Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 876

Search results for: cold press

876 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil

Authors: Derya Ören, Şeyma Akalın

Abstract:

Cold pres technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure, involves neither heat nor chemical treatments, so cold press technique has low oil yield and cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed extracted with hegzan and analysed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It is found that the aniseed after cold press process contains % 10 oil. Other analysis parametres free fatty acid (FFA) is 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value is 7,6 meq02/kg. Cold pressed aniseed oil values are determined for fatty acid (FFA) value as 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value 4,5 meq02/kg respectively. Also fatty acid composition is analysed, it is found that both of these oil have same fatty acid composition. The main fatty acids are; oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids.

Keywords: aniseed oil, cold press, extraction, residue

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875 Formulation of Suppositories Using Allanblackia Floribunda Butter as a Base

Authors: Mary Konadu

Abstract:

The rectal route for drug administration is becoming attractive to drug formulators because it can avoid hepatic first-pass effects, decrease gastrointestinal side effects and avoid undesirable effects of meals on drug absorption. Suppositories have been recognized as an alternative to the oral route in situations such as when the patient is comatose, unable to swallow, or when the drug produces nausea or vomiting. Effective drug delivery with appropriate pharmaceutical excipient is key in the production of clinically useful preparations. The high cost of available excipients coupled with other disadvantages have led to the exploration of potential excipients from natural sources. Allanblackia floribunda butter, a naturally occurring lipid, is used for medicinal, culinary, and cosmetic purposes. Different extraction methods (solvent (hexane) extraction, traditional/hot water extraction, and cold/screw press extraction) were employed to extract the oil. The different extracts of A. floribunda oil were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and mineral content. The oil was used as a base to formulate Paracetamol and Diclofenac suppositories. Quality control test were carried out on the formulated suppositories. The %age oil yield for hexane extract, hot water extract, and cold press extract were 50.40 ±0.00, 37.36±0.00, and 20.48±0.00, respectively. The acid value, saponification value, iodine value and free fatty acid were 1.159 ± 0.065, 208.51 ± 8.450, 49.877 ± 0.690 and 0.583 ± 0.032 respectively for hexane extract; 3.480 ± 0.055, 204.672±2.863, 49.04 ± 0.76 and 1.747 ± 0.028 respectively for hot water/traditional extract; 4.43 ± 0.055, 192.05±1.56, 49.96 ± 0.29 and 2.23 ± 0.03 respectively for cold press extract. Calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and iron were minerals found to be present in the A. floribunda butter extracts. The uniformity of weight, hardness, disintegration time, and uniformity of content were found to be within the acceptable range. The melting point ranges for all the suppositories were found to be satisfactory. The cumulative drug release (%) of the suppositories at 45 minutes was 90.19±0.00 (Hot water extract), 93.75±0.00 (Cold Pres Extract), and 98.16±0.00 (Hexane Extract) for Paracetamol suppositories. Diclofenac sodium suppositories had a cumulative %age release of 81.60±0.00 (Hot water Extract), 95.33±0.00 (Cold Press Extract), and 99.20±0.00 (Hexane Extract). The physicochemical parameters obtained from this study shows that Allanblackia floribunda seed oil is edible and can be used as a suppository base. The suppository formulation was successful, and the quality control tests conformed to Pharmacopoeia standard.

Keywords: allanblackia foribunda, paracetamol, diclofenac, suppositories

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874 Detection of Keypoint in Press-Fit Curve Based on Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Shoujia Fang, Guoqing Ding, Xin Chen

Abstract:

The quality of press-fit assembly is closely related to reliability and safety of product. The paper proposed a keypoint detection method based on convolutional neural network to improve the accuracy of keypoint detection in press-fit curve. It would provide an auxiliary basis for judging quality of press-fit assembly. The press-fit curve is a curve of press-fit force and displacement. Both force data and distance data are time-series data. Therefore, one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to process the press-fit curve. After the obtained press-fit data is filtered, the multi-layer one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to perform the automatic learning of press-fit curve features, and then sent to the multi-layer perceptron to finally output keypoint of the curve. We used the data of press-fit assembly equipment in the actual production process to train CNN model, and we used different data from the same equipment to evaluate the performance of detection. Compared with the existing research result, the performance of detection was significantly improved. This method can provide a reliable basis for the judgment of press-fit quality.

Keywords: keypoint detection, curve feature, convolutional neural network, press-fit assembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
873 Cold Formed Steel Sections: Analysis, Design and Applications

Authors: A. Saha Chaudhuri, D. Sarkar

Abstract:

In steel construction, there are two families of structural members. One is hot rolled steel and another is cold formed steel. Cold formed steel section includes steel sheet, strip, plate or flat bar. Cold formed steel section is manufactured in roll forming machine by press brake or bending operation. Cold formed steel (CFS), also known as Light Gauge Steel (LGS). As cold formed steel is a sustainable material, it is widely used in green building. Cold formed steel can be recycled and reused with no degradation in structural properties. Cold formed steel structures can earn credits for green building ratings such as LEED and similar programs. Cold formed steel construction satisfies international demand for better, more efficient and affordable buildings. Cold formed steel sections are used in building, car body, railway coach, various types of equipment, storage rack, grain bin, highway product, transmission tower, transmission pole, drainage facility, bridge construction etc. Various shapes of cold formed steel sections are available, such as C section, Z section, I section, T section, angle section, hat section, box section, square hollow section (SHS), rectangular hollow section (RHS), circular hollow section (CHS) etc. In building construction cold formed steel is used as eave strut, purlin, girt, stud, header, floor joist, brace, diaphragm and covering for roof, wall and floor. Cold formed steel has high strength to weight ratio and high stiffness. Cold formed steel is non shrinking and non creeping at ambient temperature, it is termite proof and rot proof. CFS is durable, dimensionally stable and non combustible material. CFS is economical in transportation and handling. At present days cold formed steel becomes a competitive building material. In this paper all these applications related present research work are described and how the CFS can be used as blast resistant structural system that is examined.

Keywords: cold form steel sections, applications, present research review, blast resistant design

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872 Press Hardening of Tubes with Additional Interior Spray Cooling

Authors: B. A. Behrens, H. J. Maier, A. Neumann, J. Moritz, S. Hübner, T. Gretzki, F. Nürnberger, A. Spiekermeier

Abstract:

Press-hardened profiles are used e.g. for automotive applications in order to improve light weight construction due to the high reachable strength. The application of interior water-air spray cooling contributes to significantly reducing the cycle time in the production of heat-treated tubes. This paper describes a new manufacturing method for producing press-hardened hollow profiles by means of an additional interior cooling based on a water-air spray. Furthermore, this paper provides the results of thorough investigations on the properties of press-hardened tubes in dependence of varying spray parameters.

Keywords: 22MnB5, press hardening, water-air spray cooling, hollow profiles, tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
871 The Impact of Financial News and Press Freedom on Abnormal Returns around Earnings Announcements in Greater China

Authors: Yu-Chen Wei, Yang-Cheng Lu, I-Chi Lin

Abstract:

This study examines the impacts of news sentiment and press freedom on abnormal returns during the earnings announcement in greater China including the Shanghai, Shenzhen and Taiwan stock markets. The news sentiment ratio is calculated by using the content analysis of semantic orientation. The empirical results show that news released prior to the event date may decrease the cumulative abnormal returns prior to the earnings announcement regardless of whether it is released in China or Taiwan. By contrast, companies with optimistic financial news may increase the cumulative abnormal returns during the announcement date. Furthermore, the difference in terms of press freedom is considered in greater China to compare the impact of press freedom on abnormal returns. The findings show that, the freer the press is, the more negatively significant will be the impact of news on the abnormal returns, which means that the press freedom may decrease the ability of the news to impact the abnormal returns. The intuition is that investors may receive alternative news related to each company in the market with greater press freedom, which proves the efficiency of the market and reduces the possible excess returns.

Keywords: news, press freedom, Greater China, earnings announcement, abnormal returns

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870 Violations of Press Freedom

Authors: Khalid Achaat

Abstract:

It is difficult to speak about freedom of the press in Algeria without first talking to fifty-seven journalists killed in the country between 1993 and 1997 and the five missing journalists. No serious investigation was conducted to find the culprits. When a State is not able to guarantee law, there is no justice and violations of the law become "systematic". How to claim the freedom of press in Algeria, when death becomes "banal"? In these circumstances, can we talk of rights of the Algerian press? It is impossible to understand the problems of the press in Algeria, focusing solely legal issues. Take into account technical, financial and political. Their respective roles varies depending on whether one focuses on the collection of information, the regime of the newspaper company or publication and dissemination. Can we say that the Algerian press is "the freest in the Arab world", while the latter reflects only partially the real problems facing the country? While any newspaper company is subject, de facto, to an authorization scheme, permanently subjected to the constant threat of withdrawal of the authorization, suspension, prohibition or closure without it has the right to a remedy? Can it be free when the majority of "media owners", head of the largest daily newspapers are derived from the single party in power since independence? Some of this release does not it serves the interests of the Algerian power?

Keywords: freedom, press, power, closure, suspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
869 Cold Spray Coating and Its Application for High Temperature

Authors: T. S. Sidhu

Abstract:

Amongst the existing coatings methods, the cold spray is new upcoming process to deposit coatings. As from the name itself, the cold spray coating takes place at very low temperature as compare to other thermal spray coatings. In all other thermal spray coating process the partial melting of the coating powder particles takes place before deposition, but cold spray process takes place in solid state. In cold spray process, the bonding of coating power with substrate is not metallurgical as in other thermal spray processes. Due to supersonic speed and less temperature of spray particles, solid state, dense, and oxide free coatings are produced. Due to these characteristics, the cold spray coatings have been used to protect the materials against hot corrosion. In the present study, the cold spray process, cold spray fundaments, its types, and its applications for high temperatures are discussed in the light of presently available literature. In addition, the assessment of cold spray with the competitive technologies has been conferred with available literature.

Keywords: cold spray coating, hot corrosion, thermal spray coating, high-temperature materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
868 Effect of Pressing Pressure on Mechanical Properties of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Fronds-Based Composite Board

Authors: Ellisha Iling, Dayang Siti Hazimmah Ali

Abstract:

Experimental composite boards were fabricated using oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) fronds particles by applying hot press pressure of 5MPa, 6MPa and 7MPa respectively. Modulus of rupture (MOR) and internal bond strength (IB) of the composite boards made with target density of 0.80 g/cm³ were evaluated. Composite board fabricated under hot press pressure of 5MPa had MOR and IB values of 16.27 and 4.34 N/mm² respectively. Corresponding values for composite board fabricated under hot press pressure of 6MPa were 16.76 and 5.41 N/mm² respectively. Whereas, the MOR and IB values of composite board fabricated under hot press pressure of 7MPa were 17.24 and 6.19 N/mm² respectively. All composite boards met the MOR and IB requirement stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Based on results of this work, the strength of mechanical properties of composite board increased with increase of hot press pressure. This study revealed that the selection of applied pressure during fabrication of composite board is important to improve mechanical properties of composite boards.

Keywords: composite board, Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Fronds, hot press pressure, mechanical properties

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867 Visual Construction of Youth in Czechoslovak Press Photographs: 1959-1989

Authors: Jana Teplá

Abstract:

This text focuses on the visual construction of youth in press photographs in socialist Czechoslovakia. It deals with photographs in a magazine for young readers, Mladý svět, published by the Socialist Union of Youth of Czechoslovakia. The aim of this study was to develop a methodological tool for uncovering the values and the ideological messages in the strategies used in the visual construction of reality in the socialist press. Two methods of visual analysis were applied to the photographs, a quantitative content analysis and a social semiotic analysis. The social semiotic analysis focused on images representing youth in their free time. The study shows that the meaning of a socialist press photograph is a result of a struggle for ideological power between formal and informal ideologies. This struggle takes place within the process of production of the photograph and also within the process of interpretation of the photograph.

Keywords: ideology, press photography, socialist regime, social semiotics, youth

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866 Hot Face of Cold War: 007 James Bond

Authors: Günevi Uslu Evren

Abstract:

Propaganda is one of the most effective methods for changing individual and mass opinions. Propaganda tries to get the message across to people or masses to effect rather than to provide objective information. There are many types of propaganda. Especially, political propaganda is a very powerful method that is used by states during in both war and peace. The aim of this method is to create a reaction against them by showing within the framework of internal and external enemies. Propaganda can be practiced by many different methods. Especially during the Cold War Era, the US and USSR have tried to create an ideological effect by using the mass media intensively. Cinema, which is located at the beginning of these methods, is the most powerful weapon to influence the masses. In this study, the historical process of the Cold War is examined. Especially, these propagandas that had been used by United States and The Soviet Union were investigated. The purposes of propaganda and construction methods were presented. Cold War events and relations between the US and the USSR during the Cold War will be discussed. Outlooks of two countries to each other during the Cold War, propaganda techniques used defectively during Cold War and how to use the cinema as a propaganda tool will be examined. The film "From Russia with Love, James Bond 007" that was filmed in Cold War were examined to explain how cinema was used as a propaganda tool in this context.

Keywords: cinema, cold war, James Bond, propaganda

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865 Effects of ECCS on the Cold-Leg Fluid Temperature during SGTR Accidents

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The LSTF experiment simulating the SGTR accident at the Mihama Unit-2 reactor is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In the accident and thus in the experiment, the ECC water was injected not only into the cold legs but into the upper plenum. Overall transients during the experiment such as pressures and fluid temperatures are simulated well by the code. The cold-leg fluid temperatures are shown to decrease if the upper plenum injection system is connected to the cold leg. It is found that the cold-leg fluid temperatures also decrease if the upper-plenum injection is not used and the cold-leg injection alone is actuated.

Keywords: SGTR, LSTF, RELAP5, ECCS

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864 The Physics of Cold Spray Technology

Authors: Ionel Botef

Abstract:

Studies show that, for qualitative coatings, the knowledge of cold spray technology must focus on a variety of interdisciplinary fields and a framework for problem solving. The integrated disciplines include, but are not limited to, engineering, material sciences, and physics. Due to its importance, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of physics upon cold spraying technology.

Keywords: surface engineering, cold spray, physics, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
863 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda

Abstract:

In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

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862 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar

Abstract:

Using of cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant affection on the reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percents of EGR and for determining of optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, reduction of dimension and expenditures, and reduction of sediment and optimum performance by using gas oil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: cold EGR, NOX, cooler, gas oil

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861 RFID Logistic Management with Cold Chain Monitoring: Cold Store Case Study

Authors: Mira Trebar

Abstract:

Logistics processes of perishable food in the supply chain include the distribution activities and the real time temperature monitoring to fulfil the cold chain requirements. The paper presents the use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology as an identification tool of receiving and shipping activities in the cold store. At the same time, the use of RFID data loggers with temperature sensors is presented to observe and store the temperatures for the purpose of analyzing the processes and having the history data available for traceability purposes and efficient recall management.

Keywords: logistics, warehouse, RFID device, cold chain

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860 Residual Life Estimation of K-out-of-N Cold Standby System

Authors: Qian Zhao, Shi-Qi Liu, Bo Guo, Zhi-Jun Cheng, Xiao-Yue Wu

Abstract:

Cold standby redundancy is considered to be an effective mechanism for improving system reliability and is widely used in industrial engineering. However, because of the complexity of the reliability structure, there is little literature studying on the residual life of cold standby system consisting of complex components. In this paper, a simulation method is presented to predict the residual life of k-out-of-n cold standby system. In practical cases, failure information of a system is either unknown, partly unknown or completely known. Our proposed method is designed to deal with the three scenarios, respectively. Differences between the procedures are analyzed. Finally, numerical examples are used to validate the proposed simulation method.

Keywords: cold standby system, k-out-of-n, residual life, simulation sampling

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859 The Impact of the “Cold Ambient Color = Healthy” Intuition on Consumer Food Choice

Authors: Yining Yu, Bingjie Li, Miaolei Jia, Lei Wang

Abstract:

Ambient color temperature is one of the most ubiquitous factors in retailing. However, there is limited research regarding the effect of cold versus warm ambient color on consumers’ food consumption. This research investigates an unexplored lay belief named the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition and its impact on food choice. We demonstrate that consumers have built the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition, such that they infer that a restaurant with a cold-colored ambiance is more likely to sell healthy food than a warm-colored restaurant. This deep-seated intuition also guides consumers’ food choices. We find that using a cold (vs. warm) ambient color increases the choice of healthy food, which offers insights into healthy diet promotion for retailers and policymakers. Theoretically, our work contributes to the literature on color psychology, sensory marketing, and food consumption.

Keywords: ambient color temperature, cold ambient color, food choice, consumer wellbeing

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858 The Impact of Ambient Temperature on Consumer Food Choice

Authors: Yining Yu, Miaolei Jia, Bingjie Li

Abstract:

While researchers have begun to investigate how ambient elements affect consumers’ choices between healthy and unhealthy food, the role of ambient temperature is relatively unknown. In this study, we find that ambient coldness increases consumers’ preference for unhealthy food. This effect is driven by the increased need for energy automatically activated in a cold ambiance. Consequently, consumers are more inclined to choose calorie-rich unhealthy food. This effect is diminished when the unhealthy food is cold because cold dish cannot provide the energy consumers need in the cold ambiance. We conclude with a discussion of our theoretical contributions to the literature of temperature effects and food consumption. We also offer practical takeaways for restaurant managers.

Keywords: ambient temperature, cold ambiance, food choice, need for energy

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857 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: absorption, ammonia, cold room, solar collector, vacuum tube

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856 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates

Authors: Zina Ghiloufi, Tahar Khir

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A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.

Keywords: CFD, cold room, cooling rate, dDates, numerical simulation, k-ω (SST)

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855 Influence of Machine Resistance Training on Selected Strength Variables among Two Categories of Body Composition

Authors: Hassan Almoslim

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Background: The machine resistance training is an exercise that uses the equipment as loads to strengthen and condition the musculoskeletal system and improving muscle tone. The machine resistance training is easy to use, allow the individual to train with heavier weights without assistance, useful for beginners and elderly populations and specific muscle groups. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of nine weeks of machine resistance training on maximum strength among lean and normal weight male college students. Method: Thirty-six male college students aged between 19 and 21 years from King Fahd University of petroleum & minerals participated in the study. The subjects were divided into two an equal groups called Lean Group (LG, n = 18) and Normal Weight Group (NWG, n = 18). The subjects whose body mass index (BMI) is less than 18.5 kg / m2 is considered lean and who is between 18.5 to 24.9 kg / m2 is normal weight. Both groups performed machine resistance training nine weeks, twice per week for 40 min per training session. The strength measurements, chest press, leg press and abdomen exercises were performed before and after the training period. 1RM test was used to determine the maximum strength of all subjects. The training program consisted of several resistance machines such as leg press, abdomen, chest press, pulldown, seated row, calf raises, leg extension, leg curls and back extension. The data were analyzed using independent t-test (to compare mean differences) and paired t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: No change was (P ˃ 0.05) observed in all body composition variables between groups after training. In chest press, the NWG recorded a significantly greater mean different value than the LG (19.33 ± 7.78 vs. 13.88 ± 5.77 kg, respectively, P ˂ 0.023). In leg press and abdomen exercises, both groups revealed similar mean different values (P ˃ 0.05). When the post-test was compared with the pre-test, the NWG showed significant increases in the chest press by 47% (from 41.16 ± 12.41 to 60.49 ± 11.58 kg, P ˂ 001), abdomen by 34% (from 45.46 ± 6.97 to 61.06 ± 6.45 kg, P ˂ 0.001) and leg press by 23.6% (from 85.27 ± 15.94 to 105.48 ± 21.59 kg, P ˂ 0.001). The LG also illustrated significant increases by 42.6% in the chest press (from 32.58 ± 7.36 to 46.47 ± 8.93 kg, P ˂ 0.001), the abdomen by 28.5% (from 38.50 ± 7.84 to 49.50 ± 7.88 kg, P ˂ 0.001) and the leg press by 30.8% (from 70.2 ± 20.57 to 92.01 ± 22.83 kg, P ˂ 0.001). Conclusion: It was concluded that the lean and the normal weight male college students can benefit from the machine resistance-training program remarkably.

Keywords: body composition, lean, machine resistance training, normal weight

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854 Development of a Testing Rig for a Cold Formed-Hot Rolled Steel Hybrid Wall Panel System

Authors: Mina Mortazavi, Hamid Ronagh, Pezhman Sharafi

Abstract:

The new concept of a cold formed-hot rolled hybrid steel wall panel system is introduced to overcome the deficiency in lateral load resisting capacity of cold-formed steel structures. The hybrid system is composed of a cold-formed steel part laterally connected to hot rolled part. The hot rolled steel part is responsible for carrying the whole lateral load; while the cold formed steel part is only required to transfer the lateral load to the hot rolled part without any local failure. The vertical load is beared by both hot rolled, and cold formed steel part, proportionally. In order to investigate the lateral performance of the proposed system, it should be tested under simultaneous lateral and vertical load. The main concern is to deliver the loads to each part during the test to simulate the real load distribution in the structure. In this paper, a detailed description of the proposed wall panel system and the designed testing rig is provided.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, hybrid system, wall panel system, testing rig design

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853 Assessment of Relationships between Agro-Morphological Traits and Cold Tolerance in Faba Bean (vicia faba l.) and Wild Relatives

Authors: Nisa Ertoy Inci, Cengiz Toker

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Winter or autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one the most efficient ways to overcome drought since faba bean is usually grown under rainfed where drought and high-temperature stresses are the main growth constraints. The objectives of this study were assessment of (i) relationships between cold tolerance and agro-morphological traits, and (ii) the most suitable agro-morphological trait(s) under cold conditions. Three species of the genus Vicia L. includes 109 genotypes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), three genotypes of narbon bean (V. narbonensis L.) and two genotypes of V. montbretii Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Davis and Plitmann were sown in autumn at highland of Mediterranean region of Turkey. All relatives of faba bean were more cold-tolerant than the faba bean genotypes. Three faba bean genotypes, ACV-42, ACV-84 and ACV-88, were selected as sources of cold tolerance under field conditions. Path and correlation coefficients and factor and principal component analyses indicated that biological yield should be evaluated in selection for cold tolerance under cold conditions ahead of many agro-morphological traits. The seed weight should be considered for selection in early breeding generations because they had the highest heritability.

Keywords: cold tolerance, faba bean, narbon bean, selection

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852 The Representations of Protesters in the UK National Daily Press: Pro- And Anti- Brexit Demonstrations 2016-2019

Authors: Charlotte-Rose Kennedy

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In a political climate divided by Brexit, it is crucial to be critical of the press, as it is the apparatus which political authorities use to impose their laws and shape public opinion. Although large protests have the power to shake and disrupt policy-making by making it difficult for governments to ignore their goals, the British press historically constructs protesters as delegitimate, deviant, and criminal, which could limit protests’ credibility and democratic power. This paper explores how the remain supporting daily UK press (The Mirror, Financial Times, The Independent, The Guardian) and the leave supporting daily UK press (The Daily Mail, The Daily Star, The Sun, The Express, The Telegraph) discursively constructed every pro- and anti-Brexit demonstration from 2016 to 2019. 702 instances of the terms ‘protester’, ‘protesters’, ‘protestor’ and ‘protestors’ were analyzed through both transitivity analysis and critical discourse analysis. This mixed-methods approach allowed for the analysis of how the UK press perpetuated and upheld social ideologies about protests through their specific grammatical and language choices. The results of this analysis found that both remain and leave supporting press utilized the same discourses to report on protests they oppose and protests they support. For example, the remain backing The Mirror used water metaphors regularly associated with influxes of refugees and asylum seekers to support the protesters on the remain protest ‘Final Say’, and oppose the protesters on the leave protest ‘March to Leave’. Discourses of war, violence, and victimhood are also taken on by both sides of the press Brexit debate and are again used to support and oppose the same arguments. Finally, the paper concludes that these analogous discourses do nothing to help the already marginalized social positions of protesters in the UK and could potentially lead to reduced public support for demonstrations. This could, in turn, facilitate the government in introducing increasingly restrictive legislation in relation to freedom of assembly rights, which could be detrimental to British democracy.

Keywords: Brexit, critical discourse analysis, protests, transitivity analysis, UK press

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
851 The Role and Impact of Cold Spray Technology on Surface Engineering

Authors: Ionel Botef

Abstract:

Studies show that, for viable product realisation and maintenance, a spectrum of novel processing technologies and materials to improve performance and reduce costs and environmental impact must constantly be addressed. One of these technologies, namely the cold spray process, has enabled a broad range of coatings and applications, including many that have not been previously possible or commercially practical, hence its potential for new aerospace, electronics, or medical applications. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarise the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of cold spraying on surface engineering.

Keywords: surface engineering, cold spray, ageing aircrafts, corrosion, microchannels, maintenance

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850 Compare Hot Forming and Cold Forming in Rolling Process

Authors: Ali Moarrefzadeh

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In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is termed as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes. This article describes the use of advanced tubing inspection NDT methods for boiler and heat exchanger equipment in the petrochemical industry to supplement major turnaround inspections. The methods presented include remote field eddy current, magnetic flux leakage, internal rotary inspection system and eddy current.

Keywords: hot forming, cold forming, metal, rolling, simulation

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849 Clay Palm Press: A Technique of Hand Building in Ceramics for Developing Conceptual Forms

Authors: Okewu E. Jonathan

Abstract:

There are several techniques of production in the field of ceramics. These different techniques overtime have been categorised under three methods of production which includes; casting, throwing and hand building. Hand building method of production is further broken down into other techniques and they include coiling, slabbing and pinching. Ceramic artists find the different hand building techniques to be very interesting, practicable and rewarding. This has encouraged ceramic artist in their various studios at different levels to experiment for further hand building techniques that could be unique and unusual. The art of “Clay Palm Press” is a development from studio experiment in a quest for uniqueness in conceptual ceramic practise. Clay palm press is a technique that requires no formal tutelage but at the same time, it is not easily comprehensible when viewed. It is a practice of putting semi-solid clay in the palm and inserting a closed fist pressure so as to take the imprint of the human palm. This clay production from the palm when dried, fired and explored into an art, work reveals an absolute awesomeness of what the palm imprint could result in.

Keywords: ceramics, clay palm press, conceptual forms, hand building, technique

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848 Evaluation of Polyphenolics Compounds in Cold Brewed Indian Tea

Authors: Chandrima Das, Sirshendu Chatterjee

Abstract:

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is known as nature's low calorie wonder drink. Since ancient times hot consumptions of tea is very much popular. We have observed that many heat sensitive secondary metabolites which get destroyed on heating, moreover by people, who are permanently live at higher altitude or the members of high altitude expedition team, are deprived of various tea brewing facilities like electricity, fuel, etc. and the hence cold decoction of tea might be a good alternative. In this backdrop present study aims at the analysis of antioxidants like polyphenols, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity as well as the l-theanine concentration of different types of cold brewed teas like black, green, white and oolong and compared with its hot decoction. Further, we also analysed in details about the bioactive components by using HPLC followed by green synthesis of nanoparticles. The study highlighted that the difference between the concentration of antioxidant in cold and hot brewed tea is insignificant and hence intake of cold decoction will be beneficial to health.

Keywords: antioxidants, flavanoid, polyphenols, HPLC, nanoparticles

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847 Effects of Exercise in the Cold on Glycolipid Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Rats

Authors: Chaoge Wang, Xiquan Weng, Yan Meng, Wentao Lin

Abstract:

Objective: Cold exposure and exercise serve as two physiological stimuli to glycolipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. So far, it remains to be elucidated whether exercise plus cold exposure can produce an addictive effect on promoting glycolipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Methods: 64 SD rats were subjected to high-fat and high-sugar diets for 9-week and sucessfully to establish an obesity model. They were randomly divided into 8 groups: normal control group (NC), normal exercise group (NE), continuous cold control group (CC), continuous cold exercise group (CE), acute clod control group (AC), acute cold exercise group (AE), intermittent cold control group (IC) and intermittent cold exercise group (IE). For continuous cold exposure, the rats stayed in a cold environment all day; for acute cold exposure, the rats were exposed to cold for only 4h before the end of the experiment; for intermittent cold exposure, the rats were exposed to cold for 4h per day. The protocol for treadmill runnings were as follows: 25m/min (speed), 0°C (slope), 30 mins each time, an interval for 10 mins between two runnings, twice/two days, lasting for 5 weeks. Sampling were conducted on the 5th weekend. Blood lipids, free fatty acids, blood glucose (FBG), and serum insulin (FINS) were examined, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR = FBG (mmol/L)×FINS(mIU/L)/22.5) was calculated. SPSS 22.0 was used for statistical analysis of the experimental results, and the ANOVA analysis was performed between groups (p < 0.05 was significant). Results: (1) Compared with the NC group, the FBG of the rats was significantly declined in the NE, CE, AC, AE, and IE groups (p < 0.05), the FINS of the rats was significantly declined in the AE group (p < 0.05), the HOMA-IR of the rats was significantly declined in the NE, CE, AC, AE and IE groups (p < 0.05). Compared with the NE group, the FBG of the rats was significantly declined in the CE, AE, and IE groups (p < 0.05), the FINS and HOMA-IR of the rats were significantly declined in the AE group (p < 0.05). (2) Compared with the NC group, the CHO, TG, LDL-C, and FFA of the rats were significantly declined in CE and IE groups (p < 0.05), the HDL-C of the rats was significantly higher in NE, CC, CE, AE, and IE groups (p < 0.05). Compared with the NE group, the HDL-C of the rats was significantly higher in the CE and IE groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Sedentariness or exercise in the acute cold doesn't make sense in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which led to one-off increases of the body's insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the continuous and intermittent cold can effectively decline the FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, and FFA levels and increase the HDL-C level and insulin sensitivity in obese rats. These results can impact the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: cold, exercise, insulin sensitivity, obesity

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