Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19735

Search results for: high rise building

19735 High-Rise Building with PV Facade

Authors: Jiří Hirš, Jitka Mohelnikova


A photovoltaic system integrated into a high-rise building façade was studied. The high-rise building is located in the Central Europe region with temperate climate and dominant partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions. The PV façade has been monitored since 2013. The three-year monitoring of the façade energy generation shows that the façade has an important impact on the building energy efficiency and sustainable operation.

Keywords: buildings, energy, PV façade, solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
19734 A Prediction of Electrical Cost for High-Rise Building Construction

Authors: Picha Sriprachan


The increase in electricity prices affects the cost of high-rise building construction. The objectives of this research are to study the electrical cost, trend of electrical cost and to forecast electrical cost of high-rise building construction. The methods of this research are: 1) to study electrical payment formats, cost data collection methods, and the factors affecting electrical cost of high-rise building construction, 2) to study the quantity and trend of cumulative percentage of the electrical cost, and 3) to forecast the electrical cost for different types of high-rise buildings. The results of this research show that the average proportion between electrical cost and the value of the construction project is 0.87 percent. The proportion of electrical cost for residential, office and commercial, and hotel buildings are closely proportional. If construction project value increases, the proportion of electrical cost and the value of the construction project will decrease. However, there is a relationship between the amount of electrical cost and the value of the construction project. During the structural construction phase, the amount of electrical cost will increase and during structural and architectural construction phase, electrical cost will be maximum. The cumulative percentage of the electrical cost is related to the cumulative percentage of the high-rise building construction cost in the same direction. The amount of service space of the building, number of floors and the duration of the construction affect the electrical cost of construction. The electrical cost of construction forecasted by using linear regression equation is close to the electrical cost forecasted by using the proportion of electrical cost and value of the project.

Keywords: high-rise building construction, electrical cost, construction phase, architectural phase

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19733 Seismic Behavior and Loss Assessment of High–Rise Buildings with Light Gauge Steel–Concrete Hybrid Structure

Authors: Bing Lu, Shuang Li, Hongyuan Zhou


The steel–concrete hybrid structure has been extensively employed in high–rise buildings and super high–rise buildings. The light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, including light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure, is a new–type steel–concrete hybrid structure, which possesses some advantages of light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure. The seismic behavior and loss assessment of three high–rise buildings with three different concrete hybrid structures were investigated through finite element software, respectively. The three concrete hybrid structures are reinforced concrete column–steel beam (RC‒S) hybrid structure, concrete–filled steel tube column–steel beam (CFST‒S) hybrid structure, and tubed concrete column–steel beam (TC‒S) hybrid structure. The nonlinear time-history analysis of three high–rise buildings under 80 earthquakes was carried out. After simulation, it indicated that the seismic performances of three high–rise buildings were superior. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the maximum inter–storey drifts of three high–rise buildings are significantly lower than 1/50. The inter–storey drift and floor acceleration of high–rise building with CFST‒S hybrid structure were bigger than those of high–rise buildings with RC‒S hybrid structure, and smaller than those of high–rise building with TC‒S hybrid structure. Then, based on the time–history analysis results, the post-earthquake repair cost ratio and repair time of three high–rise buildings were predicted through an economic performance analysis method proposed in FEMA‒P58 report. Under frequent earthquakes, basic earthquakes and rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of three high-rise buildings were less than 5% and 15 days, respectively. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of high-rise buildings with TC‒S hybrid structure were the most among three high rise buildings. Due to the advantages of CFST-S hybrid structure, it could be extensively employed in high-rise buildings subjected to earthquake excitations.

Keywords: seismic behavior, loss assessment, light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, high–rise building, time–history analysis

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19732 Parametric Models of Facade Designs of High-Rise Residential Buildings

Authors: Yuchen Sharon Sung, Yingjui Tseng


High-rise residential buildings have become the most mainstream housing pattern in the world’s metropolises under the current trend of urbanization. The facades of high-rise buildings are essential elements of the urban landscape. The skins of these facades are important media between the interior and exterior of high- rise buildings. It not only connects between users and environments, but also plays an important functional and aesthetic role. This research involves a study of skins of high-rise residential buildings using the methodology of shape grammar to find out the rules which determine the combinations of the facade patterns and analyze the patterns’ parameters using software Grasshopper. We chose a number of facades of high-rise residential buildings as source to discover the underlying rules and concepts of the generation of facade skins. This research also provides the rules that influence the composition of facade skins. The items of the facade skins, such as windows, balconies, walls, sun visors and metal grilles are treated as elements in the system of facade skins. The compositions of these elements will be categorized and described by logical rules; and the types of high-rise building facade skins will be modelled by Grasshopper. Then a variety of analyzed patterns can also be applied on other facade skins through this parametric mechanism. Using these patterns established in the models, researchers can analyze each single item to do more detail tests and architects can apply each of these items to construct their facades for other buildings through various combinations and permutations. The goal of these models is to develop a mechanism to generate prototypes in order to facilitate generation of various facade skins.

Keywords: facade skin, grasshopper, high-rise residential building, shape grammar

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19731 Structuralism of Architectural Details in the Design of Modern High-Rise Buildings

Authors: Joanna Pietrzak, Anna Stefanska, Wieslaw Rokicki


Contemporary high-rise buildings constructed in recent years are often tremendous examples of original and unique architectural forms, being at the same time the affirmation of technical and technological progress accomplishments. The search for more efficient, sophisticated generations of structures also concerns the shaping of high-quality details. The concept of structural detail designing is connected with the rationalization of engineering solutions as well as through the optimisation and reduction of used material. Contemporary structural detail perceived through the development of building technologies is often a very aesthetic technical and material solution, which significantly influences the visual perception of architecture. Structural details are more often seen in shaping the forms of high-rise buildings, which are erected in many culturally different countries.

Keywords: aesthetic expression, high-rise buildings, structural detail, tall buildings

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19730 Identification of High-Rise Buildings Using Object Based Classification and Shadow Extraction Techniques

Authors: Subham Kharel, Sudha Ravindranath, A. Vidya, B. Chandrasekaran, K. Ganesha Raj, T. Shesadri


Digitization of urban features is a tedious and time-consuming process when done manually. In addition to this problem, Indian cities have complex habitat patterns and convoluted clustering patterns, which make it even more difficult to map features. This paper makes an attempt to classify urban objects in the satellite image using object-oriented classification techniques in which various classes such as vegetation, water bodies, buildings, and shadows adjacent to the buildings were mapped semi-automatically. Building layer obtained as a result of object-oriented classification along with already available building layers was used. The main focus, however, lay in the extraction of high-rise buildings using spatial technology, digital image processing, and modeling, which would otherwise be a very difficult task to carry out manually. Results indicated a considerable rise in the total number of buildings in the city. High-rise buildings were successfully mapped using satellite imagery, spatial technology along with logical reasoning and mathematical considerations. The results clearly depict the ability of Remote Sensing and GIS to solve complex problems in urban scenarios like studying urban sprawl and identification of more complex features in an urban area like high-rise buildings and multi-dwelling units. Object-Oriented Technique has been proven to be effective and has yielded an overall efficiency of 80 percent in the classification of high-rise buildings.

Keywords: object oriented classification, shadow extraction, high-rise buildings, satellite imagery, spatial technology

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19729 Dynamic Building Simulation Based Study to Understand Thermal Behavior of High-Rise Structural Timber Buildings

Authors: Timothy O. Adekunle, Sigridur Bjarnadottir


Several studies have investigated thermal behavior of buildings with limited studies focusing on high-rise buildings. Of the limited investigations that have considered thermal performance of high-rise buildings, only a few studies have considered thermal behavior of high-rise structural sustainable buildings. As a result, this study investigates the thermal behavior of a high-rise structural timber building. The study aims to understand the thermal environment of a high-rise structural timber block of apartments located in East London, UK by comparing the indoor environmental conditions at different floors (ground and upper floors) of the building. The environmental variables (temperature and relative humidity) were measured at 15-minute intervals for a few weeks in the summer of 2012 to generate data that was considered for calibration and validation of the simulated results. The study employed mainly dynamic thermal building simulation using DesignBuilder by EnergyPlus and supplemented with environmental monitoring as major techniques for data collection and analysis. The weather file (Test Reference Years- TRYs) for the 2000s from the weather generator carried out by the Prometheus Group was considered for the simulation since the study focuses on investigating thermal behavior of high-rise structural timber buildings in the summertime and not in extreme summertime. In this study, the simulated results (May-September of the 2000s) will be the focus of discussion, but the results will be briefly compared with the environmental monitoring results. The simulated results followed a similar trend with the findings obtained from the short period of the environmental monitoring at the building. The results revealed lower temperatures are often predicted (at least 1.1°C lower) at the ground floor than the predicted temperatures at the upper floors. The simulated results also showed that higher temperatures are predicted in spaces at southeast facing (at least 0.5°C higher) than spaces in other orientations across the floors considered. There is, however, a noticeable difference between the thermal environment of spaces when the results obtained from the environmental monitoring are compared with the simulated results. The field survey revealed higher temperatures were recorded in the living areas (at least 1.0°C higher) while higher temperatures are predicted in bedrooms (at least 0.9°C) than living areas for the simulation. In addition, the simulated results showed spaces on lower floors of high-rise structural timber buildings are predicted to provide more comfortable thermal environment than spaces on upper floors in summer, but this may not be the same in wintertime due to high upward movement of hot air to spaces on upper floors.

Keywords: building simulation, high-rise, structural timber buildings, sustainable, temperatures, thermal behavior

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19728 Comparison of Wind Fragility for Window System in the Simplified 10 and 15-Story Building Considering Exposure Category

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung


Window system in high rise building is occasionally subjected to an excessive wind intensity, particularly during typhoon. The failure of window system did not affect overall safety of structural performance; however, it could endanger the safety of the residents. In this paper, comparison of fragility curves for window system of two residential buildings was studied. The probability of failure for individual window was determined with Monte Carlo Simulation method. Then, lognormal cumulative distribution function was used to represent the fragility. The results showed that windows located on the edge of leeward wall were more susceptible to wind load and the probability of failure for each window panel increased at higher floors.

Keywords: wind fragility, window system, high rise building, wind disaster

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19727 Sustainability of High-Rise Affordable Housing: Critical Issues in Applying Green Building Rating Tools

Authors: Poh Im. Lim, Hillary Yee Qin. Tan


Nowadays, going green has become a trend, and being emphasized in the construction industry. In Malaysia, there are several green rating tools available in the industry and among these, GBI and GreenRE are considered as the most common tools adopted for residential buildings. However, being green is not equal to or making something sustainable. Being sustainable is to take economic, environmental and social aspects into consideration. This is particularly essential in the affordable housing sector as the end-users belong to lower-income and places importance on many socio-economic needs beyond the environmental criteria. This paper discusses the arguments in proposing a sustainability framework that is tailor-made for high-rise affordable housing. In-depth interviews and observation mapping methods were used in gathering inputs from the end-users, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as well as the professionals. ‘Bottom-up’ approach was applied in this research to show the significance of participation from the local community in the decision-making process. The proposed sustainability framework illustrates the discrepancies between user priorities and what the industry is providing. The outcome of this research suggests that integrating sustainability into high-rise affordable housing is achievable and beneficial to the industry, society, and the environment.

Keywords: green building rating tools, high-rise affordable housing, sustainability framework, sustainable development

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19726 Applicability of Overhangs for Energy Saving in Existing High-Rise Housing in Different Climates

Authors: Qiong He, S. Thomas Ng


Upgrading the thermal performance of building envelope of existing residential buildings is an effective way to reduce heat gain or heat loss. Overhang device is a common solution for building envelope improvement as it can cut down solar heat gain and thereby can reduce the energy used for space cooling in summer time. Despite that, overhang can increase the demand for indoor heating in winter due to its function of lowering the solar heat gain. Obviously, overhang has different impacts on energy use in different climatic zones which have different energy demand. To evaluate the impact of overhang device on building energy performance under different climates of China, an energy analysis model is built up in a computer-based simulation program known as DesignBuilder based on the data of a typical high-rise residential building. The energy simulation results show that single overhang is able to cut down around 5% of the energy consumption of the case building in the stand-alone situation or about 2% when the building is surrounded by other buildings in regions which predominantly rely on space cooling though it has no contribution to energy reduction in cold region. In regions with cold summer and cold winter, adding overhang over windows can cut down around 4% and 1.8% energy use with and without adjoining buildings, respectively. The results indicate that overhang might not an effective shading device to reduce the energy consumption in the mixed climate or cold regions.

Keywords: overhang, energy analysis, computer-based simulation, design builder, high-rise residential building, climate, BIM model

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19725 Analysis of Experimentally Designed Soundproof Gypsum Partition Wall's Sections in Terms of Structural Engineering

Authors: Abdulkerim Ilgun, Ahmad Javid Zia


In developing countries, the urban populations are increasing rapidly and with this increment the residential areas are experiencing major problems. Construction of high-rise buildings in confined spaces is one of the most practical solutions for this problem. However, by living in high-rise buildings and sharing common residential areas, residents will face many problems. Irritating sound problem which is known as noise is one of the major problems mentioned above. The second most important problem is the weight of the high-rise buildings which makes the structure more vulnerable to earthquakes. To decrease earthquake loads it’s very important to decrease the weight of the buildings. To solve the problem of noise and keep the building weight at minimum level, experimentally designed soundproof gypsum partition wall which has optimum thickness has been used in high-rise story building and the results have been compared with ordinary brick partition walls. In this compression the effect of weights of soundproof gypsum walls and ordinary brick walls in accordance to structural engineering have been investigated.

Keywords: cellubor, gypsum board, gypsum partition walls, light partition walls, noise, sound

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
19724 Analysis of Building Response from Vertical Ground Motions

Authors: George C. Yao, Chao-Yu Tu, Wei-Chung Chen, Fung-Wen Kuo, Yu-Shan Chang


Building structures are subjected to both horizontal and vertical ground motions during earthquakes, but only the horizontal ground motion has been extensively studied and considered in design. Most of the prevailing seismic codes assume the vertical component to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the horizontal one. In order to understand the building responses from vertical ground motions, many earthquakes records are studied in this paper. System identification methods (ARX Model) are used to analyze the strong motions and to find out the characteristics of the vertical amplification factors and the natural frequencies of buildings. Analysis results show that the vertical amplification factors for high-rise buildings and low-rise building are 1.78 and 2.52 respectively, and the average vertical amplification factor of all buildings is about 2. The relationship between the vertical natural frequency and building height was regressed to a suggested formula in this study. The result points out an important message; the taller the building is, the greater chance of resonance of vertical vibration on the building will be.

Keywords: vertical ground motion, vertical amplification factor, natural frequency, component

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19723 The Influence of the Laws of Ergonomics on the Design of High-Rise Buildings

Authors: Valery A. Aurov, Maria D. Bausheva, Elena V. Uliyanova


The problems of sustainability of contemporary high-rise buildings now demand an altogether new approach, which corresponds with the laws of dialectics. We should imply the principle “going from mega-object to the so called mezzo-object.” So the scientists have arrived at the conclusion that a contemporary “skyscraper” must not increase in height but develop horizontal space axes which unite a complex of high-rise buildings into a single composition. This is necessary both for safety issues and increasing skyscrapers’ functioning qualities. As a result, architects single out a quality unit in a dominating group of high-rise constructions and make a conclusion about the influence of visual fields on the designing parameters of this group.

Keywords: design, high-rise buildings, skyscrapers, sustainability, visual fields, dominating group, regulations, design recommendations

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
19722 High Rise Building Vibration Control Using Tuned Mass Damper

Authors: T. Vikneshvaran, A. Aminudin, U. Alyaa Hashim, Waziralilah N. Fathiah, D. Shakirah Shukor


This paper presents the experimental study conducted on a structure of three-floor height building model. Most vibrations are undesirable and can cause damages to the buildings, machines and people all around us. The vibration wave from earthquakes, construction and winds have high potential to bring damage to the buildings. Excessive vibrations can result in structural and machinery failures. This failure is related to the human life and environment around it. The effect of vibration which causes failure and damage to the high rise buildings can be controlled in real life by implementing tuned mass damper (TMD) into the structure of the buildings. This research aims to study the effect and performance improvement achieved by applying TMD into the building structure. A structure model of three degrees of freedom (3DOF) is designed to demonstrate the performance of TMD to the designed model. The model designed is the physical representation of actual building structure in real life. It is constructed at a reduced scale and will be used for the experiment. Thus, the result obtained will be more accurate to compared with the real life effect. Based on the result from experimental study, by applying TMD to the structure model, the forces of vibration and the displacement mode of the building reduced. Thus, the reduced in vibration of the building helps to maintain the good condition of the building.

Keywords: degrees-of-freedom, displacement mode, natural frequency, tuned mass damper

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19721 Contributing Factors to Building Failures and Defects in the Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Ndibarafinia Tobin


Building defect and failure are common phenomena in the Nigerian construction industry. The activities of the inexperienced labor force in the Nigerian construction industry have tarnished the image of practicing construction professionals in recent past. Defects and collapse can cause unnecessary expenditure, delays, loss of lives, property and left many people injured. They are also generating controversies among parties involved. Also, if this situation is left unanswered and untreated, it will lead to more serious problems in the future upcoming construction projects in Nigeria. Quite a number of factors are responsible for collapse of high-rise, reinforced concrete buildings in Nigeria. Government, professional bodies and stakeholders are asking countless questions as to who should be responsible and how solutions could be proffered. Therefore this study is aimed to identify the contributing factors to high-rise buildings defects and failures in Nigeria, which frequently occur in construction project in order to minimize time and cost and also the roles of professionals and other participants play in the industry in terms of the use of building materials, placement and curing of concrete, modification in the use of a building, collapse of building induced by fire and other causes. The data is collected from questionnaire from various players in construction industry in Nigeria. This study is succeeds in identifying the causes of building failure and also suggesting possible measures to be taken by government and other regulatory bodies in the building industry to avert this and also improve the effectiveness of managing appraisal process of failures and defects in the future.

Keywords: building defects, building failures, Nigerian construction industry, professionals

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19720 Using Passive Cooling Strategies to Reduce Thermal Cooling Load for Coastal High-Rise Buildings of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmad Zamzam


With the development of the economy in recent years, Saudi Arabia has been maintaining high economic growth. Therefore, its energy consumption has increased dramatically. This economic growth reflected on the expansion of high-rise tower's construction. Jeddah coastal strip (cornice) has many high-rise buildings planned to start next few years. These projects required a massive amount of electricity that was not planned to be supplied by the old infrastructure. This research studies the effect of the building envelope on its thermal performance. It follows a parametric simulation methodology using Ecotect software to analyze the effect of the building envelope design on its cooling energy load for an office high-rise building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which includes building geometrical form, massing treatments, orientation and glazing type effect. The research describes an integrated passive design approach to reduce the cooling requirement for high-rise building through an improved building envelope design. The research used Ecotect to make four simulation studies; the first simulation compares the thermal performance of five high-rise buildings, presenting the basic shape of the plan. All the buildings have the same plan area and same floor height. The goal of this simulation is to find out the best shape for the thermal performance. The second simulation studies the effect of orientation on the thermal performance by rotating the same building model to find out the best and the worst angle for the building thermal performance. The third simulation studies the effect of the massing treatment on the total cooling load. It compared five models with different massing treatment, but with the same total built up area. The last simulation studied the effect of the glazing type by comparing the total cooling load of the same building using five different glass type and also studies the feasibility of using these glass types by studying the glass cost effect. The results indicate that using the circle shape as building plan could reduce the thermal cooling load by 40%. Also, using shading devices could reduce the cooling loads by 5%. The study states that using any of the massing grooving, recess or any treatment that could increase the outer exposed surface is not preferred and will decrease the building thermal performance. Also, the result shows that the best direction for glazing and openings from thermal performance viewpoint in Jeddah is the North direction while the worst direction is the East one. The best direction angle for openings - regarding the thermal performance in Jeddah- is 15 deg West and the worst is 250 deg West (110 deg East). Regarding the glass type effect, comparing to the double glass with air fill type as a reference case, the double glass with Air-Low-E will save 14% from the required amount of the thermal cooling load annually. Argon fill and triple glass will save 16% and 17% from the total thermal cooling load respectively, but for the glass cost purpose, using the Argon fill and triple glass is not feasible.

Keywords: passive cooling, reduce thermal load, Jeddah, building shape, energy

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19719 Tokyo Skyscrapers: Technologically Advanced Structures in Seismic Areas

Authors: J. Szolomicki, H. Golasz-Szolomicka


The architectural and structural analysis of selected high-rise buildings in Tokyo is presented in this paper. The capital of Japan is the most densely populated city in the world and moreover is located in one of the most active seismic zones. The combination of these factors has resulted in the creation of sophisticated designs and innovative engineering solutions, especially in the field of design and construction of high-rise buildings. The foreign architectural studios (as, for Jean Nouvel, Kohn Pedesen Associates, Skidmore, Owings & Merill) which specialize in the designing of skyscrapers, played a major role in the development of technological ideas and architectural forms for such extraordinary engineering structures. Among the projects completed by them, there are examples of high-rise buildings that set precedents for future development. An essential aspect which influences the design of high-rise buildings is the necessity to take into consideration their dynamic reaction to earthquakes and counteracting wind vortices. The need to control motions of these buildings, induced by the force coming from earthquakes and wind, led to the development of various methods and devices for dissipating energy which occur during such phenomena. Currently, Japan is a global leader in seismic technologies which safeguard seismic influence on high-rise structures. Due to these achievements the most modern skyscrapers in Tokyo are able to withstand earthquakes with a magnitude of over seven degrees at the Richter scale. Damping devices applied are of a passive, which do not require additional power supply or active one which suppresses the reaction with the input of extra energy. In recent years also hybrid dampers were used, with an additional active element to improve the efficiency of passive damping.

Keywords: core structures, damping system, high-rise building, seismic zone

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19718 Climate Adaptive Building Shells for Plus-Energy-Buildings, Designed on Bionic Principles

Authors: Andreas Hammer


Six peculiar architecture designs from the Frankfurt University will be discussed within this paper and their future potential of the adaptable and solar thin-film sheets implemented facades will be shown acting and reacting on climate/solar changes of their specific sites. The different aspects, as well as limitations with regard to technical and functional restrictions, will be named. The design process for a “multi-purpose building”, a “high-rise building refurbishment” and a “biker’s lodge” on the river Rheine valley, has been critically outlined and developed step by step from an international studentship towards an overall energy strategy, that firstly had to push the design to a plus-energy building and secondly had to incorporate bionic aspects into the building skins design. Both main parameters needed to be reviewed and refined during the whole design process. Various basic bionic approaches have been given [e.g. solar ivyᵀᴹ, flectofinᵀᴹ or hygroskinᵀᴹ, which were to experiment with, regarding the use of bendable photovoltaic thin film elements being parts of a hybrid, kinetic façade system.

Keywords: bionic and bioclimatic design, climate adaptive building shells [CABS], energy-strategy, harvesting façade, high-efficiency building skin, photovoltaic in building skins, plus-energy-buildings, solar gain, sustainable building concept

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19717 Effect of Different Ground Motion Scaling Methods on Behavior of 40 Story RC Core Wall Building

Authors: Muhammad Usman, Munir Ahmed


The demand of high-rise buildings has grown fast during the past decades. The design of these buildings by using RC core wall have been widespread nowadays in many countries. The RC core wall (RCCW) buildings encompasses central core wall and boundary columns joined through post tension slab at different floor levels. The core wall often provides greater stiffness as compared to the collective stiffness of the boundary columns. Hence, the core wall dominantly resists lateral loading i.e. wind or earthquake load. Non-linear response history analysis (NLRHA) procedure is the finest seismic design procedure of the times for designing high-rise buildings. The modern design tools for nonlinear response history analysis and performance based design has provided more confidence to design these structures for high-rise buildings. NLRHA requires selection and scaling of ground motions to match design spectrum for site specific conditions. Designers use several techniques for scaling ground motion records (time series). Time domain and frequency domain scaling are most commonly used which comprises their own benefits and drawbacks. Due to lengthy process of NLRHA, application of only one technique is conceivable. To the best of author’s knowledge, no consensus on the best procedures for the selection and scaling of the ground motions is available in literature. This research aims to provide the finest ground motion scaling technique specifically for designing 40 story high-rise RCCW buildings. Seismic response of 40 story RCCW building is checked by applying both the frequency domain and time domain scaling. Variable sites are selected in three critical seismic zones of Pakistan. The results indicates that there is extensive variation in seismic response of building for these scaling. There is still a need to build a consensus on the subjected research by investigating variable sites and buildings heights.

Keywords: 40-storied RC core wall building, nonlinear response history analysis, ground motions, time domain scaling, frequency domain scaling

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19716 Concepts in the Design of Lateral-Load Systems in High Rise Buildings to Reduce Operational Energy Consumption

Authors: Mohamed Ali MiladKrem Salem, Sergio F.Breña, Sanjay R. Arwade, Simi T. Hoque


The location of the main lateral‐load resisting system in high-rise buildings may have positive impacts on sustainability through a reduction in operational energy consumption, and this paper describes an assessment of the accompanying effects on structural performance. It is found that there is a strong influence of design for environmental performance on the structural performance the building, and that systems selected primarily with an eye towards energy use reduction may require substantial additional structural stiffening to meet safety and serviceability limits under lateral load cases. We present a framework for incorporating the environmental costs of meeting structural design requirements through the embodied energy of the core structural materials and also address the issue of economic cost brought on by incorporation of environmental concerns into the selection of the structural system. We address these issues through four case study high-rise buildings with differing structural morphologies (floor plan and core arrangement) and assess each of these building models for cost and embodied energy when the base structural system, which has been suggested by architect Kenneth Yeang based on environmental concerns, is augmented to meet lateral drift requirements under the wind loads prescribed by ASCE 7-10.

Keywords: sustainable, embodied, Outrigger, skyscraper, morphology, efficiency

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19715 An Approach to Determine Proper Daylighting Design Solution Considering Visual Comfort and Lighting Energy Efficiency in High-Rise Residential Building

Authors: Zehra Aybike Kılıç, Alpin Köknel Yener


Daylight is a powerful driver in terms of improving human health, enhancing productivity and creating sustainable solutions by minimizing energy demand. A proper daylighting system allows not only a pleasant and attractive visual and thermal environment, but also reduces lighting energy consumption and heating/cooling energy load with the optimization of aperture size, glazing type and solar control strategy, which are the major design parameters of daylighting system design. Particularly, in high-rise buildings where large openings that allow maximum daylight and view out are preferred, evaluation of daylight performance by considering the major parameters of the building envelope design becomes crucial in terms of ensuring occupants’ comfort and improving energy efficiency. Moreover, it is increasingly necessary to examine the daylighting design of high-rise residential buildings, considering the share of residential buildings in the construction sector, the duration of occupation and the changing space requirements. This study aims to identify a proper daylighting design solution considering window area, glazing type and solar control strategy for a high-residential building in terms of visual comfort and lighting energy efficiency. The dynamic simulations are carried out/conducted by DIVA for Rhino version The results are evaluated with Daylight Autonomy (DA) to demonstrate daylight availability in the space and Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) to describe the visual comfort conditions related to glare. Furthermore, it is also analyzed that the lighting energy consumption occurred in each scenario to determine the optimum solution reducing lighting energy consumption by optimizing daylight performance. The results revealed that it is only possible that reduction in lighting energy consumption as well as providing visual comfort conditions in buildings with the proper daylighting design decision regarding glazing type, transparency ratio and solar control device.

Keywords: daylighting , glazing type, lighting energy efficiency, residential building, solar control strategy, visual comfort

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19714 Zero Energy Buildings in Hot-Humid Tropical Climates: Boundaries of the Energy Optimization Grey Zone

Authors: Nakul V. Naphade, Sandra G. L. Persiani, Yew Wah Wong, Pramod S. Kamath, Avinash H. Anantharam, Hui Ling Aw, Yann Grynberg


Achieving zero-energy targets in existing buildings is known to be a difficult task requiring important cuts in the building energy consumption, which in many cases clash with the functional necessities of the building wherever the on-site energy generation is unable to match the overall energy consumption. Between the building’s consumption optimization limit and the energy, target stretches a case-specific optimization grey zone, which requires tailored intervention and enhanced user’s commitment. In the view of the future adoption of more stringent energy-efficiency targets in the context of hot-humid tropical climates, this study aims to define the energy optimization grey zone by assessing the energy-efficiency limit in the state-of-the-art typical mid- and high-rise full AC office buildings, through the integration of currently available technologies. Energy models of two code-compliant generic office-building typologies were developed as a baseline, a 20-storey ‘high-rise’ and a 7-storey ‘mid-rise’. Design iterations carried out on the energy models with advanced market ready technologies in lighting, envelope, plug load management and ACMV systems and controls, lead to a representative energy model of the current maximum technical potential. The simulations showed that ZEB targets could be achieved in fully AC buildings under an average of seven floors only by compromising on energy-intense facilities (as full AC, unlimited power-supply, standard user behaviour, etc.). This paper argues that drastic changes must be made in tropical buildings to span the energy optimization grey zone and achieve zero energy. Fully air-conditioned areas must be rethought, while smart technologies must be integrated with an aggressive involvement and motivation of the users to synchronize with the new system’s energy savings goal.

Keywords: energy simulation, office building, tropical climate, zero energy buildings

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19713 Design and Modeling of Amphibious Houses for Flood Prone Areas: The Case of Nigeria

Authors: Onyebuchi Mogbo, Abdulsalam Mohammed, Salsabila Wali


This research discusses the design and modeling of an amphibious building. The amphibious building is a house with the function of floating during a flood event. Over the years, houses have been built to resist flood events some of which have failed. The floating house is designed to work with nature and not against it. In the event of a flood, the house will rise with the increasing water level and protect the house from sinking. For the design and modeling of this house an estimated cost of N250, 000, approximately $700, will be needed. It is expected that the house will rise when lightweight materials are incorporated in the design, and the concrete dock (in form of a hollow box) carrying the entire house in its hollow space is well designed. When there is flooding the water will fill up the concrete dock, and the house will rise upwards with vertical guides preventing it from moving side to side or out of its boundary. Architectural and Structural designs will be used in this project.

Keywords: amphibious building, flood, housing, design and modelling

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19712 The Effect of Phase Development on Micro-Climate Change of Urban Area

Authors: Tommy Lo


This paper presented the changes in temperature and air ventilation of an inner urban area at different development stages during 2002 to 2012 and the high-rise buildings to be built in 2018. 3D simulation models ENVI-met and Autodesk Falcon were used. The results indicated that replacement of old residence buildings or open space with high-rise buildings will increase the air temperature of inner urban area; the air temperature at the pedestrian level will increase more than that at the upper levels. The temperature of the inner street in future will get higher than that in 2002, 2008 and 2012. It is attributed that heat is trapped in the street canyons as the air permeability at the pedestrian levels is lower. High-rise buildings with massive podium will further reduce the air ventilation in that area. In addition, sufficient separations among buildings is essential in design. High-rise buildings aligned along the waterfront will obstruct the wind flowing into the inner urban area and accelerate the temperature increase both in daytime and night time.

Keywords: micro-climate change, urban design, ENVI-met, construction engineering

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19711 BIM Application Research Based on the Main Entrance and Garden Area Project of Shanghai Disneyland

Authors: Ying Yuken, Pengfei Wang, Zhang Qilin, Xiao Ben


Based on the main entrance and garden area (ME&G) project of Shanghai Disneyland, this paper introduces the application of BIM technology in this kind of low-rise comprehensive building with complex facade system, electromechanical system and decoration system. BIM technology is applied to the whole process of design, construction and completion of the whole project. With the construction of BIM application framework of the whole project, the key points of BIM modeling methods of different systems and the integration and coordination of BIM models are elaborated in detail. The specific application methods of BIM technology in similar complex low-rise building projects are sorted out. Finally, the paper summarizes the benefits of BIM technology application, and puts forward some suggestions for BIM management mode and practical application of similar projects in the future.

Keywords: BIM, complex low-rise building, BIM modeling, model integration and coordination, 3D scanning

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19710 Reading High Rise Residential Development in Istanbul on the Theory of Globalization

Authors: Tuba Sari


One of the major transformations caused by the industrial revolution, technological developments and globalization is undoubtedly acceleration of urbanization process. Globalization, in particular, is one of the major factors that trigger this transformation. In this context, as a result of the global metropolitan city system, multifunctional rising structure forms are becoming undeniable fact of the world’s leading metropolises as the manifestation of prestige and power with different life choices, easy accessibility to services related to the era of technology. The scope of research deals with five different urban centers in İstanbul where high-rise housing is increasing dramatically after 2000’s. Therefore, the research regards multi-centered urban residential pattern being created by high-rise housing structures in the city. The methodology of the research is based on two main issue, one of them is related to sampling method of high-rise housing projects in İstanbul, while the other method of the research is based on the model of Semantics. In the framework of research hypothesis, it is aimed to prove that the character of vertical intensive structuring in Istanbul is based on seeking of different forms and images in the expressive quality, considering the production of existing high-rise buildings in residential areas in recent years. In respect to rising discourse of 'World City' in the globalizing world, it is very important to state the place of Istanbul in other developing world metropolises. In the perspective of 'World City' discourse, Istanbul has different projects concerning with globalization, international finance companies, cultural activities, mega projects, etc. In brief, the aim of this research is examining transformation forms of high-rise housing development in Istanbul within the frame of developing world cities, searching and analyzing discourse and image related to these projects.

Keywords: globalization, high-rise, housing, image

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19709 Specific Earthquake Ground Motion Levels That Would Affect Medium-To-High Rise Buildings

Authors: Rhommel Grutas, Ishmael Narag, Harley Lacbawan


Construction of high-rise buildings is a means to address the increasing population in Metro Manila, Philippines. The existence of the Valley Fault System within the metropolis and other nearby active faults poses threats to a densely populated city. The distant, shallow and large magnitude earthquakes have the potential to generate slow and long-period vibrations that would affect medium-to-high rise buildings. Heavy damage and building collapse are consequences of prolonged shaking of the structure. If the ground and the building have almost the same period, there would be a resonance effect which would cause the prolonged shaking of the building. Microzoning the long-period ground response would aid in the seismic design of medium to high-rise structures. The shear-wave velocity structure of the subsurface is an important parameter in order to evaluate ground response. Borehole drilling is one of the conventional methods of determining shear-wave velocity structure however, it is an expensive approach. As an alternative geophysical exploration, microtremor array measurements can be used to infer the structure of the subsurface. Microtremor array measurement system was used to survey fifty sites around Metro Manila including some municipalities of Rizal and Cavite. Measurements were carried out during the day under good weather conditions. The team was composed of six persons for the deployment and simultaneous recording of the microtremor array sensors. The instruments were laid down on the ground away from sewage systems and leveled using the adjustment legs and bubble level. A total of four sensors were deployed for each site, three at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with one sensor at the centre. The circular arrays were set up with a maximum side length of approximately four kilometers and the shortest side length for the smallest array is approximately at 700 meters. Each recording lasted twenty to sixty minutes. From the recorded data, f-k analysis was applied to obtain phase velocity curves. Inversion technique is applied to construct the shear-wave velocity structure. This project provided a microzonation map of the metropolis and a profile showing the long-period response of the deep sedimentary basin underlying Metro Manila which would be suitable for local administrators in their land use planning and earthquake resistant design of medium to high-rise buildings.

Keywords: earthquake, ground motion, microtremor, seismic microzonation

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19708 Application of Facilities Management Practice in High Rise Commercial Properties: Jos in Perpective

Authors: Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu, Abubakar Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Bello, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin


The article studied the application of facilities management practice in high rise commercial properties. Convenience sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to the 60 respondents who responded to the survey. It was found out that the extent of application of facilities management in the subject properties is better described as below average. Similarly, the most frequently tools of facilities management in use and employed in the properties were outsourcing and in-house sourcing. This was influenced by the level of their familiarity with the tools. Planned and Preventive maintenance should be taken regularly in other to enhance the effectiveness of the facilities management and to satisfy both the owner and customers of the organization.

Keywords: commercial properties, facilities management, high-rise buildings, Jos metropolis and outsourcing

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19707 A Case Study on the Collapse Assessment of the Steel Moment-Frame Setback High-Rise Tower

Authors: Marzie Shahini, Rasoul Mirghaderi


This paper describes collapse assessments of a steel moment-frame high-rise tower with setback irregularity, designed per the 2010 ASCE7 code, under spectral-matched ground motion records. To estimate a safety margin against life-threatening collapse, an analytical model of the tower is subjected to a suite of ground motions with incremental intensities from maximum considered earthquake hazard level to the incipient collapse level. Capability of the structural system to collapse prevention is evaluated based on the similar methodology reported in FEMA P695. Structural performance parameters in terms of maximum/mean inter-story drift ratios, residual drift ratios, and maximum plastic hinge rotations are also compared to the acceptance criteria recommended by the TBI Guidelines. The results demonstrate that the structural system satisfactorily safeguards the building against collapse. Moreover, for this tower, the code-specified requirements in ASCE7-10 are reasonably adequate to satisfy seismic performance criteria developed in the TBI Guidelines for the maximum considered earthquake hazard level.

Keywords: high-rise buildings, set back, residual drift, seismic performance

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19706 High-Rises and Urban Design: The Reasons for Unsuccessful Placemaking with Residential High-Rises in England

Authors: E. Kalcheva, A. Taki, Y. Hadi


High-rises and placemaking is an understudied combination which receives more and more interest with the proliferation of this typology in many British cities. The reason for studying three major cities in England: London, Birmingham and Manchester, is to learn from the latest advances in urban design in well-developed and prominent urban environment. The analysis of several high-rise sites reveals the weaknesses in urban design of contemporary British cities and presents an opportunity to study from the implemented examples. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to analyze design approaches towards creating a sustainable and varied urban environment when high-rises are involved. The research questions raised by the study are: what is the quality of high-rises and their surroundings; what facilities and features are deployed in the research area; what is the role of the high-rise buildings in the placemaking process; what urban design principles are applicable in this context. The methodology utilizes observation of the researched area by structured questions, developed by the author to evaluate the outdoor qualities of the high-rise surroundings. In this context, the paper argues that the quality of the public realm around the high-rises is quite low, missing basic but vital elements such as plazas, public art, and seating, along with landscaping and pocket parks. There is lack of coherence, the rhythm of the streets is often disrupted, and even though the high-rises are very aesthetically appealing, they fail to create a sense of place on their own. The implications of the study are that future planning can take into consideration the critique in this article and provide more opportunities for urban design interventions around high-rise buildings in the British cities.

Keywords: high-rises, placemaking, urban design, townscape

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