Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1235

Search results for: glass window

1235 Wind Fragility of Window Glass in 10-Story Apartment with Two Different Window Models

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

Damage due to high wind is not limited to load resistance components such as beam and column. The majority of damage is due to breach in the building envelope such as broken roof, window, and door. In this paper, wind fragility of window glass in residential apartment was determined to compare the difference between two window configuration models. Monte Carlo Simulation method had been used to derive damage data and analytical fragilities were constructed. Fragility of window system showed that window located in leeward wall had higher probability of failure, especially those close to the edge of structure. Between the two window models, Model 2 had higher probability of failure, this was due to the number of panel in this configuration.

Keywords: wind fragility, glass window, high rise building, wind disaster

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1234 Implementing Two Rotatable Circular Polarized Glass Made Window to Reduce the Amount of Electricity Usage by Air Condition System

Authors: Imtiaz Sarwar

Abstract:

Air conditioning in homes may account for one-third of the electricity during period in summer when most of the energy is required in large cities. It is not consuming only electricity but also has a serious impact on environment including greenhouse effect. Circular polarizer filter can be used to selectively absorb or pass clockwise or counter-clock wise circularly polarized light. My research is about putting two circular polarized glasses parallel to each other and make a circular window with it. When we will place two circular polarized glasses exactly same way (0 degree to each other) then nothing will be noticed rather it will work as a regular window through which all light and heat can pass on. While we will keep rotating one of the circular polarized glasses, the angle between the glasses will keep increasing and the window will keep blocking more and more lights. It will completely block all the lights and a portion of related heat when one of the windows will reach 90 degree to another. On the other hand, we can just open the window when fresh air is necessary. It will reduce the necessity of using Air condition too much or consumer will use electric fan rather than air conditioning system. Thus, we can save a significant amount of electricity and we can go green.

Keywords: circular polarizer, window, air condition, light, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
1233 Comparison of Wind Fragility for Window System in the Simplified 10 and 15-Story Building Considering Exposure Category

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

Window system in high rise building is occasionally subjected to an excessive wind intensity, particularly during typhoon. The failure of window system did not affect overall safety of structural performance; however, it could endanger the safety of the residents. In this paper, comparison of fragility curves for window system of two residential buildings was studied. The probability of failure for individual window was determined with Monte Carlo Simulation method. Then, lognormal cumulative distribution function was used to represent the fragility. The results showed that windows located on the edge of leeward wall were more susceptible to wind load and the probability of failure for each window panel increased at higher floors.

Keywords: wind fragility, window system, high rise building, wind disaster

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1232 Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions

Authors: Madhu Sudan, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.

Keywords: clear sky, daylight factor, energy saving, wall window

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
1231 XANES Studies on the Oxidation States of Copper Ion in Silicate Glass

Authors: R. Buntem, K. Samkongngam

Abstract:

The silicate glass was prepared using rice husk as the source of silica. The base composition of glass sample is composed of SiO2 (from rice husk ash), Na2CO3, K2CO3, ZnO, H3BO3, CaO, Al2O3 or Al, and CuO. Aluminum is used in place of Al2O3 in order to reduce Cu2+ to Cu+. The red color of Cu2O in the glass matrix was observed when the Al was added into the glass mixture. The expansion coefficients of the copper doped glass are in the range of 1.2 x 10-5-1.4x10-5 (ºC -1) which is common for the silicate glass. The finger prints of the bond vibrations were studied using IR spectroscopy. While the oxidation state and the coordination information of the copper ion in the glass matrix were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the data, Cu+ and Cu2+ exist in the glass matrix. The red particles of Cu2O can be formed in the glass matrix when enough aluminum was added.

Keywords: copper in glass, coordination information, silicate glass, XANES spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1230 The Effect of Window Position and Ceiling Height on Cooling Load in Architectural Studio

Authors: Seyedehzahra Mirrahimi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of variations in window and ceiling heights on cooling inside an architectural training studio with a full-width window. For architectural training, students use the studio more often than they use ordinary classrooms. Therefore, studio dimensions and size, and the window position, directly influence the cooling load. Energy for cooling is one of the most expensive costs in the studio because of the high activity levels of students during the warm season. The methodology of analysis involves measuring energy changes in the Energy Plus software in Kish Island. It was proved that the cooling energy in an architecture studio can be increased by changing window levels and ceiling heights to add a range of cooling energy.

Keywords: cooling energy, Energy Plus, studio classroom, window position

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
1229 An Investigation of Foam Glass Production from Sheet Glass Waste and SiC Foaming Agent

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Recep Artir, Mustafa Kara

Abstract:

Foam glass is a remarkable material with having incomparable properties like low weight, rigidity, high thermal insulation capacity and porous structure. In this study, foam glass production was investigated with using glass powder from sheet glass waste and SiC powder as foaming agent. Effects of SiC powders and sintering temperatures on foaming process were examined. It was seen that volume expansions (%), cellular structures and pore diameters of obtained foam glass samples were highly depending on composition ratios and sintering temperature. The study showed that various foam glass samples having with homogenous closed porosity, low weight and low thermal conductivity were achieved by optimizing composition ratios and sintering temperatures.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, waste glass, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
1228 Influence of Recycled Glass Content on the Properties of Concrete and Mortar

Authors: Bourmatte Nadjoua, Houari Hacène

Abstract:

The effect of replacement of fine aggregates with recycled glass on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete and mortar is studied. Percentages of replacement are 0–25% and 50% of aggregates with fine waste glass to produce concrete and percentage of replacement of 100% to produce mortar. As a result of the conducted study, the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures were decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength with 50% lower than that of control mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, mortar, recycled glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
1227 Automatic Post Stroke Detection from Computed Tomography Images

Authors: C. Gopi Jinimole, A. Harsha

Abstract:

For detecting strokes, Computed Tomography (CT) scan is preferred for imaging the abnormalities or infarction in the brain. Because of the problems in the window settings used to evaluate brain CT images, they are very poor in the early stage infarction detection. This paper presents an automatic estimation method for the window settings of the CT images for proper contrast of the hyper infarction present in the brain. In the proposed work the window width is estimated automatically for each slice and the window centre is changed to a new value of 31HU, which is the average of the HU values of the grey matter and white matter in the brain. The automatic window width estimation is based on the average of median of statistical central moments. Thus with the new suggested window centre and estimated window width, the hyper infarction or post-stroke regions in CT brain images are properly detected. The proposed approach assists the radiologists in CT evaluation for early quantitative signs of delayed stroke, which leads to severe hemorrhage in the future can be prevented by providing timely medication to the patients.

Keywords: computed tomography (CT), hyper infarction or post stroke region, Hounsefield Unit (HU), window centre (WC), window width (WW)

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
1226 The Role of Nano Glass Flakes on Morphology, Dynamic-Mechanical Properties and Crystallization Behavior of Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate)

Authors: Fatemeh Alsadat Miri, Morteza Ehsani, Hossein Ali Khonakdar, Behjat Kavyani

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of nano glass flakes on morphology, dynamic-mechanical properties, and crystallization behavior of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The concentration of nano glass flakes was varied from 0.5, 1, 2, and 3% wt of the total formulation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed the poor distribution of nano-glass flake particles in PET, as well as low adhesion of particles to the polymer matrix. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the crystallization rate and crystallization temperature of PET were increased by the addition of nano glass flakes. The crystallization rate of PET was increased from 31.41% to 34.25% by the incorporation of 1%wt of nano glass flakes. Based on the results of the dynamic-mechanical analysis, the storage modulus of PET gets increased by adding nano glass flakes, especially below glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass transition of PET did not change remarkably with the addition of nano glass flakes. Moreover, the use of nano glass flakes reduced the impact strength of PET.

Keywords: PET, nano glass flakes, morphology, crystallization

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
1225 Synergetic Effects of Water and Sulfur Dioxide Treatments on Wear of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

Authors: Qian Qiao, Tongjin Xiao, Hongtu He, Jiaxin Yu

Abstract:

This study is focused on the synergetic effects of water and sulfur dioxide treatments (SO₂ treatments) on the mechanochemical wear of SLS glass. It is found that the wear behavior of SLS glass in humid air is very sensitive to the water and SO₂ treatment environments based on the wear test using a ball-on-flat reciprocation tribometer. When SLS glass is treated with SO₂-without, the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass in humid air becomes significantly higher compared to the pristine glass. However, when SLS glass is treated with SO₂ with the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass decreases remarkably with increasing in the relative humidity (RH) from 0% to 90%. Further analyses indicate that when sodium ions are leached out of SLS glass surface via the water and SO₂ treatments, the mechanochemical properties of SLS glass surface become different depending on the RH. At lower humidity, the nano hardness of the Na⁺-leached surface is higher, and it can contribute to the enhanced wear resistance of SLS glass. In contrast, at higher humidity conditions, the SLS glass surface is more hydrophilic, and substantial wear debris can be found inside the wear track of SLS glass. Those phenomena suggest that adhesive wear and abrasive wear dominate the wear mechanism of SLS glass in humid air, causing the decreased wear resistance of SLS glass with increasing the RH. These results may not only provide a deep understanding of the wear mechanism of SLS glass but also helpful for operation process of functional and engineering glasses.

Keywords: soda lime silicate glass, wear, water, SO₂

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1224 Investigating the Glass Ceiling Phenomenon: An Empirical Study of Glass Ceiling's Effects on Selection, Promotion and Female Effectiveness

Authors: Sharjeel Saleem

Abstract:

The glass ceiling has been a burning issue for many researchers. In this research, we examine gender of the BOD, training and development, workforce diversity, positive attitude towards women, and employee acts as antecedents of glass ceiling. Furthermore, we also look for effects of glass ceiling on likelihood of female selection and promotion and on female effectiveness. Multiple linear regression conducted on data drawn from different public and private sector organizations support our hypotheses. The research, however, is limited to Faisalabad city and only females from minority group are targeted here.

Keywords: glass ceiling, stereotype attitudes, female effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1223 Modeling of Silicon Window Layers for Solar Cells Based SIGE

Authors: Meriem Boukais, B. Dennai, A. Ould- Abbas

Abstract:

The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the modeling, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).

Keywords: modeling, SiGe, AMPS-1D, quantum efficiency, conversion, efficiency

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1222 Simulation Of Silicon Window Layers For Solar Cells Based Sige

Authors: Boukais Meriem, B. Dennai, A. Ould-Abbas

Abstract:

The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the simulation, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).

Keywords: SiGe, AMPS-1D, simulation, conversion, efficiency, quantum efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 592
1221 Window Display Design of Thai Craft Product Affecting Perceptions of Thai and Foreign Tourists

Authors: Kanokwan Somoon, Chumporn Moorapun

Abstract:

A product’s perceived value may increase purchase intention. Value perceptions may differ among cultures. Window displays can be used to increase products’ information and value. This study aims to investigate the relationship between window display design elements and value perceptions of local products between two different cultures. The research methodology is based on survey research. Several window displays in favorite of tourist spots were selected as a unit of study. Also, 100 tourists (56 Thai tourists and 44 foreign tourists) were asked to complete a questionnaire. T-Tests were used to analyze the comparison. Then, the results were compared to Thai and foreign tourists. Finally, the results find that Thai and foreign tourists have different perception towards three design elements that are size of the window, props and colour lighting. The differences of their perceptions signify the different cultural values they adhere to.

Keywords: cross-culture, window display, Thai craft product, environmental perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
1220 Chemical and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Roman Glasses from Northern Greece

Authors: P. Karalis, E. Dotsika, A. Godelitsas, M. Tassi, D. Ignatiadou

Abstract:

Glass artefacts originated from Northern Greece, dated between 1st and 6th AC, were analyzed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions in order to identify their raw materials provenance. The chemical composition of these glasses is rather heterogeneous although they are all obtained with natron as flux, having both K₂O and MgO contents lower than 1.5 wt%. The majority of these samples have a homogeneous oxygen isotopic composition (𝛿18O= 16‰,), which is equal to or very close to the mean value of “Roman” glass (from about 15‰ to 16.0‰). The rest of the samples present heavily enriched 𝛿18O values that indicate that their raw materials differ from those normally used in Roman and Medieval glass production, and this matches with the possibility of the different origins of these materials. So, all these fragments are soda-lime-silica natron-glass produced from natron, possibly coming from more than one source.

Keywords: ancient glass, provenance of raw materials of ancient glass, roman glass, oxygen isotope analysis in glass

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1219 Studies on Mechanical Properties of Concrete and Mortar Containing Waste Glass Aggregate

Authors: Nadjoua Bourmatte, Hacène Houari

Abstract:

Glass has been indispensable to men’s life due to its properties, including pliability to take any shape with ease, bright surface, resistance to abrasion, reasonable safety and durability. Waste glass creates serious environmental problems, mainly due to the inconsistency of waste glass streams. With increasing environmental pressure to reduce solid waste and to recycle as much as possible, the concrete industry has adopted a number of methods to achieve this goal. The object of this research work is to study the effect of using recycled glass waste, as a partial replacement of fine aggregate, on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. Recycled glass was used to replace fine aggregate in proportions of 0%, 25% and 50%. We could observe that the Glass waste aggregates are lighter than natural aggregates and they show a very low water absorption. The experimental results showed that the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. The standard sand was substituted with aggregates based on glass waste for manufacturing mortars, Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength and low bending with a 1/2 ratio with control mortar strength.

Keywords: concrete, environment, glass waste, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
1218 An Investigation into Sealing Materials for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Paul Onyegbule, Harjit Singh

Abstract:

Vacuum glazing is an innovative transparent thermal insulator that has application in high performance window, especially in renewable energy. Different materials as well as sealing methods have been adopted to seal windows with different temperatures. The impact of temperatures on sealing layers has been found to have significant effects on the microstructure of the seal. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of sealing materials specifically glass powder and flux compound (borax) for vacuum glazing. The findings of the experiment conducted show that the sealing material was rigid with some leakage around the edge, and we found that this could be stopped by enhancing the uniformity of the seal within the periphery. Also, we found that due to the intense tensile stress from the oven surface temperature of the seal at 200 0C, a crack was observed at the side of the glass. Based on the above findings, this study concludes that a glass powder with a lower melting temperature of below 250 0C with the addition of an adhesive (borax flux) should be used for future vacuum seals.

Keywords: double glazed windows, U-value, heat loss, borax powder, edge seal

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1217 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity

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1216 Structural and Leaching Properties of Irradiated Lead Commercial Glass by Using XRD, Ultrasonic, UV-VIS and AAS Technique

Authors: N. H. Alias, S. A. Aziz, Y. Abdullah, H. M. Kamari, S. Sani, M. P. Ismail, N. U. Saidin, N. A. A. Salim, N. E. E. Abdullah

Abstract:

Gamma (γ) irradiation study has been investigated on the 6 rectangular shape of the standard X-Ray lead glass with 5/16” thick, providing 2.00 mm lead shielding value; at selected Sievert doses (C1; 0, C2; 0.07, C3; 0.035, C4; 0.07, C5; 0.105 and C6; 0.14) by using (XRD) X-ray Diffraction techniques, ultrasonic and (UV-VIS) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. Concentration of lead in 0.5 N acid nitric (HNO3) environments is then studied by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) as to observe the glass corrosion behavior after irradiation at room temperature. This type of commercial glass is commonly used as radiation shielding glass in medical application.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, lead glass, leaching, structural

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1215 To Optimise the Mechanical Properties of Structural Concrete by Partial Replacement of Natural Aggregates by Glass Aggregates

Authors: Gavin Gengan, Hsein Kew

Abstract:

Glass from varying recycling processes is considered a material that can be used as aggregate. Waste glass is available from different sources and has been used in the construction industry over the last decades. This current study aims to use recycled glass as a partial replacement for conventional aggregate materials. The experimental programme was designed to optimise the mechanical properties of structural concrete made with recycled glass aggregates (GA). NA (natural aggregates) was partially substituted by GA in a mix design of concrete of 30N/mm2 in proportions of 10%, 20%, and 25% 30%, 40%, and 50%. It was found that with an increasing proportion of GA, there is a decline in compressive strength. The optimum percentage replacement of NA by GA is 25%. The heat of hydration was also investigated with thermocouples placed in the concrete. This revealed an early acceleration of hydration heat in glass concrete, resulting from the thermal properties of glass. The gain in the heat of hydration and the better bonding of glass aggregates together with the pozzolanic activity of the finest glass particles caused the concrete to develop early age and long-term strength higher than that of control concrete

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, glass aggregates, heat of hydration, pozzolanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
1214 Float Glass Manufacture Facility Design: Feasibility Study in Kuwait

Authors: Farah Al-Mutairi, Hadeer Al-Jeeraan, Lima Ali, Raya Al-Dabbous, Sarah Baroun

Abstract:

Lately, within the middle east, development has taken place in the construction area which increased the demand of a crucial component, where without it; stunning views from skyscrapers cannot been experienced, and natural light would not be able to be viewed from an indoor building. Glass has changed the path of living and building. Float glass is a type of glass that is flat and it is the type used in the construction and automobile sector. Facility design on the other hand is a study that improves the efficiency utilization of people, equipment, material and space. Kuwait's governmental future developing plan bears in mind the need of increase in industries to increase the growth domestic product(GDP) of the country. This project studies the feasibility of two designs of a float glass manufacture in Kuwait. The first Alternative, consists of one production line of capacity 500 tons of glass per day. The second alternative, consists of three production lines, each of capacity 500 tons of glass daily.

Keywords: float glass manufacture, Kuwait, feasibility float glass, facility design, float glass production

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
1213 Life Cycle Assessment as a Decision Making for Window Performance Comparison in Green Building Design

Authors: Ghada Elshafei, Abdelazim Negm

Abstract:

Life cycle assessment is a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service, by compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; and interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. In this paper, the life cycle assessment of aluminum and beech wood as two commonly used materials in Egypt for window frames are heading, highlighting their benefits and weaknesses. Window frames of the two materials have been assessed on the basis of their production, energy consumption and environmental impacts. It has been found that the climate change of the windows made of aluminum and beech wood window, for a reference window (1.2m × 1.2m), are 81.7 mPt and - 52.5 mPt impacts respectively. Among the most important results are: fossil fuel consumption, potential contributions to the green building effect and quantities of solid waste tend to be minor for wood products compared to aluminum products; incineration of wood products can cause higher impacts of acidification and eutrophication than aluminum, whereas thermal energy can be recovered.

Keywords: aluminum window, beech wood window, green building, life cycle assessment, life cycle analysis, SimaPro software, window frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
1212 An Investigation of Raw Material Effects on Nano SiC Based Foam Glass Production

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Yasemin Kilic, Abdulkadir Sari, Burcu Duymaz, Mustafa Kara

Abstract:

Foam glass is an innovative material which composed of glass and carbon/carbonate based minerals; and has incomparable properties like light weight, high thermal insulation and cellular structure with sufficient rigidity. In the present study, the effects of the glass type and mineral addition on the foam glass properties were investigated. Nano sized SiC was fixed as foaming agent at the whole of the samples, mixed glass waste and sheet glass were selectively used as glass sources; finally Al₂O₃ was optionally used as mineral additive. These raw material powders were mixed homogenously, pressed at same pressure and sintered at same schedule. Finally, obtained samples were characterized based on the required properties of foam glass material, and optimum results were determined. At the end of the study, 0.049 W/mK thermal conductivity, 72 % porosity, and 0.21 kg/cm² apparent density with 2.41 MPa compressive strength values were achieved with using nano sized SiC, sheet glass and Al₂O₃ mineral additive. It can be said that the foam glass materials can be preferred as an alternative insulation material rather than polymeric based conventional insulation materials because of supplying high thermal insulation properties without containing unhealthy chemicals and burn risks.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, silicon carbide, waste glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1211 Analysis of Formation Methods of Range Profiles for an X-Band Coastal Surveillance Radar

Authors: Nguyen Van Loi, Le Thanh Son, Tran Trung Kien

Abstract:

The paper deals with the problem of the formation of range profiles (RPs) for an X-band coastal surveillance radar. Two popular methods, the difference operator method, and the window-based method, are reviewed and analyzed via two tests with different datasets. The test results show that although the original window-based method achieves a better performance than the difference operator method, it has three main drawbacks that are the use of 3 or 4 peaks of an RP for creating the windows, the extension of the window size using the power sum of three adjacent cells in the left and the right sides of the windows and the same threshold applied for all types of vessels to finish the formation process of RPs. These drawbacks lead to inaccurate RPs due to the low signal-to-clutter ratio. Therefore, some suggestions are proposed to improve the original window-based method.

Keywords: range profile, difference operator method, window-based method, automatic target recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1210 Effect of Environmental Stress Factors on the Degradation of Display Glass

Authors: Jinyoung Choi, Hyun-A Kim, Sunmook Lee

Abstract:

The effects of environmental stress factors such as storage conditions on the deterioration phenomenon and the characteristic of the display glass were studied. In order to investigate the effect of chemical stress on the glass during the period of storage, the respective components of commercial glass were first identified by XRF (X-ray fluorescence). The glass was exposed in the acid, alkali, neutral environment for about one month. Thin film formed on the glass surface was analyzed by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared). The degree of corrosion and the rate of deterioration of each sample were confirmed by measuring the concentrations of silicon, calcium and chromium with ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry). The optical properties of the glass surface were confirmed by SEM (Scanning electron microscope) before and after the treatment. Acknowledgement—The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Grant Number: 10076817)

Keywords: corrosion, degradation test, display glass, environmental stress factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1209 Optimizing the Window Geometry Using Fractals

Authors: K. Geetha Ramesh, A. Ramachandraiah

Abstract:

In an internal building space, daylight becomes a powerful source of illumination. The challenge therefore, is to develop means of utilizing both direct and diffuse natural light in buildings while maintaining and improving occupant's visual comfort, particularly at greater distances from the windows throwing daylight. The geometrical features of windows in a building have significant effect in providing daylight. The main goal of this research is to develop an innovative window geometry, which will effectively provide the daylight component adequately together with internal reflected component(IRC) and also the external reflected component(ERC), if any. This involves exploration of a light redirecting system using fractal geometry for windows, in order to penetrate and distribute daylight more uniformly to greater depths, minimizing heat gain and glare, and also to reduce building energy use substantially. Of late the creation of fractal geometrical window and the occurrence of daylight illuminance due to such windows is becoming an interesting study. The amount of daylight can change significantly based on the window geometry and sky conditions. This leads to the (i) exploration of various fractal patterns suitable for window designs, and (ii) quantification of the effect of chosen fractal window based on the relationship between the fractal pattern, size, orientation and glazing properties for optimizing daylighting. There are a lot of natural lighting applications able to predict the behaviour of a light in a room through a traditional opening - a regular window. The conventional prediction methodology involves the evaluation of the daylight factor, the internal reflected component and the external reflected component. Having evaluated the daylight illuminance level for a conventional window, the technical performance of a fractal window for an optimal daylighting is to be studied and compared with that of a regular window. The methodologies involved are highlighted in this paper.

Keywords: daylighting, fractal geometry, fractal window, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1208 Glass and Polypropylene Combinations for Thermoplastic Preforms

Authors: Hireni Mankodi

Abstract:

The textile preforms for thermoplastic composite play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about preparing combination of yarn from Glass, Basalt, Carbon as reinforcement and PP, PET, Nylon as thermoplastic matrix at yarn stage for preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to develop the hybrid yarn using different yarn manufacturing process and prepare different performs using hybrid yarns. It has been observed that the glass/pp combination give homogeneous distribution in yarn. The proportion varied to optimize the glass/pp composition. The different preform has been prepared with combination of hybrid yarn, PP, glass combination. Further studies will investigate the effect of glass content in fabric, effect of weave, warps and filling density, number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of thermoplastic laminates.

Keywords: thermoplastic, preform, laminates, hybrid yarn, glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
1207 Recycled Waste Glass Powder as a Partial Cement Replacement in Polymer-Modified Mortars

Authors: Nikol Žižková

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of polymer-modified cement mortars with regard to the use of a pozzolanic admixture. Polymer-modified mortars (PMMs) containing various types of waste glass (waste packing glass and fluorescent tube glass) were produced always with 20% of cement substituted with a pozzolanic-active material. Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) was used for polymeric modification. The findings confirm the possibility of using the waste glass examined herein as a partial substitute for cement in the production of PMM, which contributes to the preservation of non-renewable raw material resources and to the efficiency of waste glass material reuse.

Keywords: recycled waste glass, polymer-modified mortars, pozzolanic admixture, ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1206 A Research on Glass Ceiling Syndrome: Career Barriers of Women Academics

Authors: Serdar Öge, Alpay Karasoy, Özlem Kara

Abstract:

Although women have merit in their jobs, they still are located very few in the top management in many sectors. There are many causes of such situation. Such a situation creates obstacles; especially invisible ones are called “glass ceiling syndrome”. Also, studies which handle this subject in academic community are very few. The aim of this research is to reach the results about glass ceiling obstacles in terms of female teaching staff (academics) working in higher education institutions. To this end, our study was performed on female academics working at Selcuk University, Konya / Turkey. Our study's main aim can be expressed as to determine whether there are glass ceiling obstacles for female academics working at the higher education institution in question, to measure their glass ceiling perceptions and, thus, to identify what the glass ceiling barrier components for them to promotion to senior management positions are.

Keywords: career, career barriers, glass ceiling syndrome, academics

Procedia PDF Downloads 255