Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4879

Search results for: chlorophyll content

4879 Pre-Soaking Application of Salicylic Acid on Four Wheat Cultivars under Saline Concentrations

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

The effect of salinity (0-200 mMNaCl) on wheat growth (leaf and tiller numbers, and fresh and dry weights) underseed soaking (6 and 24 hs) insalicylic acid (SA) was investigated. The impact of salinity was less pronounced in salt tolerant cultivars (Sakha 93 and S24) than Paragon and S24. Chlorophyll content was increased as a response to salinity stress. It was raised in 100 mMNaCl more than 200 mMNaCl. The same trend was found in 24 hs soaking, except chlorophyll content in Paragon and S24 under 200 mMNaCl was more than 100 mMNaCl. SA application induced a positive effect on growth parameters in some cultivars, particularly Paragon under saline and non-saline condition. Soaking for 6 hs was more effective than 24 hs soaking, especially in Paragon and Sakha 93. SA supply caused a slight effect on chlorophyll content but this was not significant and there was no significant difference between both soaking hs. The effect of SA on growth parameters and chlorophyll content depends on cultivar genotype and SA concentration.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth parameters, chlorophyll content, wheat cultivars

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
4878 Role of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants in Chlorophyll A and B Content

Authors: F. Garousi, S. Veres, É. Bódi, S. Várallyay, B. Kovács

Abstract:

Extracting and determining chlorophyll pigments (chlorophyll a and b) in green leaves are the procedures based on the solvent extraction of pigments in samples using N,N-dimethylformamide as the extractant. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (Se( IV)) and selenate (Se( VI)) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of chlorophyll a and b for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of Se( IV) and Se( VI) were not effective on maize plants’ chlorophyll a and b significantly although high level of 3 mg.kg-1 Se( IV) had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about Se( VI) samples we did not observe this state and our different considered Se( VI) concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: maize, sodium selenate, sodium selenite, chlorophyll a and b

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4877 Chemometric Estimation of Phytochemicals Affecting the Antioxidant Potential of Lettuce

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Aleksandra Tepic-Horecki, Zdravko Sumic

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of six different phytochemical content (phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a + b and vitamin C) on antioxidant potential of Murai and Levistro lettuce varieties was evaluated. Variable selection was made by generalized pair correlation method (GPCM) as a novel ranking method. This method is used for the discrimination between two variables that almost equal correlate to a dependent variable. Fisher’s conditional exact and McNemar’s test were carried out. Established multiple linear (MLR) models were statistically evaluated. As the best phytochemicals for the antioxidant potential prediction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a + b and total carotenoids content stand out. This was confirmed through both GPCM and MLR, predictive ability of obtained MLR can be used for antioxidant potential estimation for similar lettuce samples. This article is based upon work from the project of the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina (No. 114-451-347/2015-02).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, generalized pair correlation method, lettuce, regression analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
4876 Growth and Biochemical Composition of Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. under Varied Growth Conditions

Authors: M. Alsull

Abstract:

In this study, Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia, and cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions (temperature, light and nitrogen limitation and starvation). Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipids content and total carbohydrates content were estimated at mid-exponential growth phase. Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. showed remarkably decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when maintained under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions, as well as when grown under 12:12 h light, dark regime conditions. Chlorella sp. showed ability to counter the fluctuation in temperature with no significant effects on the measured parameters; in contrast, Tetraselmis sp. showed a decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when grown under 15±1˚C temperature. Cultures maintained under nitrogen full concentration, and 24 h light regime showed decrease in total lipids content, compared with 12:12 h light, dark cycle regime, in the two tested species.

Keywords: microalgae, biochemical composition, temperature, light, nitrogen limitation

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4875 The Combined Influences of Salinity, Light and Nitrogen Limitation on the Growth and Biochemical Composition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., Isolated from Penang National Park Coastal Waters, Malaysia

Authors: Mohamed M. Alsull

Abstract:

In the present study, two microalgae species “Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp.” isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia; were cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions “salinity, light, nitrogen limitation and starvation”. Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipid and protein contents, were estimated at mid exponential growth phase. Both Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. showed remarkable decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and protein content companied with increase in lipid content under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions. Maintaining Nannochloropsis sp. under salinity 15‰ caused only significant decrease in total protein content; while Tetraselmis sp. grown at the same salinity caused decrease in the growth rate, chlorophyll a, dry weight and total protein content only when nitrogen was available.

Keywords: biochemical composition, light, microalgae, nitrogen limitation, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
4874 Relationship between Chlorophyl Content and Calculated Index Values of Citrus Trees

Authors: Namik Kemal Sonmez

Abstract:

Based passive remote sensing technologies have been widely used in many plant species. However, use of these techniques in orange trees is limited. In this study, the relationships between chlorophyll content (Chl) and calculated red edge (RE) and vegetation index values of the citrus leave at different growth stages were formed the basis for the analysis. Canopy reflectance by hand-held spectroradiometer and total Chl analysis at the lab were measured simultaneously, from the random samples taken from four different parts of an orange orchard. Plant materials consisted of four different age groups of 15, 20, 25, and 30 years old orange trees. Reflectance measurements were conducted between 450 and 900 nanometer (nm) wavelength at four different bands (3 visible bands and 1 near-infrared band) at the four basic physiological periods (flowering, fruit setting, fruit maturity, and dormancy) of orange trees. According to the statistical analysis conducted, there was a strong relationship between the chlorophyll content and calculated indexes (p ≤ 0.01; R²= 0.925 at red edge and R²= 0.986 at vegetation index) at the fruit setting stage of 20 years old trees. Again at this stage, fruit setting, total Chl content values among all orange trees were significantly correlated at the RE and VI with the R² values of 0.672 and 0.635 at the 0.001 level, respectively. This indicated that the relationships between Chl content and index values were very strong at this stage, in comparison to the other stages.

Keywords: spectroradiometer, citrus, chlorophyll, reflectance, index

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
4873 Artificial Neural Network and Satellite Derived Chlorophyll Indices for Estimation of Wheat Chlorophyll Content under Rainfed Condition

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Tahir, Wang Yingkuan, Huang Wenjiang, Raheel Osman

Abstract:

Numerous models used in prediction and decision-making process but most of them are linear in natural environment, and linear models reach their limitations with non-linearity in data. Therefore accurate estimation is difficult. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) found extensive acceptance to address the modeling of the complex real world for the non-linear environment. ANN’s have more general and flexible functional forms than traditional statistical methods can effectively deal with. The link between information technology and agriculture will become more firm in the near future. Monitoring crop biophysical properties non-destructively can provide a rapid and accurate understanding of its response to various environmental influences. Crop chlorophyll content is an important indicator of crop health and therefore the estimation of crop yield. In recent years, remote sensing has been accepted as a robust tool for site-specific management by detecting crop parameters at both local and large scales. The present research combined the ANN model with satellite-derived chlorophyll indices from LANDSAT 8 imagery for predicting real-time wheat chlorophyll estimation. The cloud-free scenes of LANDSAT 8 were acquired (Feb-March 2016-17) at the same time when ground-truthing campaign was performed for chlorophyll estimation by using SPAD-502. Different vegetation indices were derived from LANDSAT 8 imagery using ERADAS Imagine (v.2014) software for chlorophyll determination. The vegetation indices were including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio Index (CARI), Modified Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio Index (MCARI) and Transformed Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio index (TCARI). For ANN modeling, MATLAB and SPSS (ANN) tools were used. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) in MATLAB provided very satisfactory results. For training purpose of MLP 61.7% of the data, for validation purpose 28.3% of data and rest 10% of data were used to evaluate and validate the ANN model results. For error evaluation, sum of squares error and relative error were used. ANN model summery showed that sum of squares error of 10.786, the average overall relative error was .099. The MCARI and NDVI were revealed to be more sensitive indices for assessing wheat chlorophyll content with the highest coefficient of determination R²=0.93 and 0.90 respectively. The results suggested that use of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for the retrieval of crop chlorophyll content by using ANN model provides accurate, reliable assessment of crop health status at a larger scale which can help in managing crop nutrition requirement in real time.

Keywords: ANN, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll indices, satellite images, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
4872 Comparison of Chlorophyll Contents in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Runner Bean (P. coccineous L.) Genotypes

Authors: Huseyin Canci

Abstract:

Chlorophylls are green photosynthetic pigment in plants. Therefore, photosynthesis in plants occurs in the leaves. Roles of chlorophylls help plants to get energy from light. The aim of the present study is to compare of chlorophyll contents in some bean species including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner bean (P. coccineous L.) and genotypes. This research was carried out in fields of Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University in Antalya. Species and genotypes were grown in 2 m single row and 50 cm row spacing. A randomized blocks design was used with two replications. Totally, 124 beans species and genotypes which 122 common beans and 2 runner beans were sown on February, 17th 2014 by hand. Chlorophyll a + b (SPAD values) were determined seedling stage, days to flowering 50% and pod setting stage on bean genotypes. Results showed that there were significant differences for genotypes, stages and interaction of genotypes X stages. There was statistically significant relationships between yield and chlorophyll content of bean species and genotypes.

Keywords: bean, chlorophyll, Phaseolus, SPAD values

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
4871 Responses of Trifolium pratense to Lead Accumulation Under In-Vitro Culture Conditions

Authors: Arash Khorasani Esmaeili, Rosna Mat Taha, Sadegh Mohajer

Abstract:

Seeds of Trifolium pratense (Red clover) were exposed in vitro for 6 weeks to six levels of lead (Pb) concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 µM) to analyze the effects on growth, total chlorophyll and total protein contents of grown plants against the lead accumulation. The growth of plants was negatively affected by various levels of lead treatment. The fresh and dry weights, as well as lengths of shoots and roots of grown plants under various lead treatments, were found significantly lower in comparison with the control plants. Total chlorophyll and total soluble protein contents of grown plants under lower concentrations of lead treatment did not show significant differences when compared with the control plants, although they were affected significantly in higher levels of lead accumulation (150-250 µM).

Keywords: trifolium pratense, lead accumulation, chlorophyll content, protein content

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
4870 Dependence of Free Fatty Acid and Chlorophyll Content on Thermal Stability of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

Authors: Yongjun Ahn, Sung Gyu Choi, Seung-Yeop Kwak

Abstract:

Selective removal of free fatty acid (FFA) and chlorophyll in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is necessary to enhance the thermal stability in the condition of the deep frying. In this work, we demonstrated improving the thermal stability of EVOO by selective removal of free fatty acid and chlorophyll using (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS) functionalized mesoporous silica with controlled pore size. The adsorption kinetics of free fatty acid and chlorophyll into the mesoporous silica were quantitatively analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir model. The highest chlorophyll adsorption efficiency was shown in the pore size at 5 nm, suggesting that the interaction between the silica and the chlorophyll could be optimized at this point. The amino-functionalized mesoporous silica showed drastically improved removal efficiency of FFA than the bare silica. Moreover, beneficial compounds like tocopherol and phenolic compounds maintained even after adsorptive removal. Extra virgin olive oil treated by aminopropyl-functionalized silica had a smoke point high enough to be used as commercial frying oil. Based on these results, it is expected to attract the considerable amount of interest toward facile adsorptive refining process of EVOO using pore size controlled and amino-functionalized mesoporous silica.

Keywords: mesoporous silica, extra virgin olive oil, selective adsorption, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
4869 Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth and Chemical Composition

Authors: Najafi S., Heidai R., Jamei R., Tofigh F.

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: carotenoid, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, DPPH, enzymes, flavonoid, germination, growth, phenol, proline, protein, magnetic field, phaseolus vulgaris

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
4868 Magnetic Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth, and Chemical Composition

Authors: Farzad Tofigh, Saeideh Najafi, Reza Heidari, Rashid Jamei

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: carotenoid, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, DPPH, enzymes, flavonoid, germination, growth, phenol, proline, protein, magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
4867 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Microbes and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Wheat Growth in the Saline Soil

Authors: Ahmed Elgharably, Nivien Nafady

Abstract:

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) can promote plant growth under saline conditions. This study investigated how AMF and PGPM affected the growth and grain yield of wheat at different soil salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl). AMF colonization percentage, grain yield and dry weights and lengths of shoot and root, N, P K, Na, malondialdehyde, chlorophyll and proline contents and shoot relative permeability were determined. Salinity reduced NPK uptake and malondialdehyde and chlorophyll contents, and increased shoot Na concentration, relative permeability, and proline content, and thus declined plant growth. PGPM inoculation enhanced AMF colonization, P uptake, and K/Na ratio, but alone had no significant effect on plant growth and grain yield. AMF inoculation significantly enhanced NPK uptake, increased chlorophyll content and decreased shoot relative permeability, proline and Na contents, and thus promoted the plant growth. The inoculation of PGPM significantly enhanced the positive effects of AMF in controlling Na uptake and in increasing chlorophyll and NPK contents. Compared to AMF inoculation alone, dual inoculation with AMF and PGPM resulted in approximately 10, 25 and 25% higher grain yield at 0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl, respectively. The results provide that PGPM inoculation can maximize the effects of AMF inoculation in alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl salts on wheat growth.

Keywords: mycorrhizal fungi, salinity, sodium, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
4866 Antioxidant Activity of Chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus Leaves in Female Mice Induced Sodium Nitrite

Authors: Suparmi, Sampurna

Abstract:

Sodium nitrite which is widespread used as a color fixative and preservative in foods can increase oxidative stress and cause hemolytic anemia. Consumption of food supplement containing sufficient antioxidant, e.g. chlorophyll, reported can decrease these negative effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus leaves on Malodialdehide (MDA) and ferritin level. Experimental research with post-test only control group design was conducted using 24 female mice strain Balb-c. Sodium nitrite 0.3 ml/head/day given during 18 days, while the chlorophyll or Cu-chlorophyllin as much as 0.7 ml/head/day given the following day for 14 days. The mean of MDA levels of blood plasma in the control group, NaNO2 induction, induction NaNO2 and chlorophyll of S. androgynus leaves, induction of NaNO2 and Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liquid in sequence is 2.10±0.11mol/L, 3.44±0.38 mol/L, 2.31±0.18 mol/L, 2.31±0.13 mol/L, whilst the ferritin levels mean in each group is 62.71±6.42 ng/ml; 63.22±7.59 ng/ml; 67.45±8.03 ng/ml, and 64.74±7.80 ng/ml, respectively. Results of Mann Whitney test found no significant difference in MDA levels (p>0.05), while the One-Way Anova test result found no significant difference in ferritin levels between the groups of mice that received S. androgynus chlorophyll with a group of mice that received Cu-chlorophyllin after induction NaNO2 (p>0.05). This indicates that chlorophyll from S. androgynus leaves as effective as Cu-chlorophyllin in decrease of MDA levels and increase of ferritin levels. Chlorophyll from S. androgynus are potential as food supplement in anemic conditions caused by sodium nitrite consumptions.

Keywords: ferritin, MDA, chlorophyll, sodium nitrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
4865 Influence of Sulphur and Boron on Growth, Quality Parameters and Productivity of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill)

Authors: Shital Bangar, G. B. Khandagale

Abstract:

The experimentation was carried out to study the influence of sulphur and boron on growth parameters and productivity of soybean in kharif season of 2009-2010 at Experimental Farm, Department of Agricultural Botany, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani (M.S.). The object was to evaluate the impact of sulphur and boron on growth, development, grain yield and physiological aspects of soybean variety MAUS-81. Nine treatments consisted of three levels of sulphur i.e. 20, 30 and 40 Kg/ha as well as three levels boron i.e.10, 15 and 20 kg boron/ha and the combinations of these two mineral elements i.e. Sulphur @30 kg/ha + Borax @15 kg/ha and Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha with one control treatment in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The effect of sulphur and boron on various growth parameters of soybean like relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were remained statistically on par with each other. However, the application of higher dose of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha enhanced significantly all the growth parameters. Application of the nutrients increased the dry matter accumulation of the crop plant and hence, other growth indices like RGR and NAR also increased significantly. RGR and NAR values were recorded highest at the initial crop growth stages and decline thereafter. The application of sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha recorded significantly higher content of chlorophyll ‘a’ than rest of the treatments and chlorophyll ‘b’ observed higher in boron @15 kg/ha as well as [email protected] kg/ha, whereas total chlorophyll content was maximum in sulphur @40 kg/ha. Oil content was not influenced significantly due to above fertilization. The highest seed yield and total biological yield were obtained with combination of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha, single sulphur and boron application also showed a significant effect on seed and biological yield.

Keywords: boron, growth, productivity, quality, soybean and sulphur

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4864 Salt-Induced Modulation in Biomass Production, Pigment Concentration, Ion Accumulation, Antioxidant System and Yield in Pea Plant

Authors: S. Noreen, S. Ahmad

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the most important environmental factors that limit the production of crop plants to the greatest proportion than any other ones. Salt-induced changes in growth, pigment concentration, water status, malondialdehydes (MDA) and H₂O₂ content, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na⁺, K⁺ content and yield attributes were examined in the glasshouse on ten pea (Pisum Sativum L.) accessions, namely ‘13240’, ‘18302’, ‘19666’, ‘19700’, ‘19776’, ‘19785’, ‘19788’, ‘20153’, ‘20155’, ‘26719’ were subjected to non-stress (0 mM NaCl) and salt stress (100 mM and150 mM NaCl) in pots containing sand medium. The results showed that salt stress at level150 mM substantially reduced biomass production, leaf water status, pigment concentration (chlorophyll ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘carotenoid content’ total chlorophyll), K⁺ content, quantum yield and yield attributes as compared to plants treated with 100 mM NaCl. Antioxidant enzymes, Catalase (CAT), Peroxidase (POD), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), proline content, total soluble protein, total amino acids, Malondialdehyde content (MDA), Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content and Na⁺ uptake markedly enhanced due to the influence of salt stress. On the basis of analyses (expressed as percent of control), of 10 accessions of pea plant, two were ranked as salt tolerant namely (‘19666’, ‘20153’), four were moderately tolerant namely (‘19700’, ‘19776’, ‘19785’, ‘20155’), and three were salt sensitive namely (‘13240’, ‘18302’, ‘26719’) at 150 mM NaCl level.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, ion uptake, pigment concentration, salt stress, yield attributes

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
4863 Band Characterization and Development of Hyperspectral Indices for Retrieving Chlorophyll Content

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur M. Malhi, Prashant K. Srivastava, G.Sandhya Kiran

Abstract:

Quantitative estimates of foliar biochemicals, namely chlorophyll content (CC), serve as key information for the assessment of plant productivity, stress, and the availability of nutrients. This also plays a critical role in predicting the dynamic response of any vegetation to altering climate conditions. The advent of hyperspectral data with an enhanced number of available wavelengths has increased the possibility of acquiring improved information on CC. Retrieval of CC is extensively carried through well known spectral indices derived from hyperspectral data. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop hyperspectral indices by identifying optimum bands for CC estimation in Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub growing in forests of Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Narmada district, Gujarat State, India. 196 narrow bands of EO-1 Hyperion images were screened, and the best optimum wavelength from blue, green, red, and near infrared (NIR) regions were identified based on the coefficient of determination (R²) between band reflectance and laboratory estimated CC. The identified optimum wavelengths were then employed for developing 12 hyperspectral indices. These spectral index values and CC values were then correlated to investigate the relation between laboratory measured CC and spectral indices. Band 15 of blue range and Band 22 of green range, Band 40 of the red region, and Band 79 of NIR region were found to be optimum bands for estimating CC. The optimum band based combinations on hyperspectral data proved to be the most effective indices for quantifying Butea CC with NDVI and TVI identified as the best (R² > 0.7, p < 0.01). The study demonstrated the significance of band characterization in the development of the best hyperspectral indices for the chlorophyll estimation, which can aid in monitoring the vitality of forests.

Keywords: band, characterization, chlorophyll, hyperspectral, indices

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4862 The Effect of Temperature and Salinity on the Growth and Carotenogenesis of Three Dunaliella Species (Dunaliella sp. Lake Isolate, D. salina CCAP 19/18, and D. bardawil LB 2538) Cultivated under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Imen Hamed, Burcu Ak, Oya Işık, Leyla Uslu, Kubilay Kazım Vursavuş

Abstract:

In this study, 3 species of Dunaliella (Dunaliella sp. Salt Lake isoalte (Tuz Gölü), Dunaliella salina CCAP19/18, and Dunaliella bardawil LB 2538) and their optical density, dry matter, chlorophyll a, total carotenoids, and β-carotene production were investigated in a batch system. The aim of this research was to compare carotenoids, and β-carotene production were investigated in a batch those 3 species. Therefore 2 stress factors were used: 2 different temperatures (20°C and 30°C) and 2 different salinities (30‰, and 60‰) were tested over a 17-day study. The highest growth and chlorophyll a was reported for Dunaliella sp. under 20°C/30‰ and 20°C/60‰ conditions respectively followed by D. bardawil and D. salina. Significant differences were noticed (p<0.05) for the other 3 species. The growth decreased as temperature and salinity increased since the lowest growth was noticed for the 30°C/60‰ group. The chlorophyll a content decreased also as temperature increased however when the NaCl concentration increased an augmentation of the content was noticed . In the 17th day of experiment the highest carotenoids concentration was reported for D. bardawil 20°C/30‰ (65,639±0,400 μg.mL1) and the most important β carotene concentration was for D. salina 20°C/60‰ (8,98E-07±0,013 mol/L).

Keywords: Dunaliella sp., Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella bardawil, growth, pigments, stress factors

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4861 Efficacy of Pisum sativum and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metalloids from Soil

Authors: Ritu Chaturvedi, Manoj Paul

Abstract:

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) on metal(loid) uptake and accumulation efficiency of Pisum sativum along with physiological and biochemical response. Plants were grown in soil spiked with 50 and 100 mg kg-1 Pb, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 Cd, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 As and a combination of all three metal(loid)s. A parallel set was maintained and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for comparison. After 60 days, plants were harvested and analysed for metal(loid) content. A steady increase in metal(loid) accumulation was observed on increment of metal(loid) dose and also on AMF inoculation. Plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoid and carbohydrate content reduced upon metal(loid) exposure. Increase in enzymatic (CAT, SOD and APX) and nonenzymatic (Proline) defence proteins was observed on metal(loid) exposure. AMF inoculation leads to an increase in plant height, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrate and enzymatic defence proteins (p≤0.001) under study; whereas proline content was reduced. Considering the accumulation efficiency and adaptive response of plants and alleviation of stress by AMF, this symbiosis can be applied for on-site remediation of Pb and Cd contaminated soil.

Keywords: heavy metal, mycorrhiza, pea, phyroremediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
4860 Effect of Fiddler Crab Burrows on Bacterial Communities of Mangrove Sediments

Authors: Mohammad Mokhtari, Gires Usup, Zaidi Che Cob

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Bacteria communities as mediators of the biogeochemical process are the main component of the mangrove ecosystems. Crab burrows by increasing oxic-anoxic interfaces and facilitating the flux rate between sediment and tidal water affect biogeochemical properties of sediments. The effect of fiddler crab burrows on the density and diversity of bacteria were investigated to elucidate the effect of burrow on bacterial distribution. Samples collected from the burrow walls of three species of fiddler crabs including Uca paradussumieri, Uca rosea, and Uca forcipata. Sediment properties including grain size, temperature, Redox potential, pH, chlorophyll, water and organic content were measured from the burrow walls to assess the correlation between environmental variables and bacterial communities. Bacteria were enumerated with epifluorescence microscopy after staining with SYBR green. Bacterial DNA extracted from sediment samples and the community profiles of bacteria were determined with Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). High endemism was observed among bacterial communities. Among the 152 observed OTU’s, 22 were found only in crab burrows. The highest bacterial density and diversity were recorded in burrow wall. The results of ANOSIM indicated a significant difference between the bacterial communities from the three species of fiddler crab burrows. Only 3% of explained bacteria variability in the constrained ordination model of CCA was contributed to depth, while much of the bacteria’s variability was attributed to coarse sand, pH, and chlorophyll content. Our findings suggest that crab burrows by affecting sediment properties such as redox potential, pH, water, and chlorophyll content induce significant effects on the bacterial communities.

Keywords: bioturbation, canonical corresponding analysis, fiddler crab, microbial ecology

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4859 Satellite Statistical Data Approach for Upwelling Identification and Prediction in South of East Java and Bali Sea

Authors: Hary Aprianto Wijaya Siahaan, Bayu Edo Pratama

Abstract:

Sea fishery's potential to become one of the nation's assets which very contributed to Indonesia's economy. This fishery potential not in spite of the availability of the chlorophyll in the territorial waters of Indonesia. The research was conducted using three methods, namely: statistics, comparative and analytical. The data used include MODIS sea temperature data imaging results in Aqua satellite with a resolution of 4 km in 2002-2015, MODIS data of chlorophyll-a imaging results in Aqua satellite with a resolution of 4 km in 2002-2015, and Imaging results data ASCAT on MetOp and NOAA satellites with 27 km resolution in 2002-2015. The results of the processing of the data show that the incidence of upwelling in the south of East Java Sea began to happen in June identified with sea surface temperature anomaly below normal, the mass of the air that moves from the East to the West, and chlorophyll-a concentrations are high. In July the region upwelling events are increasingly expanding towards the West and reached its peak in August. Chlorophyll-a concentration prediction using multiple linear regression equations demonstrate excellent results to chlorophyll-a concentrations prediction in 2002 until 2015 with the correlation of predicted chlorophyll-a concentration indicate a value of 0.8 and 0.3 with RMSE value. On the chlorophyll-a concentration prediction in 2016 indicate good results despite a decline in the value of the correlation, where the correlation of predicted chlorophyll-a concentration in the year 2016 indicate a value 0.6, but showed improvement in RMSE values with 0.2.

Keywords: satellite, sea surface temperature, upwelling, wind stress

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4858 Enhancement of Biomass and Bioactive Compounds in Kale Subjected to UV-A LED Lights

Authors: Jin-Hui Lee, Myung-Min Oh

Abstract:

The application of temporary abiotic stresses before crop harvest is a potential strategy to enhance phytochemical content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various UV-A LED lights on the growth and content of bioactive compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Fourteen-day-old kale seedlings were cultivated in a plant factory with artificial lighting (air temperature of 20℃, relative humidity of 60%, photosynthesis photon flux density (PPFD) of 125 µmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹) for 3 weeks. Kale plants were irradiated by four types of UV-A LEDs (peak wavelength; 365, 375, 385, and 395 nm) with 30 W/m² for 7 days. As a result, image chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) value of kale leaves was lower as the UV-A LEDs peak wavelength was shorter. Fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots of kale plants were significantly higher in the plants under UV-A than the control at 7 days of treatment. In particular, the growth was significantly increased with a longer peak wavelength of the UV-A LEDs. The results of leaf area and specific leaf weight showed a similar pattern with those of growth characteristics. Chlorophyll content was highest in kale leaves subjected to UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 3 days of treatment compared with the control. Total phenolic contents of UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 5 and 6 days of treatment were 44% and 47% higher than those of the control, respectively. Antioxidant capacity showed almost the same pattern as the results of total phenol content. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was approximately 11% and 8% higher in the UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm compared to the control at 5 and 6 days of treatment, respectively. Our results imply that the UV-A LEDs with relative longer peak wavelength were effective to improve growth as well as the content of bioactive compounds of kale plants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, growth, Kale, UV-A LEDs

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4857 Influence of Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Sludge Vermicompost on Plant Growth

Authors: Meiyan Xing, Cenran Li, Liang Xiang

Abstract:

Impacts of excess sludge vermicompost on the germination and early growth of plant were tested. The better effect of cow dung vermicompost (CV) on seed germination and seedling growth proved that cow dung was indeed the preferred additive in sludge vermicomposting as reported by plentiful researchers worldwide. The effects and the best amount of application of CV were further discussed. Results demonstrated that seed germination and seedling growth (seedlings number, plant height, stem diameter) were the best and heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cr and As) contents of plant were the lowest when soil amended with CV by 15%. Additionally, CV fostered higher contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b compared to the control when concentration ranged from 5 to 15%, thereafter a slight increase in chlorophyll content was observed form 15% to 25%. Thus, CV at the optimum proportion of 15% could serve as a feasible and satisfactory way of sludge agricultural utilization of sewage sludge. In summary, sewage sludge can be gainfully utilized in producing organic fertilizer via vermicomposting, thereby not only providing a means of sewage sludge treatment and disposal, but also stimulating the growth of plant and the ability to resist disease.

Keywords: cow dung vermicompost, seed germination, seedling growth, sludge utilization

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4856 Improvement in Drought Stress Tolerance in Wheat by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: Seema Sangwan, Ekta Narwal, Kannepalli Annapurna

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on drought stress tolerance in 3 genotypes of wheat subjected to moderate water stress, i.e. HD 3043 (drought tolerant), HD 2987 (drought tolerant), and HD 2967 (drought sensitive). Various growth parameters were studied, e.g. total dry weight, total shoot and root length, root volume, root surface area, grain weight and number, leaf area, chlorophyll content in leaves, relative water content, number of spores and percent colonisation of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Total dry weight, root surface area and chlorophyll content were found to be significantly high in AMF inoculated plants as compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones and also higher in drought-tolerant varieties of wheat as compared to the sensitive variety HD 2967, in moderate water stress treatments. Leakage of electrolytes was lower in case of AMF inoculated stressed plants. Under continuous water stress, leaf water content and leaf area were significantly increased in AMF inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated stressed plants. Overall, the increased colonisation of roots of wheat by AMF in inoculated plants weather drought tolerant or sensitive could have a beneficial effect in alleviating the harmful effects of water stress in wheat and delaying its senescence.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, wheat, drought, stress

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4855 Improving the Growth, Biochemical Parameters and Content and Composition of Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L. through Soil-Applied N, P, and K

Authors: Bilal Bhat, M. Masroor A. Khan, Moin Uddin, M. Naeem

Abstract:

Aromatic herb, peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), is a natural hybrid (M. aquatica × M. spicata) with immense therapeutic uses, apart from other potential uses. Peppermint oil is one of the most popular and widely used essential oil (EO), because of its main components menthol and menthone. In view of enhancing growth, yield and quality of this medicinally important herb, a pot experiment was conducted in the net-house of the department. The experiment was aimed at studying the effect of graded levels of N, P, and K on growth, biochemical characteristics, and content and composition of EO in Mentha piperita L. Six NPK treatments (viz. N0P0K0, N20P20K20, N40P40K40, N20+20 P20+20 K20+20, N60P60K60, and N30+30 P30+30 K30+30) were tested. The plants were harvested 150 days after transplanting. The crop performance was assessed in terms of growth attributes, physiological activities, herbage yield and content as well as yield of active constituents of Mentha piperita L. Biochemical parameters were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The EO was extracted using Clevenger’s apparatus and the active constituents of the oil were determined using Gas Chromatography. Split-dose application of N, P and K (N30+30 P30+30 K30+30) ameliorated most of the parameters significantly including, fresh and dry weight of plant, NPK content, chlorophyll and carotenoids content, and the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase in the leaves. It also enhanced the EO content (44.0%), EO yield (91.0%), menthol content (14.1%), menthone content (34.0%), menthyl acetate content (16.9%) and 1, 8-cineole content (43.7%) but decreased the pulegone content (36.8%). Conclusively, the fertilization proved useful in enhancing the EO content, yield and other EO components of the plant. Thus, the yield and quality of EO of peppermint may be improved by this agricultural strategy.

Keywords: mentha piperita, menthol, menthone, EO

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4854 Urban Dust Influence on the Foliar Surface and Biochemical Constituents of Selected Plants in the National Capital Region of Delhi, India

Authors: G. P. Gupta, B. Kumar, S. Singh, U. C. Kulshrestha

Abstract:

Very high loadings of atmospheric dust in the Indian region contribute to remarkably higher levels of particulate matter. During dry weather conditions which prevail most of the year, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces affecting their morphology, stomata and biochemical constituents. This study reports chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of two medicinal plants i.e. Morus (Morus alba) and Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) in the urban environment of National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi at two sites i.e. Jawaharlal Nehru University (residential) and Sahibabad (industrial). Atmospheric dust was characterized for major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--) and cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg++, Ca++) along with the biochemical parameters Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total soluble sugar, relative water content (RWC), pH, and ascorbic acid. The results showed that the concentrations of major ions in dustfall were higher at the industrial site as compared to the residential site due to the higher level of anthropogenic activities. Both the plant species grown at industrial site had significantly lower values of chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’, total chlorophyll, carotenoid but relatively higher values of total soluble sugar and ascorbic acid indicating stressful conditions due to industrial and vehicular emissions.

Keywords: dustfall, urban environment, biochemical constituents, atmospheric dust

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4853 Effects of Nitrogen and Arsenic on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Photosynthetic Pigments in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Mostafa Heidari

Abstract:

Nitrogen fertilization has played a significant role in increasing crop yield, and solving problems of hunger and malnutrition worldwide. However, excessive of heavy metals such as arsenic can interfere on growth and reduced grain yield. In order to investigate the effects of different concentrations of arsenic and nitrogen fertilizer on photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzyme activities in safflower (cv. Goldasht), a factorial plot experiment as randomized complete block design with three replication was conducted in university of Zabol. Arsenic treatment included: A1= control or 0, A2=30, A3=60 and A4=90 mg. kg-1 soil from the Na2HASO4 source and three nitrogen levels including W1=75, W2=150 and W3=225 kg.ha-1 from urea source. Results showed that, arsenic had a significant effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. By increasing arsenic levels from A1 to A4, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gayacol peroxidase (GPX) increased and catalase (CAT) was decreased. In this study, arsenic had no significant on chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid content. Nitrogen and interaction between arsenic and nitrogen treatment, except APX, had significant effect on CAT and GPX. The highest GPX activity was obtained at A4N3 treatment. Nitrogen increased the content of chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid.

Keywords: arsenic, physiological parameters, oxidative enzymes, nitrogen

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4852 Influence of Salicylic Acid on Yield and Some Physiological Parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Authors: Farid Shekari

Abstract:

Salicylic Acid (SA) is a plant hormone that improves some physiological responses of plants under stress conditions. Seeds of two desi type chickpea cultivars, viz., Kaka and Pirooz, primed with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μM of SA and a group of seeds without any treating (as control) were evaluated under rain fed conditions. Seed priming in both cultivars led to higher efficiency compare to non-primed treatments. In general, seed priming with 500 and 750 μM of SA had appropriate effects; however the cultivars responses were different in this regard. Kaka showed better performance both in primed and non-primed seed than Pirooz. Results of this study revealed that not only yield quantity but also yield quality, as seed protein amounts, could positively affect by SA treatments. It seems that SA by enhancing of soluble sugars and proline amounts enhanced total water potential (ψ) and RWC. The increment in RWC led to rose of chlorophyll content of plants chlorophyll stability. In general, SA increased water use efficiency, both in biologic and seed yield base, and drought tolerance of chickpea plants. HI was a little decreased in SA treatments and it shows that SA more effective in biomass production than seed yield.

Keywords: chlorophyll, harvest index, proline, seed protein, soluble sugar, water use efficiency, yield component

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4851 Growth of Nitella in Response to Cesium Exposure: Implication for Phytoremediation

Authors: Harun Rashid, Keerthi S. S. Atapaththu, Takashi Asaeda

Abstract:

Cesium (Cs) induced growth and stress response of Nitella were studied after exposure to four concentration of the metal; i.e. 0 (control), 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm Cs in growth media. Each treatment with three replicates were randomly allocated to 12 glass beakers in a complete randomize design and the experiment was continued for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, shoot length, cesium content, total chlorophyll, and plant stress response were compared. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities (peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbic peroxidase) and the concentration of H2O2 were measured to check plant stress. The longest shoot was found in control treatment (0 ppm Cs) and the shoot length of plants exposed to 0.001 ppm was statistically similar to that of control. Concentration of cesium in plants grown at 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm were significantly higher than those in control treatments. The antioxidant enzymes activities of plants exposed to cesium were significantly higher than those grown without any Cs (control). An elevated level of H2O2 concentration was also observed in former groups of plants. Further, the reduction in chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence in response to cesium exposure indicated the chronically damaged photosynthetic efficiency in cesium stressed Nitella.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, cesium, growth, Nitella, oxidative stress

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4850 Plot Scale Estimation of Crop Biophysical Parameters from High Resolution Satellite Imagery

Authors: Shreedevi Moharana, Subashisa Dutta

Abstract:

The present study focuses on the estimation of crop biophysical parameters like crop chlorophyll, nitrogen and water stress at plot scale in the crop fields. To achieve these, we have used high-resolution satellite LISS IV imagery. A new methodology has proposed in this research work, the spectral shape function of paddy crop is employed to get the significant wavelengths sensitive to paddy crop parameters. From the shape functions, regression index models were established for the critical wavelength with minimum and maximum wavelengths of multi-spectrum high-resolution LISS IV data. Moreover, the functional relationships were utilized to develop the index models. From these index models crop, biophysical parameters were estimated and mapped from LISS IV imagery at plot scale in crop field level. The result showed that the nitrogen content of the paddy crop varied from 2-8%, chlorophyll from 1.5-9% and water content variation observed from 40-90% respectively. It was observed that the variability in rice agriculture system in India was purely a function of field topography.

Keywords: crop parameters, index model, LISS IV imagery, plot scale, shape function

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