Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1938

Search results for: gamma ray spectroscopy

1938 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Azuraida Amat, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Ishak Mansor


The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different compositions [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes a profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defects in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give the smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation, which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: boro-tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties

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1937 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Uranium in Ceramic Tiles Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Authors: Reem M. Altuwirqi, Mohja S. Summan, Entesar A. Ganash, Safia H. Hamidalddin, Tamer E. Youssef, Mohammed A. Gondal


Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique using 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser was optimized and applied for investigating the existence of radioactive elements (uranium) in twenty-six different ceramic tiles. These tiles were collected from the local Saudi market. Qualitative and quantitative analysis for trace radioactive elements like uranium in these samples was achieved using LIBS. The plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density were calculated to confirm that the plasma generated by the tile samples under laser irradiation can be related to analyte concentrations. In order to perform a quantitative analysis, calibration curves were constructed for two uranium lines (U II (424.166 nm) and U II (424.437 nm)). The Uranium activity concentration in Bq/kg for each sample was measured. Cross-validation of LIBS results with a conventional technique such as Gamma-Ray spectroscopy was also carried out for five ceramic samples. The results show that the LIBS method is an effective way of determining radioactive elements such as uranium in ceramic tiles. Moreover, the uranium concentrations of the investigated samples were below the permissible safe limit for building materials in the majority of samples. Such LIBS system could be applied to determine the presence of natural radioactive elements in ceramic tiles and their radioactivity level rapidly to ensure that they are under the safe allowed limit.

Keywords: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, gamma-ray spectroscopy, natural radioactivity, uranium, ceramic tiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1936 Structural and Leaching Properties of Irradiated Lead Commercial Glass by Using XRD, Ultrasonic, UV-VIS and AAS Technique

Authors: N. H. Alias, S. A. Aziz, Y. Abdullah, H. M. Kamari, S. Sani, M. P. Ismail, N. U. Saidin, N. A. A. Salim, N. E. E. Abdullah


Gamma (γ) irradiation study has been investigated on the 6 rectangular shape of the standard X-Ray lead glass with 5/16” thick, providing 2.00 mm lead shielding value; at selected Sievert doses (C1; 0, C2; 0.07, C3; 0.035, C4; 0.07, C5; 0.105 and C6; 0.14) by using (XRD) X-ray Diffraction techniques, ultrasonic and (UV-VIS) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. Concentration of lead in 0.5 N acid nitric (HNO3) environments is then studied by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) as to observe the glass corrosion behavior after irradiation at room temperature. This type of commercial glass is commonly used as radiation shielding glass in medical application.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, lead glass, leaching, structural

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
1935 Application of Neutron Stimulated Gamma Spectroscopy for Soil Elemental Analysis and Mapping

Authors: Aleksandr Kavetskiy, Galina Yakubova, Nikolay Sargsyan, Stephen A. Prior, H. Allen Torbert


Determining soil elemental content and distribution (mapping) within a field are key features of modern agricultural practice. While traditional chemical analysis is a time consuming and labor-intensive multi-step process (e.g., sample collections, transport to laboratory, physical preparations, and chemical analysis), neutron-gamma soil analysis can be performed in-situ. This analysis is based on the registration of gamma rays issued from nuclei upon interaction with neutrons. Soil elements such as Si, C, Fe, O, Al, K, and H (moisture) can be assessed with this method. Data received from analysis can be directly used for creating soil elemental distribution maps (based on ArcGIS software) suitable for agricultural purposes. The neutron-gamma analysis system developed for field application consisted of an MP320 Neutron Generator (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.), 3 sodium iodide gamma detectors (SCIONIX, Inc.) with a total volume of 7 liters, 'split electronics' (XIA, LLC), a power system, and an operational computer. Paired with GPS, this system can be used in the scanning mode to acquire gamma spectra while traversing a field. Using acquired spectra, soil elemental content can be calculated. These data can be combined with geographical coordinates in a geographical information system (i.e., ArcGIS) to produce elemental distribution maps suitable for agricultural purposes. Special software has been developed that will acquire gamma spectra, process and sort data, calculate soil elemental content, and combine these data with measured geographic coordinates to create soil elemental distribution maps. For example, 5.5 hours was needed to acquire necessary data for creating a carbon distribution map of an 8.5 ha field. This paper will briefly describe the physics behind the neutron gamma analysis method, physical construction the measurement system, and main characteristics and modes of work when conducting field surveys. Soil elemental distribution maps resulting from field surveys will be presented. and discussed. Comparison of these maps with maps created on the bases of chemical analysis and soil moisture measurements determined by soil electrical conductivity was similar. The maps created by neutron-gamma analysis were reproducible, as well. Based on these facts, it can be asserted that neutron stimulated soil gamma spectroscopy paired with GPS system is fully applicable for soil elemental agricultural field mapping.

Keywords: ArcGIS mapping, neutron gamma analysis, soil elemental content, soil gamma spectroscopy

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1934 Design of a Portable Shielding System for a Newly Installed NaI(Tl) Detector

Authors: Mayesha Tahsin, A.S. Mollah


Recently, a 1.5x1.5 inch NaI(Tl) detector based gamma-ray spectroscopy system has been installed in the laboratory of the Nuclear Science and Engineering Department of the Military Institute of Science and Technology for radioactivity detection purposes. The newly installed NaI(Tl) detector has a circular lead shield of 22 mm width. An important consideration of any gamma-ray spectroscopy is the minimization of natural background radiation not originating from the radioactive sample that is being measured. Natural background gamma-ray radiation comes from naturally occurring or man-made radionuclides in the environment or from cosmic sources. Moreover, the main problem with this system is that it is not suitable for measurements of radioactivity with a large sample container like Petridish or Marinelli beaker geometry. When any laboratory installs a new detector or/and new shield, it “must” first carry out quality and performance tests for the detector and shield. This paper describes a new portable shielding system with lead that can reduce the background radiation. Intensity of gamma radiation after passing the shielding will be calculated using shielding equation I=Ioe-µx where Io is initial intensity of the gamma source, I is intensity after passing through the shield, µ is linear attenuation coefficient of the shielding material, and x is the thickness of the shielding material. The height and width of the shielding will be selected in order to accommodate the large sample container. The detector will be surrounded by a 4π-geometry low activity lead shield. An additional 1.5 mm thick shield of tin and 1 mm thick shield of copper covering the inner part of the lead shielding will be added in order to remove the presence of characteristic X-rays from the lead shield.

Keywords: shield, NaI (Tl) detector, gamma radiation, intensity, linear attenuation coefficient

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1933 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

Authors: Priyanka R. Oberoi, Chandra B. Maurya, Prakash A. Mahanwar


Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.

Keywords: bromophenol blue, dosimeter, gamma radiation, polymer

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1932 Impact of Weather Conditions on Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing over Gamma Gamma Channel

Authors: Muhammad Sameer Ahmed, Piotr Remlein, Tansal Gucluoglu


The technique called as Generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) used in the free space optical channel can be a good option for implementation free space optical communication systems. This technique has several strengths e.g. good spectral efficiency, low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), adaptability and low co-channel interference. In this paper, the impact of weather conditions such as haze, rain and fog on GFDM over the gamma-gamma channel model is discussed. A Trade off between link distance and system performance under intense weather conditions is also analysed. The symbol error probability (SEP) of GFDM over the gamma-gamma turbulence channel is derived and verified with the computer simulations.

Keywords: free space optics, generalized frequency division multiplexing, weather conditions, gamma gamma distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
1931 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Hard Ferrites

Authors: F. Abbas Pour Khotbehsara, B. Salehpour, A. Kianvash


Many industrial materials like magnets need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) where the accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large influences of beta, neutron and gamma’s over their life Gamma irradiation of the permanent sample magnets using a 60Co source was investigated up to an absorbed dose of 700Mrad shows a negligible effect on some magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B. In this work, it has been tried to investigate the change of some important properties of Barium hexa ferrite. Results showed little decreases of magnetic properties at doses rang of 0.5 to 2.5 Mrad. But at the gamma irradiation dose up to 10 Mrad it is showed a few increase of properties. Also study of gamma irradiation of Nd-Fe-B showed considerably increase of magnetic properties.

Keywords: gamma ray irradiation, hard ferrite, magnetic coefficient, magnetic material, radiation dose

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1930 Investigation of the Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Electrically Active Defects in InAs/InGaAs Quantum Dots Laser Structures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on GaAs Substrates Using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy

Authors: M. Al Huwayz, A. Salhi, S. Alhassan, S. Alotaibi, A. Almalki, M.Almunyif, A. Alhassni, M. Henini


Recently, there has been much research carried out to investigate quantum dots (QDs) lasers with the aim to increase the gain of quantum well lasers. However, one of the difficulties with these structures is that electrically active defects can lead to serious issues in the performance of these devices. It is therefore essential to fully understand the types of defects introduced during the growth and/or the fabrication process. In this study, the effects of Gamma radiation on the electrically active defects in p-i-n InAs/InGaAsQDs laser structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technique on GaAs substrates were investigated. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), current-voltage (I-V), and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were performed to explore these effects on the electrical properties of these QDs lasers. I-V measurements showed that as-grown sample had better electrical properties than the irradiated sample. However, DLTS and Laplace DLTS measurements at different reverse biases revealed that the defects in the-region of the p-i-n structures were decreased in the irradiated sample. In both samples, a trap with an activation energy of ~ 0.21 eV was assigned to the well-known defect M1 in GaAs layers

Keywords: quantum dots laser structures, gamma radiation, DLTS, defects, nAs/IngaAs

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1929 Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Iranian Native Fresh Barberry Fruit

Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani, Hamid Reza Akhavan


Gamma irradiation greatly reduces the potential microbiological risk of fresh fruits, resulting in improved microbial safety as well as extending their shelf life. The effects of 0.5-2 kGy gamma doses on some physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of fresh barberry fruits (Berberis vulgaris) during refrigerated storage for 40 days were evaluated. The total anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of barberry fruits decreased in a dose-dependent manner immediately after irradiation and after subsequent storage. In general, it is recommended that, according to the effect of gamma radiation on physicochemical, microbial and sensorial characteristics, doses of 1.25-2 kGy could be used.

Keywords: antioxidant property, barberry fruit, chemical properties, gamma irradiation

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1928 Investigation of Fumaric Acid Radiolysis Using Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Wafa Jahouach-Rabai, Khouloud Ouerghi, Zohra Azzouz-Berriche, Faouzi Hosni


Widely used organic products in the pharmaceutical industry have been detected in environmental systems, essentially carboxylic acids. In this purpose, the degradation efficiency of these contaminants was evaluated using an advanced oxidation process (AOP), namely ionization process as an alternative to conventional water treatment technologies. This process permitted the generation of radical reactions to directly degrade organic pollutants in wastewater. In fact, gamma irradiation of aqueous solutions produces several reactive radicals, essentially hydroxyl radical (OH), to destroy recalcitrant pollutants. Different concentrations of aqueous solutions of Fumaric acid (FA) were considered in this study (0.1-1 mmol/L), which were treated by irradiation doses from 1 to 15 kGy with 6.1 kGy/h rate by ionizing system in pilot scale (⁶⁰Co irradiator). Variations of main parameters influencing degradation efficiency versus absorbed doses were released in the aim to optimize total mineralization of considered pollutants. Preliminary degradation pathway until complete mineralization into CO₂ has been suggested based on detection of residual degradation derivatives using different techniques, namely high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Results revealed total destruction of treated compound, which improve the efficiency of this process in water remediation. We investigated the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals generated by irradiation on dicarboxylic acid (FA) in aqueous solutions, leading to its degradation into other smaller molecules. In fact, gamma irradiation of FA leads to the formation of hydroxylated intermediates such as hydroxycarbonyl radical which were identified by EPR spectroscopy. Finally, pilot plant irradiation facilities improved the applicability of radiation technology on large scale.

Keywords: AOP, radiolysis, fumaric acid, gamma irradiation, hydroxyl radical, EPR, HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
1927 Design of a Remote Radiation Sensing Module Based on Portable Gamma Spectrometer

Authors: Young Gil Kim, Hye Min Park, Chan Jong Park, Koan Sik Joo


A personal gamma spectrometer has to be sensitive, pocket-sized, and carriable on the users. To serve these requirements, we developed the SiPM-based portable radiation detectors. The prototype uses a Ce:GAGG scintillator coupled to a silicon photomultiplier and a radio frequency(RF) module to measure gamma-ray, and can be accessed wirelessly or remotely by mobile equipment. The prototype device consumes roughly 4.4W, weighs about 180g (including battery), and measures 5.0 7.0. It is able to achieve 5.8% FWHM energy resolution at 662keV.

Keywords: Ce:GAGG, gamma-ray, radio frequency, silicon photomultiplier

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
1926 Performance Analysis of a Hybrid DF-AF Hybrid RF/FSO System under Gamma Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channel Using MPPM Modulation

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi


The performance of hybrid amplify and forward - decode and forward (AF-DF) hybrid radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) communication system, that adopts M-ary pulse position modulation (MPPM) techniques, is analyzed. Both exact and approximate symbol-error rates (SERs) are derived. The random variations of the received optical irradiance, produced by the atmospheric turbulence, is modeled by the gamma-gamma (GG) statistical distribution. A closed-form expression for the probability density function (PDF) is derived for the whole above system is obtained. Thanks to the use of hybrid AF-DF hybrid RF/FSO configuration and MPPM, the effects of atmospheric turbulence is mitigated; hence the capacity of combating atmospheric turbulence and the transmissitted signal quality are improved.

Keywords: free space optical, gamma gamma channel, radio frequency, decode and forward, error pointing, M-ary pulse position modulation, symbol error rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1925 The Concentration of Selected Cosmogenic and Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Ground Layer of the Atmosphere (Polar and Mid-Latitudes Regions)

Authors: A. Burakowska, M. Piotrowski, M. Kubicki, H. Trzaskowska, R. Sosnowiec, B. Myslek-Laurikainen


The most important source of atmospheric radioactivity are radionuclides generated as a result of the impact of primary and secondary cosmic radiation, with the nuclei of nitrogen oxygen and carbon in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This creates about thirty radioisotopes of more than twenty elements. For organisms, the four of them are most important: ³H, ⁷Be, ²²Na, ¹⁴C. The natural radionuclides, which are present in Earth crust, also settle on dust and particles of water vapor. By this means, the derivatives of uranium and thorium, and long-life 40K get into the air. ¹³⁷Cs is the most widespread isotope, that is implemented by humans into the environment. To determine the concentration of radionuclides in the atmosphere, high volume air samplers were used, where the aerosol collection took place on a special filter fabric (Petrianov filter tissue FPP-15-1.5). In 2002 the high volume air sampler AZA-1000 was installed at the Polish Polar Observatory of the Polish Academy of Science in Hornsund, Spitsbergen (77°00’N, 15°33’E), designed to operate in all weather conditions of the cold polar region. Since 1991 (with short breaks) the ASS-500 air sampler has been working, which is located in Swider at the Kalinowski Geophysical Observatory of Geophysics Institute of the Polish Academy of Science (52°07’N, 21°15’E). The following results of radionuclides concentrations were obtained from both stations using gamma spectroscopy analysis: ⁷Be, ¹³⁷Cs, ¹³⁴Cs, ²¹⁰Pb, ⁴⁰K. For gamma spectroscopy analysis HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detector were used. These data were compared with each other. The preliminary results gave evidence that radioactivity measured in aerosols is not proportional to the amount of dust for both studied regions. Furthermore, the results indicate annual variability (seasonal fluctuations) as well as a decrease in the average activity of ⁷Be with increasing latitude. The content of ⁷Be in surface air also indicates the relationship with solar activity cycles.

Keywords: aerosols, air filters, atmospheric beryllium, environmental radionuclides, gamma spectroscopy, mid-latitude regions radionuclides, polar regions radionuclides, solar cycles

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
1924 Performance Analysis of M-Ary Pulse Position Modulation in Multihop Multiple Input Multiple Output-Free Space Optical System over Uncorrelated Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi


The performance of Decode and Forward (DF) multihop Free Space Optical ( FSO) scheme deploying Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) configuration under Gamma-Gamma (GG) statistical distribution, that adopts M-ary Pulse Position Modulation (MPPM) coding, is investigated. We have extracted exact and estimated values of Symbol-Error Rates (SERs) respectively. A closed form formula related to the Probability Density Function (PDF) is expressed for our designed system. Thanks to the use of DF multihop MIMO FSO configuration and MPPM signaling, atmospheric turbulence is combatted; hence the transmitted signal quality is improved.

Keywords: free space optical, multiple input multiple output, M-ary pulse position modulation, multihop, decode and forward, symbol error rate, gamma-gamma channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
1923 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite

Authors: K. Sowri Babu, P. Srinath, N. Rajeswara Rao, K. Venugopal Reddy


The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, nanocomposites, mesoporous silica, photoluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
1922 Statistical Analysis of Interferon-γ for the Effectiveness of an Anti-Tuberculous Treatment

Authors: Shishen Xie, Yingda L. Xie


Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially serious infectious disease that remains a health concern. The Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) is a blood test to find out if an individual is tuberculous positive or negative. This study applies statistical analysis to the clinical data of interferon-gamma levels of seventy-three subjects who diagnosed pulmonary TB in an anti-tuberculous treatment. Data analysis is performed to determine if there is a significant decline in interferon-gamma levels for the subjects during a period of six months, and to infer if the anti-tuberculous treatment is effective.

Keywords: data analysis, interferon gamma release assay, statistical methods, tuberculosis infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1921 Protective Role of Curcumin against Ionising Radiation of Gamma Ray

Authors: Turban Kar, Maitree Bhattacharyya


Curcumin, a dietary antioxidant has been identified as a wonder molecule to possess therapeutic properties protecting the cellular macromolecules from oxidative damage. In our experimental study, we have explored the effectiveness of curcumin in protecting the structural paradigm of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) when exposed to gamma irradiation. HSA, being an important transport protein of the circulatory system, is involved in binding of variety of metabolites, drugs, dyes and fatty acids due to the presence of hydrophobic pockets inside the structure. HSA is also actively involved in the transportation of drugs and metabolites to their targets, because of its long half-life and regulation of osmotic blood pressure. Gamma rays, in its increasing concentration, results in structural alteration of the protein and superoxide radical generation. Curcumin, on the other hand, mitigates the damage, which has been evidenced in the following experiments. Our study explores the possibility for protection by curcumin during the molecular and conformational changes of HSA when exposed to gamma irradiation. We used a combination of spectroscopic methods to probe the conformational ensemble of the irradiated HSA and finally evaluated the extent of restoration by curcumin. SDS - PAGE indicated the formation of cross linked aggregates as a consequence of increasing exposure of gamma radiation. CD and FTIR spectroscopy inferred significant decrease in alpha helix content of HSA from 57% to 15% with increasing radiation doses. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies complemented the spectroscopic measurements when lifetime decay was significantly reduced from 6.35 ns to 0.37 ns. Hydrophobic and bityrosine study showed the effectiveness of curcumin for protection against radiation induced free radical generation. Moreover, bityrosine and hydrophobic profiling of gamma irradiated HSA in presence and absence of curcumin provided light on the formation of ROS species generation and the protective (magical) role of curcumin. The molecular mechanism of curcumin protection to HSA from gamma irradiation is yet unknown, though a possible explanation has been proposed in this work using Thioflavin T assay. It was elucidated, that when HSA is irradiated at low dose of gamma radiation in presence of curcumin, it is capable of retaining the native characteristic properties to a greater extent indicating stabilization of molecular structure. Thus, curcumin may be utilized as a therapeutic strategy to protect cellular proteins.

Keywords: Bityrosine content, conformational change, curcumin, gamma radiation, human serum albumin

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
1920 Distribution of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Core Sediment Samples in Gulf of İzmir, Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey

Authors: D. Kurt, İ. F. Barut, Z. Ü. Yümün, E. Kam


After development of the industrial revolution, industrial plants and settlements have spread widely on the sea coasts. This concentration also brings environmental pollution in the sea. This study focuses on the Gulf of İzmir where is located in West of Turkey and it is a fascinating natural gulf of the Eastern Aegean Sea. Investigating marine current sediment is extremely important to detect pollution. Natural radionuclides’ pollution of the marine environment which is also known as a significant environmental anxiety. Ground drilling cores (the depth of each sediment is variant) were collected from the Gulf of İzmir’s four different locations which were Karşıyaka, İnciraltı, Çeşmealtı and Bayraklı. These sediment cores were put in preserving bags with weight around 1 kg, and they were dried at room temperature in a week for moisture removal. Then, they were sieved with 1 mm sieve holes, and finally these powdered samples were relocation to polyethylene Marinelli beakers of 100 ml versions. Each prepared sediment was waited to reach radioactive equilibrium between uranium and thorium for 40 days. Gamma spectrometry measurements were settled using a HPG (High- Purity Germanium) semiconductor detector. Semiconductor detectors are very good at separating power of the energy, they are easily able to differentiate peaks that are pretty close to each other. That is why, gamma spectroscopy’s usage is common for the determination of the activities of U - 238, Th - 232, Ra - 226, Cr - 137 and K - 40 in Bq kg⁻¹. In this study, the results display that the average concentrations of activities’ values are in respectively; 2.2 ± 1.5 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 0.98 ± 0.02 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 8 ± 0.96 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 0.93 ± 0.14 Bq/ kg⁻¹, and 76.05 ± 0.93 Bq/ kg⁻¹. The outcomes of the study are able to be used as a criterion for forthcoming research and the obtained data would be pragmatic for radiological mapping of the precise areas.

Keywords: gamma, Gulf of İzmir (Eastern Aegean Sea-Turkey), natural radionuclides, pollution

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1919 Radiative Reactions Analysis at the Range of Astrophysical Energies

Authors: A. Amar


Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model and single folding model at the beam energies up to 17 MeV. We could enhance the optical potential parameters using Esis88 Code, as well as SPI GENOA Code. Linear relationship between volume real potential (V0) and proton energy (Ep) has been obtained. Also, surface imaginary potential WD is proportional to the proton energy (Ep) in the range 0.400 and 17 MeV. The radiative reaction 10B(p,γ)11C has been analyzed using potential model. A comparison between 10B(p,γ)11C and 6Li(p,γ)7Be has been made. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental results in the whole range of energy. The radiative resonance reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be has been studied.

Keywords: elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei, optical potential parameters, potential model, radiative reaction

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1918 Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Hani Baek, Gwang Min Sun, Chansun Shin, Sung Ho Ahn


Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.

Keywords: NPT-IGBT, gamma irradiation, switching, turn-off delay time, recombination, trap center

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1917 Degradation of Emerging Pharmaceuticals by Gamma Irradiation Process

Authors: W. Jahouach-Rabai, J. Aribi, Z. Azzouz-Berriche, R. Lahsni, F. Hosni


Gamma irradiation applied in removing pharmaceutical contaminants from wastewater is an effective advanced oxidation process (AOP), considered as an alternative to conventional water treatment technologies. In this purpose, the degradation efficiency of several detected contaminants under gamma irradiation was evaluated. In fact, radiolysis of organic pollutants in aqueous solutions produces powerful reactive species, essentially hydroxyl radical ( ·OH), able to destroy recalcitrant pollutants in water. Pharmaceuticals considered in this study are aqueous solutions of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac at different concentrations 0.1-1 mmol/L, which were treated with irradiation doses from 3 to 15 kGy. The catalytic oxidation of these compounds by gamma irradiation was investigated using hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as a convenient oxidant. Optimization of the main parameters influencing irradiation process, namely irradiation doses, initial concentration and oxidant volume (H₂O₂) were investigated, in the aim to release high degradation efficiency of considered pharmaceuticals. Significant modifications attributed to these parameters appeared in the variation of degradation efficiency, chemical oxygen demand removal (COD) and concentration of radio-induced radicals, confirming them synergistic effect to attempt total mineralization. Pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics could be used to depict the degradation process of these compounds. A sophisticated analytical study was released to quantify the detected radio-induced radicals (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)). All results showed that this process is effective for the degradation of many pharmaceutical products in aqueous solutions due to strong oxidative properties of generated radicals mainly hydroxyl radical. Furthermore, the addition of an optimal amount of H₂O₂ was efficient to improve the oxidative degradation and contribute to the high performance of this process at very low doses (0.5 and 1 kGy).

Keywords: AOP, COD, hydroxyl radical, EPR, gamma irradiation, HPLC, pharmaceuticals

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1916 Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant

Authors: M. Mathuthu, N. N. Gaxela, R. Y. Olobatoke


A study was carried out to assess the heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations of water from the waste water treatment plant in Mafikeng Local Municipality to evaluate treatment efficiency. Ten water samples were collected from various stages of water treatment which included sewage delivered to the plant, the two treatment stages and the effluent and also the community. The samples were analyzed for heavy metal content using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Gross α/β activity concentration in water samples was evaluated by Liquid Scintillation Counting whereas the concentration of individual radionuclides was measured by gamma spectroscopy. The results showed marked reduction in the levels of heavy metal concentration from 3 µg/L (As)–670 µg/L (Na) in sewage into the plant to 2 µg/L (As)–170 µg/L (Fe) in the effluent. Beta activity was not detected in water samples except in the in-coming sewage, the concentration of which was within reference limits. However, the gross α activity in all the water samples (7.7-8.02 Bq/L) exceeded the 0.1 Bq/L limit set by World Health Organization (WHO). Gamma spectroscopy analysis revealed very high concentrations of 235U and 226Ra in water samples, with the lowest concentrations (9.35 and 5.44 Bq/L respectively) in the in-coming sewage and highest concentrations (73.8 and 47 Bq/L respectively) in the community water suggesting contamination along water processing line. All the values were considerably higher than the limits of South Africa Target Water Quality Range and WHO. However, the estimated total doses of the two radionuclides for the analyzed water samples (10.62 - 45.40 µSv yr-1) were all well below the reference level of the committed effective dose of 100 µSv yr-1 recommended by WHO.

Keywords: gross α/β activity, heavy metals, radionuclides, 235U, 226Ra, water sample

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1915 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri


In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, high temperature oxidation, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure

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1914 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Crystal Structural and Transport Properties of Bi₂Te₃ Thin Films Grown by Thermal Evaporation

Authors: Shoroog Alraddadi


In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the structural and transport properties of Bismuth Telluride (Bi₂Te₃) thin films was investigated. Bi₂Te₃ thin films with thicknesses varying from 100 nm to 500 nm were grown using thermal evaporation in vacuum 10⁻⁵ Torr. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (50, 200, and 500 kGy). The crystal structure of Bi₂Te₃ thin films was studied by XRD diffraction. It was showed that the degree of crystallinity of films increases as the doses increase. Furthermore, it was found that the electrical conductivity of Bi₂Te₃ increase as the doses increase. From these results, it can be concluding that the effect of radiation on the structural and transport properties was positive at the levels of irradiation used.

Keywords: bismuth telluride, gamma irradiation, thin film, transport properties

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1913 Method for Targeting Small Volume in Rat Brainby Gamma Knife and Dosimetric Control: Towards a Standardization

Authors: J. Constanzo, B. Paquette, G. Charest, L. Masson-Côté, M. Guillot


Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The first step is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Eleven euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomographic (CT), to estimate positioning variations regarding to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates assessed from CT images, various regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A dose of 37 Gy at 30% isodose which corresponds to 100 Gy in 100% of the target volume (X = 98.1; Y = 109.1; Z = 100.0) was set by Leksell Gamma Plan using sectors number 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit with the 4-mm diameter collimators. Effects of positioning accuracy of the rat brain on the dose deposition were simulated by Gamma Plan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Our results showed that 90% of the target volume received 110 ± 4.7 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 124 ± 0.6 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.5%. This dose deposition calculated with the Gamma Plan was validated with the dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 2%, both in X- and Z-axis,. Our results demonstrate the feasibility to standardize the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

Keywords: brain irradiation, dosimetry, gamma knife, small-animal irradiation, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)

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1912 End-to-End Performance of MPPM in Multihop MIMO-FSO System Over Dependent GG Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi


The performance of decode and forward (DF) multihop free space optical (FSO) scheme deploying multiple input multiple output (MIMO) configuration under gamma-gamma (GG) statistical distribution, that adopts M-ary pulse position modulation (MPPM) coding, is investigated. We have extracted exact and estimated values of symbol-error rates (SERs) respectively. The probability density function (PDF)’s closed-form formula is expressed for our designed system. Thanks to the use of DF multihop MIMO FSO configuration and MPPM signaling, atmospheric turbulence is combatted; hence the transmitted signal quality is improved.

Keywords: free space optical, gamma gamma channel, radio frequency, decode and forward, multiple-input multiple-output, M-ary pulse position modulation, symbol error rate

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1911 The MCNP Simulation of Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis at TRR-1/M1

Authors: S. Sangaroon, W. Ratanatongchai, S. Khaweerat, R. Picha, J. Channuie


The prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis system (PGNAA) has been constructed and installed at a 6 inch diameter neutron beam port of the Thai Research Reactor-1/ Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) since 1989. It was designed for the reactor operating power at 1.2 MW. The purpose of the system is for an elemental and isotopic analytical. In 2016, the PGNAA facility will be developed to reduce the leakage and background of neutrons and gamma radiation at the sample and detector position. In this work, the designed condition of these facilities is carried out based on the Monte Carlo method using MCNP5 computer code. The conditions with different modification materials, thicknesses and structure of the PGNAA facility, including gamma collimator and radiation shields of the detector, are simulated, and then the optimal structure parameters with a significantly improved performance of the facility are obtained.

Keywords: MCNP simulation, PGNAA, Thai research reactor (TRR-1/M1), radiation shielding

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1910 Parameter Estimation for the Mixture of Generalized Gamma Model

Authors: Wikanda Phaphan


Mixture generalized gamma distribution is a combination of two distributions: generalized gamma distribution and length biased generalized gamma distribution. These two distributions were presented by Suksaengrakcharoen and Bodhisuwan in 2014. The findings showed that probability density function (pdf) had fairly complexities, so it made problems in estimating parameters. The problem occurred in parameter estimation was that we were unable to calculate estimators in the form of critical expression. Thus, we will use numerical estimation to find the estimators. In this study, we presented a new method of the parameter estimation by using the expectation – maximization algorithm (EM), the conjugate gradient method, and the quasi-Newton method. The data was generated by acceptance-rejection method which is used for estimating α, β, λ and p. λ is the scale parameter, p is the weight parameter, α and β are the shape parameters. We will use Monte Carlo technique to find the estimator's performance. Determining the size of sample equals 10, 30, 100; the simulations were repeated 20 times in each case. We evaluated the effectiveness of the estimators which was introduced by considering values of the mean squared errors and the bias. The findings revealed that the EM-algorithm had proximity to the actual values determined. Also, the maximum likelihood estimators via the conjugate gradient and the quasi-Newton method are less precision than the maximum likelihood estimators via the EM-algorithm.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, quasi-Newton method, EM-algorithm, generalized gamma distribution, length biased generalized gamma distribution, maximum likelihood method

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1909 Simulation of Gamma Rays Attenuation Coefficient for Some common Shielding Materials Using Monte Carlo Program

Authors: Cherief Houria, Fouka Mourad


In this work, the simulation of the radiation attenuation is carried out in a photon detector consisting of different common shielding material using a Monte Carlo program called PTM. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of atomic weight and the thickness of shielding materials on the gamma radiation attenuation ability. The linear attenuation coefficients of Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) elements were evaluated at photons energy of 661:7KeV that are considered to be emitted from a standard radioactive point source Cs 137. The experimental measurements have been performed for three materials to obtain these linear attenuation coefficients, using a Gamma NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Our results have been compared with the simulation results of the linear attenuation coefficient using the XCOM database and Geant4 codes and reveal that they are well agreed with both simulation data.

Keywords: gamma photon, Monte Carlo program, radiation attenuation, shielding material, the linear attenuation coefficient

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