Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Upasna Bhandari

23 An Analysis of the Relationship between Consumer Perception and Purchase Behavior towards Green Fashion in India

Authors: Upasna Bhandari, Indranil Saha, Deepak John Mathew

Abstract:

The green fashion market is growing rapidly as eco-friendly consumers are willing to expand their organic lifestyle to include clothing. With an increasing share of fashion consumers globally, Indian consumers are observed to consider the social and environmental ethics while making purchasing decisions. While some research clearly identifies the efforts of responsible consumers towards green fashion, some argue that fashion-orientated consumers who are sensitive towards environment do not actively participate towards supporting green fashion. This study aims to analyze the current perception of green fashion among Indian consumers. A small-scale exploratory study is conducted where consumers’ perception of green fashion is examined followed by an analysis of translation of this perception into purchase decision making. This research paper gives insight into consumer awareness on green fashion and provides scope towards the expansion of ethical fashion consumption within the demography of India.

Keywords: consumer perception, environmental attitudes, fashion retailing, green fashion, sustainability

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22 Linking Work-Family Enrichment and Innovative Workplace Behavior: The Mediating Role of Positive Emotions

Authors: Nidhi Bansal, Upasna Agarwal

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Innovation is a key driver for economic growth and well-being of developed as well as emerging economies like India. Very few studies examined the relationship between IWB and work-family enrichment. Therefore, the present study examines the relationship between work-family enrichment (WFE) and innovative workplace behavior (IWB) and whether it is mediated by positive emotions. Social exchange theory and broaden and build theory explain the proposed relationships. Data were collected from 250 full time dual working parents in different Indian organizations through a survey questionnaire. Snowball technique was used for approaching respondents. Mediation analysis was assessed through PROCESS macro (Hayes, 2012) in SPSS. With correlational analysis, it was explored that all three variables were significantly and positively related. Analysis suggests that work-family enrichment is significantly related to innovative workplace behavior and this relationship is partially mediated by positive emotions. A cross-sectional design, use of self-reported questions and data collected only from dual working parents are few limitations of the study. This is one of the few studies to examine the innovative workplace behavior in response to work-family enrichment and first attempt to examine the mediation effect of emotions between these two variables.

Keywords: dual working parents, emotions, innovative workplace behavior, work-family enrichment

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21 Construction of Finite Woven Frames through Bounded Linear Operators

Authors: A. Bhandari, S. Mukherjee

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Two frames in a Hilbert space are called woven or weaving if all possible merge combinations between them generate frames of the Hilbert space with uniform frame bounds. Weaving frames are powerful tools in wireless sensor networks which require distributed data processing. Considering the practical applications, this article deals with finite woven frames. We provide methods of constructing finite woven frames, in particular, bounded linear operators are used to construct woven frames from a given frame. Several examples are discussed. We also introduce the notion of woven frame sequences and characterize them through the concepts of gaps and angles between spaces.

Keywords: frames, woven frames, gap, angle

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20 Design of Visual Repository, Constraint and Process Modeling Tool Based on Eclipse Plug-Ins

Authors: Rushiraj Heshi, Smriti Bhandari

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Master Data Management requires creation of Central repository, applying constraints on Repository and designing processes to manage data. Designing of Repository, constraints on repository and business processes is very tedious and time consuming task for large Enterprise. Hence Visual Repository, constraints and Process (Workflow) modeling is the most critical step in Master Data Management.In this paper, we realize a Visual Modeling tool for implementing Repositories, Constraints and Processes based on Eclipse Plugin using GMF/EMF which follows principles of Model Driven Engineering (MDE).

Keywords: EMF, GMF, GEF, repository, constraint, process

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19 Phase Segregating and Complex Forming Pb Based (=X-Pb) Liquid Alloys

Authors: Indra Bahadur Bhandari, Narayan Panthi, Ishwar Koirala, Devendra Adhikari

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We have used a theoretical model based on the assumption of compound formation in binary alloys to study the thermodynamic, microscopic, and surface properties of Bi-Pb and In-Pb liquid alloys. A review of the phase diagrams for these alloys shows that one of the stable complexes for Bi-Pb liquid alloy is BiPb3; also, that InPb is a stable phase in liquid In-Pb alloys. Using the same interaction parameters that are fitted for the free energy of mixing, we have been able to compute the bulk and thermodynamic properties of the alloys. From our observations, we are able to show that the Bi-Pb liquid alloy exhibits compound formation over the whole concentration range and the In-Pb alloys undergo phase separation. With regards to surface properties, Pb segregates more to the surface in In-Pb alloys than in Bi-Pb alloys. The viscosity isotherms have a positive deviation from ideality for both Bi-Pb and In-Pb alloys.

Keywords: asymmetry, Bi-Pb, deviation, In-Pb, interaction parameters

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18 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

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Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

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17 FPGA Implementation of a Marginalized Particle Filter for Delineation of P and T Waves of ECG Signal

Authors: Jugal Bhandari, K. Hari Priya

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The ECG signal provides important clinical information which could be used to pretend the diseases related to heart. Accordingly, delineation of ECG signal is an important task. Whereas delineation of P and T waves is a complex task. This paper deals with the Study of ECG signal and analysis of signal by means of Verilog Design of efficient filters and MATLAB tool effectively. It includes generation and simulation of ECG signal, by means of real time ECG data, ECG signal filtering and processing by analysis of different algorithms and techniques. In this paper, we design a basic particle filter which generates a dynamic model depending on the present and past input samples and then produces the desired output. Afterwards, the output will be processed by MATLAB to get the actual shape and accurate values of the ranges of P-wave and T-wave of ECG signal. In this paper, Questasim is a tool of mentor graphics which is being used for simulation and functional verification. The same design is again verified using Xilinx ISE which will be also used for synthesis, mapping and bit file generation. Xilinx FPGA board will be used for implementation of system. The final results of FPGA shall be verified with ChipScope Pro where the output data can be observed.

Keywords: ECG, MATLAB, Bayesian filtering, particle filter, Verilog hardware descriptive language

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16 Short Answer Grading Using Multi-Context Features

Authors: S. Sharan Sundar, Nithish B. Moudhgalya, Nidhi Bhandari, Vineeth Vijayaraghavan

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Automatic Short Answer Grading is one of the prime applications of artificial intelligence in education. Several approaches involving the utilization of selective handcrafted features, graphical matching techniques, concept identification and mapping, complex deep frameworks, sentence embeddings, etc. have been explored over the years. However, keeping in mind the real-world application of the task, these solutions present a slight overhead in terms of computations and resources in achieving high performances. In this work, a simple and effective solution making use of elemental features based on statistical, linguistic properties, and word-based similarity measures in conjunction with tree-based classifiers and regressors is proposed. The results for classification tasks show improvements ranging from 1%-30%, while the regression task shows a stark improvement of 35%. The authors attribute these improvements to the addition of multiple similarity scores to provide ensemble of scoring criteria to the models. The authors also believe the work could reinstate that classical natural language processing techniques and simple machine learning models can be used to achieve high results for short answer grading.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, intelligent systems, natural language processing, text mining

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15 Impact of Wastewater from Outfalls of River Ganga on Germination Percentage and Growth Parameters of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) with Antioxidant Activity Study

Authors: Sayanti Kar, Amitava Ghosh, Pritam Aitch, Gupinath Bhandari

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An extensive seasonal analysis of wastewater had been done from outfalls of river Ganga in Howrah, Hooghly, 24 PGS (N) District, West Bengal, India during 2017. The morphological parameters of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) were estimated under wastewater treatment. An approach to study the activity within the range of low molecular weight peptide 3-0.5 kDa were taken through its extraction and purification by ion exchange resin column, cation, and anion exchanger. HPLC analysis had been done for both in wastewater treated and untreated plants. The antioxidant activity by using DPPH and germination percentage in control and treated plants were also determined in relation to wastewater effect. The inhibition of growth and its parameters were maximum in pre-monsoon in comparing to post-monsoon and monsoon season. The study also helped to explore the effect of wastewater on the peptidome of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). Some of these low molecular weight peptide(s) (3-0.5 kDa) also inhibited during wastewater treatment. Expression of particular peptide(s) or absence of some peptide(s) in chromatogram indicated the adverse effects on plants which may be the indication of stressful condition. Pre monsoon waste water was found to create more impact than other two.

Keywords: bitter gourd (Momordica charantia l.), low molecular weight peptide, river ganga, waste water

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14 Priming through Open Book MCQ Test: A Tool for Enhancing Learning in Medical Undergraduates

Authors: Bharti Bhandari, Bharati Mehta, Sabyasachi Sircar

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Medical education is advancing in India, with its advancement newer innovations are being incorporated in teaching and assessment methodology. Our study focusses on a teaching innovation that is more student-centric than teacher-centric and is the need of the day. The teaching innovation was carried out in 1st year MBBS students of our institute. Students were assigned control and test groups. Priming was done for the students in the test group with an open-book MCQ based test in a particular topic before delivering formal didactic lecture on that topic. The control group was not assigned any such exercise. This was followed by formal didactic lecture on the same topic. Thereafter, both groups were assessed on the same topic. The marks were compiled and analysed using appropriate statistical tests. Students were also given questionnaire to elicit their views on the benefits of “self-priming”. The mean marks scored in theory assessment by the test group were statistically higher than the marks scored by the controls. According to students’ feedback, the ‘self-priming “process was interesting, helped in better orientation during class-room lectures and better understanding of the topic. They want it to be repeated for other topics with moderate difficulty level. Better performance of the students in the primed group validates the combination of student-centric priming model and didactic lecture as superior to the conventional, teacher-centric methods alone. If this system is successfully followed, the present teacher-centric pedagogy should increasingly give way to student-centric activities where the teacher is only a facilitator.

Keywords: medical education, open-book test, pedagogy, priming

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13 Molecular Characterization of Polyploid Bamboo (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii) Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Rajendra K. Meena, Maneesh S. Bhandari, Santan Barthwal, Harish S. Ginwal

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Microsatellite markers are the most valuable tools for the characterization of plant genetic resources or population genetic analysis. Since it is codominant and allelic markers, utilizing them in polyploid species remained doubtful. In such cases, the microsatellite marker is usually analyzed by treating them as a dominant marker. In the current study, it has been showed that despite losing the advantage of co-dominance, microsatellite markers are still a powerful tool for genotyping of polyploid species because of availability of large number of reproducible alleles per locus. It has been studied by genotyping of 19 subpopulations of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii (hexaploid bamboo species) with 17 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Among these, ten primers gave typical banding pattern of microsatellite marker as expected in diploid species, but rest 7 gave an unusual pattern, i.e., more than two bands per locus per genotype. In such case, genotyping data are generally analyzed by considering as dominant markers. In the current study, data were analyzed in both ways as dominant and co-dominant. All the 17 primers were first scored as nonallelic data and analyzed; later, the ten primers giving standard banding patterns were analyzed as allelic data and the results were compared. The UPGMA clustering and genetic structure showed that results obtained with both the data sets are very similar with slight variation, and therefore the SSR marker could be utilized to characterize polyploid species by considering them as a dominant marker. The study is highly useful to widen the scope for SSR markers applications and beneficial to the researchers dealing with polyploid species.

Keywords: microsatellite markers, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, dominant and codominant, polyploids

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12 Development and Optimization of Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System of Ayurvedic Churna Formulation Using Eudragit L100 and Ethyl Cellulose as Coating Material

Authors: Anil Bhandari, Imran Khan Pathan, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

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The purpose of this study was to prepare time and pH dependent release tablets of Ayurvedic Churna formulation and evaluate their advantages as colon targeted drug delivery system. The Vidangadi Churna was selected for this study which contains Embelin and Gallic acid. Embelin is used in Helminthiasis as therapeutic agent. Embelin is insoluble in water and unstable in gastric environment so it was formulated in time and pH dependent tablets coated with combination of two polymers Eudragit L100 and ethyl cellulose. The 150mg of core tablet of dried extract and lactose were prepared by wet granulation method. The compression coating was used in the polymer concentration of 150mg for both the layer as upper and lower coating tablet was investigated. The results showed that no release was found in 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffers for initial 5 hours and about 98.97% of the drug was released in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer in total 17 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed first order kinetics as highest linearity (r2= 0.9943). The results of the present study have demonstrated that the time and pH dependent tablets system is a promising vehicle for preventing rapid hydrolysis in gastric environment and improving oral bioavailability of Embelin and Gallic acid for treatment of Helminthiasis.

Keywords: embelin, gallic acid, Vidangadi Churna, colon targeted drug delivery

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11 Gender Roles in Modern Indian Marriages

Authors: Parul Bhandari

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An image of a modern and progressive India garners the rhetoric of ‘choice’ marriages, gender egalitarian relationships, and search for ‘love’ in conjugal unions. Such an image especially resonates with the lives of young professionals, who, largely belonging to the middle class, consider themselves to be the global face India. While this rhetoric of ‘progress’ and ‘love’ is abounding in both Indian and non-Indian public discourses, it is imperative to scientifically analyse the veracity of these claims. This paper thus queries and problematises the notions of being modern and progressive, through the lens of gender roles as expected and desired in a process of matchmaking. The fieldwork conducted is based on qualitative methodology, involving in-depth interviews with 100 highly qualified professionals, (60 men and 40 women), between the age of 24-31, belonging to the Hindu religion and of varied castes and communities, who are residing in New Delhi, and are in the process of spouse-selection or have recently completed it. Further, an analysis of the structure and content of matrimonial websites, which have fast emerged as the new method of matchmaking, was also undertaken. The main finding of this paper is that gender asymmetries continue to determine a suitable match, whether in ‘arranged’ or ‘love’ marriages. This is demonstrated by analysing the expectations of gender roles and gender practices of both men and women, to construct an ideal of a ‘good match’. On the basis of the interviews and the content of matrimonial websites, the paper discusses the characteristics of a ‘suitable boy’ and a ‘suitable girl’, and the ways in which these are received (practiced or criticised) by the young men and women themselves. It is then concluded that though an ideal of ‘compatibility’ and love determines conjugal desires, traditional gender roles, that, for example, consider men as the primary breadwinner and women as responsible for the domestic sphere, continue to dictate urban Indian marriages.

Keywords: gender, India, marriage, middle class

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10 EEG and ABER Abnormalities in Children with Speech and Language Delay

Authors: Bharati Mehta, Manish Parakh, Bharti Bhandari, Sneha Ambwani

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Speech and language delay (SLD) is seen commonly as a co-morbidity in children having severe resistant focal and generalized, syndromic and symptomatic epilepsies. It is however not clear whether epilepsy contributes to or is a mere association in the pathogenesis of SLD. Also, it is acknowledged that Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABER), besides used for evaluating hearing threshold, also aid in prognostication of neurological disorders and abnormalities in the hearing pathway in the brainstem. There is no circumscribed or surrogate neurophysiologic laboratory marker to adjudge the extent of SLD. The current study was designed to evaluate the abnormalities in Electroencephalography (EEG) and ABER in children with SLD who do not have an overt hearing deficit or autism. 94 children of age group 2-8 years with predominant SLD and without any gross motor developmental delay, head injury, gross hearing disorder, cleft lip/palate and autism were selected. Standard video Electroencephalography using the 10:20 international system and ABER after click stimulus with intensities 110 db until 40 db was performed in all children. EEG was abnormal in 47.9% (n= 45; 36 boys and 9 girls) children. In the children with abnormal EEG, 64.5% (n=29) had an abnormal background, 57.8% (n=27) had presence of generalized interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), 20% (n=9) had focal epileptiform discharges exclusively from left side and 33.3% (n=15) had multifocal IEDs occurring both in isolation or associated with generalised abnormalities. In ABER, surprisingly, the peak latencies for waves I, III & V, inter-peak latencies I-III & I-V, III-V and wave amplitude ratio V/I, were found within normal limits in both ears of all the children. Thus in the current study it is certain that presence of generalized IEDs in EEG are seen in higher frequency with SLD and focal IEDs are seen exclusively in left hemisphere in these children. It may be possible that even with generalized EEG abnormalities present in these children, left hemispheric abnormalities as a part of this generalized dysfunction may be responsible for the speech and language dysfunction. The current study also emphasizes that ABER may not be routinely recommended as diagnostic or prognostic tool in children with SLD without frank hearing deficit or autism, thus reducing the burden on electro physiologists, laboratories and saving time and financial resources.

Keywords: ABER, EEG, speech, language delay

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9 Evaluating the Process of Biofuel Generation from Grass

Authors: Karan Bhandari

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Almost quarter region of Indian terrain is covered by grasslands. Grass being a low maintenance perennial crop is in abundance. Farmers are well acquainted with its nature, yield and storage. The aim of this paper is to study and identify the applicability of grass as a source of bio fuel. Anaerobic break down is a well-recognized technology. This process is vital for harnessing bio fuel from grass. Grass is a lignocellulosic material which is fibrous and can readily cause problems with parts in motion. Further, it also has a tendency to float. This paper also deals with the ideal digester configuration for biogas generation from grass. Intensive analysis of the literature is studied on the optimum production of grass storage in accordance with bio digester specifications. Subsequent to this two different digester systems were designed, fabricated, analyzed. The first setup was a double stage wet continuous arrangement usually known as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). The next was a double stage, double phase system implementing Sequentially Fed Leach Beds using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (SLBR-UASB). The above methodologies were carried for the same feedstock acquired from the same field. Examination of grass silage was undertaken using Biomethane Potential values. The outcomes portrayed that the Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor system produced about 450 liters of methane per Kg of volatile solids, at a detention period of 48 days. The second method involving Leach Beds produced about 340 liters of methane per Kg of volatile solids with a detention period of 28 days. The results showcased that CSTR when designed exclusively for grass proved to be extremely efficient in methane production. The SLBR-UASB has significant potential to allow for lower detention times with significant levels of methane production. This technology has immense future for research and development in India in terms utilizing of grass crop as a non-conventional source of fuel.

Keywords: biomethane potential values, bio digester specifications, continuously stirred tank reactor, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket

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8 Flood Hazard Assessment and Land Cover Dynamics of the Orai Khola Watershed, Bardiya, Nepal

Authors: Loonibha Manandhar, Rajendra Bhandari, Kumud Raj Kafle

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Nepal’s Terai region is a part of the Ganges river basin which is one of the most disaster-prone areas of the world, with recurrent monsoon flooding causing millions in damage and the death and displacement of hundreds of people and households every year. The vulnerability of human settlements to natural disasters such as floods is increasing, and mapping changes in land use practices and hydro-geological parameters is essential in developing resilient communities and strong disaster management policies. The objective of this study was to develop a flood hazard zonation map of Orai Khola watershed and map the decadal land use/land cover dynamics of the watershed. The watershed area was delineated using SRTM DEM, and LANDSAT images were classified into five land use classes (forest, grassland, sediment and bare land, settlement area and cropland, and water body) using pixel-based semi-automated supervised maximum likelihood classification. Decadal changes in each class were then quantified using spatial modelling. Flood hazard mapping was performed by assigning weights to factors slope, rainfall distribution, distance from the river and land use/land cover on the basis of their estimated influence in causing flood hazard and performing weighed overlay analysis to identify areas that are highly vulnerable. The forest and grassland coverage increased by 11.53 km² (3.8%) and 1.43 km² (0.47%) from 1996 to 2016. The sediment and bare land areas decreased by 12.45 km² (4.12%) from 1996 to 2016 whereas settlement and cropland areas showed a consistent increase to 14.22 km² (4.7%). Waterbody coverage also increased to 0.3 km² (0.09%) from 1996-2016. 1.27% (3.65 km²) of total watershed area was categorized into very low hazard zone, 20.94% (60.31 km²) area into low hazard zone, 37.59% (108.3 km²) area into moderate hazard zone, 29.25% (84.27 km²) area into high hazard zone and 31 villages which comprised 10.95% (31.55 km²) were categorized into high hazard zone area.

Keywords: flood hazard, land use/land cover, Orai river, supervised maximum likelihood classification, weighed overlay analysis

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7 Developing Environmental Engineering Alternatives for Deep Desulphurization of Transportation Fuels

Authors: Nalinee B. Suryawanshi, Vinay M. Bhandari, Laxmi Gayatri Sorokhaibam, Vivek V. Ranade

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Deep desulphurization of transportation fuels is a major environmental concern all over the world and recently prescribed norms for the sulphur content require below 10 ppm sulphur concentrations in fuels such as diesel and gasoline. The existing technologies largely based on catalytic processes such as hydrodesulphurization, oxidation require newer catalysts and demand high cost of deep desulphurization whereas adsorption based processes have limitations due to lower capacity of sulphur removal. The present work is an attempt to provide alternatives for the existing methodologies using a newer non-catalytic process based on hydrodynamic cavitation. The developed process requires appropriate combining of organic and aqueous phases under ambient conditions and passing through a cavitating device such as orifice, venturi or vortex diode. The implosion of vapour cavities formed in the cavitating device generates (in-situ) oxidizing species which react with the sulphur moiety resulting in the removal of sulphur from the organic phase. In this work, orifice was used as a cavitating device and deep desulphurization was demonstrated for removal of thiophene as a model sulphur compound from synthetic fuel of n-octane, toluene and n-octanol. The effect of concentration of sulphur (up to 300 ppm), nature of organic phase and effect of pressure drop (0.5 to 10 bar) was discussed. A very high removal of sulphur content of more than 90% was demonstrated. The process is easy to operate, essentially works at ambient conditions and the ratio of aqueous to organic phase can be easily adjusted to maximise sulphur removal. Experimental studies were also carried out using commercial diesel as a solvent and the results substantiate similar high sulphur removal. A comparison of the two cavitating devices- one with a linear flow and one using vortex flow for effecting pressure drop and cavitation indicates similar trends in terms of sulphur removal behaviour. The developed process is expected to provide an attractive environmental engineering alternative for deep desulphurization of transportation fuels.

Keywords: cavitation, petroleum, separation, sulphur removal

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6 Analysis of Environmental Sustainability in Post- Earthquake Reconstruction : A Case of Barpak, Nepal

Authors: Sudikshya Bhandari, Jonathan K. London

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Barpak in northern Nepal represents a unique identity expressed through the local rituals, values, lifeways and the styles of vernacular architecture. The traditional residential buildings and construction practices adopted by the dominant ethnic groups: Ghales and Gurungs, reflect environmental, social, cultural and economic concerns. However, most of these buildings did not survive the Gorkha earthquake in 2015 that made many residents skeptical about their strength to resist future disasters. This led Barpak residents to prefer modern housing designs primarily for the strength but additionally for convenience and access to earthquake relief funds. Post-earthquake reconstruction has transformed the cohesive community, developed over hundreds of years into a haphazard settlement with the imposition of externally-driven building models. Housing guidelines provided for the community reconstruction and earthquake resilience have been used as a singular template, similar to other communities on different geographical locations. The design and construction of these buildings do not take into account the local, historical, environmental, social, cultural and economic context of Barpak. In addition to the physical transformation of houses and the settlement, the consequences continue to develop challenges to sustainability. This paper identifies the major challenges for environmental sustainability with the construction of new houses in post-earthquake Barpak. Mixed methods such as interviews, focus groups, site observation, and documentation, and analysis of housing and neighborhood design have been used for data collection. The discernible changing situation of this settlement due to the new housing has included reduced climatic adaptation and thermal comfort, increased consumption of agricultural land and water, minimized use of local building materials, and an increase in energy demand. The research has identified that reconstruction housing practices happening in Barpak, while responding to crucial needs for disaster recovery and resilience, are also leading this community towards an unsustainable future. This study has also integrated environmental, social, cultural and economic parameters into an assessment framework that could be used to develop place-based design guidelines in the context of other post-earthquake reconstruction efforts. This framework seeks to minimize the unintended repercussions of unsustainable reconstruction interventions, support the vitality of vernacular architecture and traditional lifeways and respond to context-based needs in coordination with residents.

Keywords: earthquake, environment, reconstruction, sustainability

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5 Grassland Development on Evacuated Sites for Wildlife Conservation in Satpura Tiger Reserve, India

Authors: Anjana Rajput, Sandeep Chouksey, Bhaskar Bhandari, Shimpi Chourasia

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Ecologically, grassland is any plant community dominated by grasses, whether they exist naturally or because of management practices. Most forest grasslands are anthropogenic and established plant communities planted for forage production, though some are established for soil and water conservation and wildlife habitat. In Satpura Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India, most of the grasslands have been established on evacuated village sites. Total of 42 villages evacuated, and study was carried out in 23 sites to evaluate habitat improvement. Grasslands were classified into three categories, i.e., evacuated sites, established sites, and controlled sites. During the present study impact of various management interventions on grassland health was assessed. Grasslands assessment was done for its composition, status of palatable and non-palatable grasses, the status of herbs and legumes, status of weeds species, and carrying capacity of particular grassland. Presence of wild herbivore species in the grasslands with their abundance, availability of water resources was also assessed. Grassland productivity is dependent mainly on the biotic and abiotic components of the area, but management interventions may also play an important role in grassland composition and productivity. Variation in the status of palatable and non-palatable grasses, legumes, and weeds was recorded and found effected by management intervention practices. Overall in all the studied grasslands, the most dominant grasses recorded are Themeda quadrivalvis, Dichanthium annulatum, Ischaemum indicum, Oplismenus burmanii, Setaria pumilla, Cynodon dactylon, Heteropogon contortus, and Eragrostis tenella. Presence of wild herbivores, i.e., Chital, Sambar, Bison, Bluebull, Chinkara, Barking deer in the grassland area has been recorded through the installation of camera traps and estimated their abundance. Assessment of developed grasslands was done in terms of habitat suitability for Chital (Axis axis) and Sambar (Rusa unicolor). The parameters considered for suitability modeling are biotic and abiotic life requisite components existing in the area, i.e., density of grasses, density of legumes, availability of water, site elevation, site distance from human habitation. Findings of the present study would be useful for further grassland management and animal translocation programmes.

Keywords: carrying capacity, dominant grasses, grassland, habitat suitability, management intervention, wild herbivore

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4 Predicting Growth of Eucalyptus Marginata in a Mediterranean Climate Using an Individual-Based Modelling Approach

Authors: S.K. Bhandari, E. Veneklaas, L. McCaw, R. Mazanec, K. Whitford, M. Renton

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Eucalyptus marginata, E. diversicolor and Corymbia calophylla form widespread forests in south-west Western Australia (SWWA). These forests have economic and ecological importance, and therefore, tree growth and sustainable management are of high priority. This paper aimed to analyse and model the growth of these species at both stand and individual levels, but this presentation will focus on predicting the growth of E. Marginata at the individual tree level. More specifically, the study wanted to investigate how well individual E. marginata tree growth could be predicted by considering the diameter and height of the tree at the start of the growth period, and whether this prediction could be improved by also accounting for the competition from neighbouring trees in different ways. The study also wanted to investigate how many neighbouring trees or what neighbourhood distance needed to be considered when accounting for competition. To achieve this aim, the Pearson correlation coefficient was examined among competition indices (CIs), between CIs and dbh growth, and selected the competition index that can best predict the diameter growth of individual trees of E. marginata forest managed under different thinning regimes at Inglehope in SWWA. Furthermore, individual tree growth models were developed using simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, and linear mixed effect modelling approaches. Individual tree growth models were developed for thinned and unthinned stand separately. The developed models were validated using two approaches. In the first approach, models were validated using a subset of data that was not used in model fitting. In the second approach, the model of the one growth period was validated with the data of another growth period. Tree size (diameter and height) was a significant predictor of growth. This prediction was improved when the competition was included in the model. The fit statistic (coefficient of determination) of the model ranged from 0.31 to 0.68. The model with spatial competition indices validated as being more accurate than with non-spatial indices. The model prediction can be optimized if 10 to 15 competitors (by number) or competitors within ~10 m (by distance) from the base of the subject tree are included in the model, which can reduce the time and cost of collecting the information about the competitors. As competition from neighbours was a significant predictor with a negative effect on growth, it is recommended including neighbourhood competition when predicting growth and considering thinning treatments to minimize the effect of competition on growth. These model approaches are likely to be useful tools for the conservations and sustainable management of forests of E. marginata in SWWA. As a next step in optimizing the number and distance of competitors, further studies in larger size plots and with a larger number of plots than those used in the present study are recommended.

Keywords: competition, growth, model, thinning

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3 Socio-Economic Transformation of Barpak Post-Earthquake Reconstruction

Authors: Sudikshya Bhandari, Jonathan K. London

Abstract:

The earthquake of April 2015 was one of the biggest disasters in the history of Nepal. The epicenter was located near Barpak, north of the Gorkha district. Before the disaster, this settlement was a compact and homogeneous settlement manifesting its uniqueness through the social and cultural activities, and a distinct vernacular architecture. Narrow alleys with stone paved streets, buildings with slate roofs, and common spaces between the houses made this settlement socially, culturally, and environmentally cohesive. With the presence of micro hydro power plants, local economic activities enabled the local community to exist and thrive. Agriculture and animal rearing are the sources of livelihood for the majority of families, along with the booming homestays (where local people welcome guests to their home, as a business) and local shops. Most of these activities are difficult to find as the houses have been destroyed with the earthquake and the process of reconstruction has been transforming the outlook of the settlement. This study characterized the drastic transformation in Barpak post-earthquake, and analyzed the consequences of the reconstruction process. In addition, it contributes to comprehending a broader representation about unsustainability created by the lack of contextual post-disaster development. Since the research is based in a specific area, a case study approach was used. Sample houses were selected on the basis of ethnicity and house typology. Mixed methods such as key informant and semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and photographs are used for the collection of data. The research focus is predominantly on the physical change of the house typology from vernacular to externally adopted designs. This transformation of the house entails socio-cultural changes such as social fragmentation with differences among the rich and the poor and decreases in the social connectivity within families and neighborhood. Families have found that new houses require more maintenance and resources that have increased their economic expenses. The study also found that the reconstructed houses are not thermally comfortable in the cold climate of Barpak, leading to the increased use of different sources of heating like electric heaters and more firewood. Lack of storage spaces for crops and livestock have discouraged them to pursue traditional means of livelihood and depend more on buying food from stores, ultimately making it less economical for most of the families. The transformation of space leading to the economic, social and cultural changes demonstrates the unsustainability of Barpak. Conclusions from the study suggest place based and inclusive planning and policy formations that include locals as partners, identifying the possible ways to minimize the impact and implement these recommendations into the future policy and planning scenarios.

Keywords: earthquake, Nepal, reconstruction, settlement, transformation

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2 Calpoly Autonomous Transportation Experience: Software for Driverless Vehicle Operating on Campus

Authors: F. Tang, S. Boskovich, A. Raheja, Z. Aliyazicioglu, S. Bhandari, N. Tsuchiya

Abstract:

Calpoly Autonomous Transportation Experience (CATE) is a driverless vehicle that we are developing to provide safe, accessible, and efficient transportation of passengers throughout the Cal Poly Pomona campus for events such as orientation tours. Unlike the other self-driving vehicles that are usually developed to operate with other vehicles and reside only on the road networks, CATE will operate exclusively on walk-paths of the campus (potentially narrow passages) with pedestrians traveling from multiple locations. Safety becomes paramount as CATE operates within the same environment as pedestrians. As driverless vehicles assume greater roles in today’s transportation, this project will contribute to autonomous driving with pedestrian traffic in a highly dynamic environment. The CATE project requires significant interdisciplinary work. Researchers from mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and computer science are working together to attack the problem from different perspectives (hardware, software and system). In this abstract, we describe the software aspects of the project, with a focus on the requirements and the major components. CATE shall provide a GUI interface for the average user to interact with the car and access its available functionalities, such as selecting a destination from any origin on campus. We have developed an interface that provides an aerial view of the campus map, the current car location, routes, and the goal location. Users can interact with CATE through audio or manual inputs. CATE shall plan routes from the origin to the selected destination for the vehicle to travel. We will use an existing aerial map for the campus and convert it to a spatial graph configuration where the vertices represent the landmarks and edges represent paths that the car should follow with some designated behaviors (such as stay on the right side of the lane or follow an edge). Graph search algorithms such as A* will be implemented as the default path planning algorithm. D* Lite will be explored to efficiently recompute the path when there are any changes to the map. CATE shall avoid any static obstacles and walking pedestrians within some safe distance. Unlike traveling along traditional roadways, CATE’s route directly coexists with pedestrians. To ensure the safety of the pedestrians, we will use sensor fusion techniques that combine data from both lidar and stereo vision for obstacle avoidance while also allowing CATE to operate along its intended route. We will also build prediction models for pedestrian traffic patterns. CATE shall improve its location and work under a GPS-denied situation. CATE relies on its GPS to give its current location, which has a precision of a few meters. We have implemented an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) that allows the fusion of data from multiple sensors (such as GPS, IMU, odometry) in order to increase the confidence of localization. We also noticed that GPS signals can easily get degraded or blocked on campus due to high-rise buildings or trees. UKF can also help here to generate a better state estimate. In summary, CATE will provide on-campus transportation experience that coexists with dynamic pedestrian traffic. In future work, we will extend it to multi-vehicle scenarios.

Keywords: driverless vehicle, path planning, sensor fusion, state estimate

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1 Solid State Fermentation: A Technological Alternative for Enriching Bioavailability of Underutilized Crops

Authors: Vipin Bhandari, Anupama Singh, Kopal Gupta

Abstract:

Solid state fermentation, an eminent bioconversion technique for converting many biological substrates into a value-added product, has proven its role in the biotransformation of crops by nutritionally enriching them. Hence, an effort was made for nutritional enhancement of underutilized crops viz. barnyard millet, amaranthus and horse gram based composite flour using SSF. The grains were given pre-treatments before fermentation and these pre-treatments proved quite effective in diminishing the level of antinutrients in grains and in improving their nutritional characteristics. The present study deals with the enhancement of nutritional characteristics of underutilized crops viz. barnyard millet, amaranthus and horsegram based composite flour using solid state fermentation (SSF) as the principle bioconversion technique to convert the composite flour substrate into a nutritionally enriched value added product. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiments. The variables selected for the fermentation experiments were substrate particle size, substrate blend ratio, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and moisture content having three levels of each. Seventeen designed experiments were conducted randomly to find the effect of these variables on microbial count, reducing sugar, pH, total sugar, phytic acid and water absorption index. The data from all experiments were analyzed using Design Expert 8.0.6 and the response functions were developed using multiple regression analysis and second order models were fitted for each response. Results revealed that pretreatments proved quite handful in diminishing the level of antinutrients and thus enhancing the nutritional value of the grains appreciably, for instance, there was about 23% reduction in phytic acid levels after decortication of barnyard millet. The carbohydrate content of the decorticated barnyard millet increased to 81.5% from initial value of 65.2%. Similarly popping and puffing of horsegram and amaranthus respectively greatly reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity. Puffing of amaranthus also reduced the tannin content appreciably. Bacillus subtilis was used as the inoculating specie since it is known to produce phytases in solid state fermentation systems. These phytases remarkably reduce the phytic acid content which acts as a major antinutritional factor in food grains. Results of solid state fermentation experiments revealed that phytic acid levels reduced appreciably when fermentation was allowed to continue for 72 hours at a temperature of 35°C. Particle size and substrate blend ratio also affected the responses positively. All the parameters viz. substrate particle size, substrate blend ratio, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and moisture content affected the responses namely microbial count, reducing sugar, pH, total sugar, phytic acid and water absorption index but the effect of fermentation time was found to be most significant on all the responses. Statistical analysis resulted in the optimum conditions (particle size 355µ, substrate blend ratio 50:20:30 of barnyard millet, amaranthus and horsegram respectively, fermentation time 68 hrs, fermentation temperature 35°C and moisture content 47%) for maximum reduction in phytic acid. The model F- value was found to be highly significant at 1% level of significance in case of all the responses. Hence, second order model could be fitted to predict all the dependent parameters. The effect of fermentation time was found to be most significant as compared to other variables.

Keywords: composite flour, solid state fermentation, underutilized crops, cereals, fermentation technology, food processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 248