Keywords: architecture, building, carbon dioxide, construction, educational buildings, England, environmental impact, life-cycle assessment

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10298 Urban Accessibility of Historical Cities: The Venetian Case Study

Authors: Valeria Tatano, Francesca Guidolin, Francesca Peltrera

Abstract:

The preservation of historical Italian heritage, at the urban and architectural scale, has to consider restrictions and requirements connected with conservation issues and usability needs, which are often at odds with historical heritage preservation. Recent decades have been marked by the search for increased accessibility not only of public and private buildings, but to the whole historical city, also for people with disability. Moreover, in the last years the concepts of Smart City and Healthy City seek to improve accessibility both in terms of mobility (independent or assisted) and fruition of goods and services, also for historical cities. The principles of Inclusive Design have introduced new criteria for the improvement of public urban space, between current regulations and best practices. Moreover, they have contributed to transforming “special needs” into an opportunity of social innovation. These considerations find a field of research and analysis in the historical city of Venice, which is at the same time a site of UNESCO world heritage, a mass tourism destination bringing in visitors from all over the world and a city inhabited by an aging population. Due to its conformation, Venetian urban fabric is only partially accessible: about four thousand bridges divide thousands of islands, making it almost impossible to move independently. These urban characteristics and difficulties were the base, in the last 20 years, for several researches, experimentations and solutions with the aim of eliminating architectural barriers, in particular for the usability of bridges. The Venetian Municipality with the EBA Office and some external consultants realized several devices (e.g. the “stepped ramp” and the new accessible ramps for the Venice Marathon) that should determine an innovation for the city, passing from the use of mechanical replicable devices to specific architectural projects in order to guarantee autonomy in use. This paper intends to present the state-of-the-art in bridges accessibility, through an analysis based on Inclusive Design principles and on the current national and regional regulation. The purpose is to evaluate some possible strategies that could improve performances, between limits and possibilities of interventions. The aim of the research is to lay the foundations for the development of a strategic program for the City of Venice that could successfully bring together both conservation and improvement requirements.

Keywords: accessibility of historical cities, historical heritage preservation, inclusive design, technological and social innovation

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10297 E-Government Websites Accessibility for People with Disabilities (PWD): In Depth Evaluation of Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Reem AlKabbi, Hayat Ali, Mariam Yasser

Abstract:

Nowadays, eGovernment websites are becoming indispensable for public, business, personal efficiency or even improvement of livelihoods. Using these websites, citizens undertake number of tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. However, many of these websites are not accessible to all people' types including People with Disabilities (PWDs). Through Web Accessibility Guidelines, Web developers can develop Web applications that are accessible to PWDs. This research is to investigate the Accessibility of eGovernment websites in Kingdom of Bahrain. The accessibility was measured using Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and section 508. For the evaluation purpose, some automatic tools were used. Samples of 43 eGovernment websites were selected. The accessibility of the websites was analyzed by using several automatic evaluation tools such as Total Validator and Functional Accessibility Evaluator (FAE). The evaluation process revealed several errors according to the accessibility guidelines. This research provides few recommendations for further improvement of accessibility features of eGovernment websites based on the highlighted issues and key findings reported in this research.

Keywords: website accessibility, W3C, PWD, e-government

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10296 Generative Design Method for Cooled Additively Manufactured Gas Turbine Parts

Authors: Thomas Wimmer, Bernhard Weigand

Abstract:

The improvement of gas turbine efficiency is one of the main drivers of research and development in the gas turbine market. This has led to elevated gas turbine inlet temperatures beyond the melting point of the utilized materials. The turbine parts need to be actively cooled in order to withstand these harsh environments. However, the usage of compressor air as coolant decreases the overall gas turbine efficiency. Thus, coolant consumption needs to be minimized in order to gain the maximum advantage from higher turbine inlet temperatures. Therefore, sophisticated cooling designs for gas turbine parts aim to minimize coolant mass flow. New design space is accessible as additive manufacturing is maturing to industrial usage for the creation of hot gas flow path parts. By making use of this technology more efficient cooling schemes can be manufacture. In order to find such cooling schemes a generative design method is being developed. It generates cooling schemes randomly which adhere to a set of rules. These assure the sanity of the design. A huge amount of different cooling schemes are generated and implemented in a simulation environment where it is validated. Criteria for the fitness of the cooling schemes are coolant mass flow, maximum temperature and temperature gradients. This way the whole design space is sampled and a Pareto optimum front can be identified. This approach is applied to a flat plate, which resembles a simplified section of a hot gas flow path part. Realistic boundary conditions are applied and thermal barrier coating is accounted for in the simulation environment. The resulting cooling schemes are presented and compared to representative conventional cooling schemes. Further development of this method can give access to cooling schemes with an even better performance having higher complexity, which makes use of the available design space.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, cooling, gas turbine, heat transfer, heat transfer design, optimization

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10295 Static Test Pad for Solid Rocket Motors

Authors: Svanik Garg

Abstract:

Static Test Pads are stationary mechanisms that hold a solid rocket motor, measuring the different parameters of its operation including thrust and temperature to better calibrate it for launch. This paper outlines a specific STP designed to test high powered rocket motors with a thrust upwards of 4000N and limited to 6500N. The design includes a specific portable mechanism with cost an integral part of the design process to make it accessible to small scale rocket developers with limited resources. Using curved surfaces and an ergonomic design, the STP has a delicately engineered façade/case with a focus on stability and axial calibration of thrust. This paper describes the design, operation and working of the STP and its widescale uses given the growing market of aviation enthusiasts. Simulations on the CAD model in Fusion 360 provided promising results with a safety factor of 2 established and stress limited along with the load coefficient A PCB was also designed as part of the test pad design process to help obtain results, with visual output and various virtual terminals to collect data of different parameters. The circuitry was simulated using ‘proteus’ and a special virtual interface with auditory commands was also created for accessibility and wide-scale implementation. Along with this description of the design, the paper also emphasizes the design principle behind the STP including a description of its vertical orientation to maximize thrust accuracy along with a stable base to prevent micromovements. Given the rise of students and professionals alike building high powered rockets, the STP described in this paper is an appropriate option, with limited cost, portability, accuracy, and versatility. There are two types of STP’s vertical or horizontal, the one discussed in this paper is vertical to utilize the axial component of thrust.

Keywords: static test pad, rocket motor, thrust, load, circuit, avionics, drag

Procedia PDF Downloads 26