Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4959

Search results for: architecture framework

4959 A Framework for Evaluation of Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodologies

Authors: Babak Darvish Rouhani, Mohd Naz'ri Mahrin, Fatemeh Nikpay, Maryam Khanian Najafabadi

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) Implementation Methodologies have become an important part of EA projects. Several implementation methodologies have been proposed, as a theoretical and practical approach, to facilitate and support the development of EA within an enterprise. A significant question when facing the starting of EA implementation is deciding which methodology to utilize. In order to answer this question, a framework with several criteria is applied in this paper for the comparative analysis of existing EA implementation methodologies. Five EA implementation methodologies including: EAP, TOGAF, DODAF, Gartner, and FEA are selected in order to compare with proposed framework. The results of the comparison indicate that those methodologies have not reached a sufficient maturity as whole due to lack of consideration on requirement management, maintenance, continuum, and complexities in their process. The framework has also ability for the evaluation of any kind of EA implementation methodologies.

Keywords: enterprise architecture, EAIM, evaluating EAIM, framework for evaluation, enterprise architecture implementation methodology

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4958 A Framework for Organizational Architecture of Electronic City and Electronic Municipality

Authors: Ali Zeynali Azim, Mostfa Basiry, Samira Kafshi, Elnaz Behnoud

Abstract:

This study provides a framework for enterprise architecture in electronic city is electronic municipality. Nowadays, information technology as an emerging phenomenon has a special place in the world. Development of information and communication technology causes many changes in various fields, including emerging e-cities, municipalities and citizens. However, e-city and e-municipality need essential enterprise architecture. In order to develop enterprise architecture of e-city and e-municipality, enterprise architecture maturity method should be applied. Therefore, one of the most important needs of organizations is to choose important activities according to limitations. The studies show that there is a close relationship between IT, enterprise architecture, e-city and e-municipality. This study aimed to clarify the concept of IT, enterprise architecture, electronic city and e-municipality and how they are related to each other. Is the existence of each of IT, enterprise architecture, electronic and electronic municipal requires each other?

Keywords: enterprise architecture, e-city, e-municipality, e-government, e-citizen, service-oriented architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
4957 Enterprise Security Architecture: Approaches and a Framework

Authors: Amir Mohtarami, Hadi Kandjani

Abstract:

The amount of business-critical information in enterprises is growing at an extraordinary rate, and the ability to catalog that information and properly protect it using traditional security mechanisms is not keeping pace. Alongside the Information Technology (IT), information security needs a holistic view in enterprise. In other words, a comprehensive architectural approach is required, focusing on the information itself, understanding what the data are, who owns it, and which business and regulatory policies should be applied to the information. Enterprise Architecture Frameworks provide useful tools to grasp different dimensions of IT in organizations. Usually this is done by the layered views on IT architecture, but not requisite security attention has been held in this frameworks. In this paper, after a brief look at the Enterprise Architecture (EA), we discuss the issue of security in the overall enterprise IT architecture. Due to the increasing importance of security, a rigorous EA program in an enterprise should be able to consider security architecture as an integral part of its processes and gives a visible roadmap and blueprint for this aim.

Keywords: enterprise architecture, architecture framework, security architecture, information systems

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4956 Designing an Enterprise Architecture for Mining Company by Using Togaf Framework

Authors: Rika Yuliana, Budi Rahardjo

Abstract:

The Role of ICT in the organization will continue to experience growth in line with business growth. However, in reality, there is a gap between ICT initiatives with the development (needs) of company business that is caused by yet inadequate of ICT strategic alignment. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim to create an enterprise architectural model rule, particularly in mining companies, using the TOGAF framework. The results from the design development phase of the mining enterprise architecture meta model represents the domain of business, applications, data, and technology. The results of the design as a whole were analyzed from four perspectives, namely the perspective of contextual, conceptual, logical and physical. In the end, the quality assessment of the mining enterprise architecture is conducted to assess the suitability of the design standards and architectural principles.

Keywords: design and development the information technology architecture, enterprise architecture, enterprise architecture design result, TOGAF architecture development method (ADM)

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4955 A 'Four Method Framework' for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: software architecture, architecture erosion, prescriptive architecture, descriptive architecture

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4954 Architecture for Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based Autonomous Precision Agriculture Systems

Authors: Ebasa Girma, Nathnael Minyelshowa, Lebsework Negash

Abstract:

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in precision agriculture has seen a huge increase recently. As such, systems that aim to apply various algorithms on the field need a structured framework of abstractions. This paper defines the various tasks of the UAVs in precision agriculture and models them into an architectural framework. The presented architecture is built on the context that there will be minimal physical intervention to do the tasks defined with multiple coordinated and cooperative UAVs. Various tasks such as image processing, path planning, communication, data acquisition, and field mapping are employed in the architecture to provide an efficient system. Besides, different limitation for applying Multi-UAVs in precision agriculture has been considered in designing the architecture. The architecture provides an autonomous end-to-end solution, starting from mission planning, data acquisition, and image processing framework that is highly efficient and can enable farmers to comprehensively deploy UAVs onto their lands. Simulation and field tests show that the architecture offers a number of advantages that include fault-tolerance, robustness, developer, and user-friendliness.

Keywords: deep learning, multi-UAVs, precision agriculture, UAVs architecture

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4953 A Modular Framework for Enabling Analysis for Educators with Different Levels of Data Mining Skills

Authors: Kyle De Freitas, Margaret Bernard

Abstract:

Enabling data mining analysis among a wider audience of educators is an active area of research within the educational data mining (EDM) community. The paper proposes a framework for developing an environment that caters for educators who have little technical data mining skills as well as for more advanced users with some data mining expertise. This framework architecture was developed through the review of the strengths and weaknesses of existing models in the literature. The proposed framework provides a modular architecture for future researchers to focus on the development of specific areas within the EDM process. Finally, the paper also highlights a strategy of enabling analysis through either the use of predefined questions or a guided data mining process and highlights how the developed questions and analysis conducted can be reused and extended over time.

Keywords: educational data mining, learning management system, learning analytics, EDM framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
4952 Process Driven Architecture For The ‘Lessons Learnt’ Knowledge Sharing Framework: The Case Of A ‘Lessons Learnt’ Framework For KOC

Authors: Rima Al-Awadhi, Abdul Jaleel Tharayil

Abstract:

On a regular basis, KOC engages into various types of Projects. However, due to very nature and complexity involved, each project experience generates a lot of ‘learnings’ that need to be factored into while drafting a new contract and thus avoid repeating the same mistakes. But, many a time these learnings are localized and remain as tacit leading to scope re-work, larger cycle time, schedule overrun, adjustment orders and claims. Also, these experiences are not readily available to new employees leading to steep learning curve and longer time to competency. This is to share our experience in designing and implementing a process driven architecture for the ‘lessons learnt’ knowledge sharing framework in KOC. It high-lights the ‘lessons learnt’ sharing process adopted, integration with the organizational processes, governance framework, the challenges faced and learning from our experience in implementing a ‘lessons learnt’ framework.

Keywords: lessons learnt, knowledge transfer, knowledge sharing, successful practices, Lessons Learnt Workshop, governance framework

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4951 A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Development of Health Information Systems Enterprise Architecture Interoperability

Authors: Prosper Tafadzwa Denhere, Ephias Ruhode, Munyaradzi Zhou

Abstract:

Health Information Systems (HISs) interoperability is emerging to be the future of modern healthcare systems Enterprise Architecture (EA), where healthcare entities are seamlessly interconnected to share healthcare data. The reality that the healthcare industry has been characterised by an influx of fragmented stand-alone e-Health systems, which present challenges of healthcare information sharing across platforms, desires much attention for systems integration efforts. The lack of an EA conceptual framework resultantly crates the need for investigating an ideal solution to the objective of Health Information Systems interoperability development assessment. The study takes a qualitative exploratory approach through a design science research context. The research aims to study the various themes withdrawn from the literature that can help in the assessment of interoperable HISs development through a literature study. Themes derived from the study include HIS needs, HIS readiness, HIS constraints, and HIS technology integration elements and standards tied to the EA development architectural layers of The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) as an EA development methodology. Eventually, the themes were conceptualised into a framework reviewed by two experts. The essence of the study was to provide a framework within which interoperable EA of HISs should be developed.

Keywords: enterprise architecture, eHealth, health information systems, interoperability

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4950 Architecture Design of the Robots Operability Assessment Simulation Testbed

Authors: Sang Yeong Choi, Woo Sung Park

Abstract:

This paper presents the architecture design of the robot operability assessment simulation testbed (called "ROAST") for the resolution of robot operability problems occurred during interactions between human operators and robots. The basic idea of the ROAST architecture design is to enable the easy composition of legacy or new simulation models according to its purpose. ROAST architecture is based on IEEE1516 High Level Architecture (HLA) of defense modeling and simulation. The ROAST architecture is expected to provide the foundation framework for the easy construction of a simulation testbed to order to assess the robot operability during the robotic system design. Some of ROAST implementations and its usefulness are demonstrated through a simple illustrative example.

Keywords: robotic system, modeling and simulation, simulation architecture, operability assessment

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4949 An Agent-Service Oriented Framework for Online Contracts in Virtual Organizations

Authors: Zahra Raeisi, Reza Akbari

Abstract:

Contracting is known as one of the important tasks in virtual organization creation. Contracting is a costly process in terms of time and effort. One way to cut the time and effort is conducting contract electronically. The online contracting enable us to form virtual organization (VO) dynamically. This work presents an agent-service oriented framework for online contracting in virtual organizations. The proposed framework considers the main aspects and steps of traditional contracting process and uses the efficiency of service and agent based methodologies in order to provide a flexible and efficient way to establish contracts electronically in a VO.

Keywords: service oriented architecture, online contracts, agent-oriented architecture, virtual organization

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4948 AMBICOM: An Ambient Computing Middleware Architecture for Heterogeneous Environments

Authors: Ekrem Aksoy, Nihat Adar, Selçuk Canbek

Abstract:

Ambient Computing or Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is emerging area in computer science aiming to create intelligently connected environments and Internet of Things. In this paper, we propose communication middleware architecture for AmI. This middleware architecture addresses problems of communication, networking, and abstraction of applications, although there are other aspects (e.g. HCI and Security) within general AmI framework. Within this middleware architecture, any application developer might address HCI and Security issues with extensibility features of this platform.

Keywords: AmI, ambient computing, middleware, distributed-systems, software-defined networking

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4947 Making Sense of Places: A Comparative Study of Three Contexts in Thailand

Authors: Thirayu Jumsai Na Ayudhya

Abstract:

The study of what architecture means to people in their everyday lives inadequately addresses the contextualized and holistic theoretical framework. This article succinctly presents theoretical framework obtained from the comparative study of how people experience the everyday architecture in three different contexts including 1) Bangkok CBD, 2) Phuket island old-town, and 3) Nan province old-town. The way people make sense of the everyday architecture can be addressed in four super-ordinate themes; (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text). In this article, these super-ordinate themes were verified whether they recur in three studied-contexts. In each studied-context, the participants were divided into two groups, 1) local people, 2) visitors. Participants were asked to take photographs of the everyday architecture during the everyday routine and to participate the elicit-interview with photographs produced by themselves. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was adopted to interpret elicit-interview data. Sub-themes emerging in each studied-context were brought into the cross-comparison among three studied- contexts. It is found that four super-ordinate themes recur with additional distinctive sub-themes. Further studies in other different contexts, such as socio-political, economic, cultural differences, are recommended to complete the theoretical framework.

Keywords: sense of place, the everyday architecture, architectural experience, the everyday

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4946 Exploring the Application of Human Resource Management Bundles: A Case Study

Authors: Maniam Kaliannan

Abstract:

Studies on best practice or “bundles” of human resource management aims at providing a ‘universal solution’ to organizations yet critics challenge this view and place importance on the architecture of human resource processes in response to the dynamic needs of organizations. This paper identifies these best practices and explores how the applications of selected human resource management practices to a case study help solved their human resource problems. The case study includes insights on the problems faced; the approach taken to identify its root causes and explores how selected human resource management practices helped managed the overall predicament. The case study results supports the importance of aligning ‘bundles’ of practices with organizational architecture and ensuring that the architecture of human resource practices evolve with the changing needs of organizations. In addition, a framework based on the events of the case study is proposed to systematically manage their human resources

Keywords: bundles, best practices, human resource management, organizational architecture, framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
4945 Framework for Improving Manufacturing "Implicit Competitiveness" by Enhancing Monozukuri Capability

Authors: Takahiro Togawa, Nguyen Huu Phuc, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Oke Oktavianty

Abstract:

Our research focuses on a framework which analyses the relationship between product/process architecture, manufacturing organizational capability and manufacturing "implicit competitiveness" in order to improve manufacturing implicit competitiveness. We found that 1) there is a relationship between architecture-based manufacturing organizational capability and manufacturing implicit competitiveness, and 2) analysis and measures conducted in manufacturing organizational capability proved effective to improve manufacturing implicit competitiveness.

Keywords: implicit competitiveness, QCD, organizational capacity, architectural strategy

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4944 A Framework for Rating Synchronous Video E-Learning Applications

Authors: Alex Vakaloudis, Juan Manuel Escano-Gonzalez

Abstract:

Setting up a system to broadcast live lectures on the web is a procedure which on the surface does not require any serious technical skills mainly due to the facilities provided by popular learning management systems and their plugins. Nevertheless, producing a system of outstanding quality is a multidisciplinary and by no means a straightforward task. This complicatedness may be responsible for the delivery of an overall poor experience to the learners, and it calls for a formal rating framework that takes into account the diverse aspects of an architecture for synchronous video e-learning systems. We discuss the specifications of such a framework which at its final stage employs fuzzy logic technique to transform from qualitative to quantitative results.

Keywords: synchronous video, fuzzy logic, rating framework, e-learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
4943 Optimisation of Structural Design by Integrating Genetic Algorithms in the Building Information Modelling Environment

Authors: Tofigh Hamidavi, Sepehr Abrishami, Pasquale Ponterosso, David Begg

Abstract:

Structural design and analysis is an important and time-consuming process, particularly at the conceptual design stage. Decisions made at this stage can have an enormous effect on the entire project, as it becomes ever costlier and more difficult to alter the choices made early on in the construction process. Hence, optimisation of the early stages of structural design can provide important efficiencies in terms of cost and time. This paper suggests a structural design optimisation (SDO) framework in which Genetic Algorithms (GAs) may be used to semi-automate the production and optimisation of early structural design alternatives. This framework has the potential to leverage conceptual structural design innovation in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) projects. Moreover, this framework improves the collaboration between the architectural stage and the structural stage. It will be shown that this SDO framework can make this achievable by generating the structural model based on the extracted data from the architectural model. At the moment, the proposed SDO framework is in the process of validation, involving the distribution of an online questionnaire among structural engineers in the UK.

Keywords: building information, modelling, BIM, genetic algorithm, GA, architecture-engineering-construction, AEC, optimisation, structure, design, population, generation, selection, mutation, crossover, offspring

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4942 Publish/Subscribe Scientific Workflow Interoperability Framework (PS-SWIF) Architecture and Design

Authors: Ahmed Alqaoud

Abstract:

This paper describes Publish/Subscribe Scientific Workflow Interoperability Framework (PS-SWIF) architecture and its components that collectively provide interoperability between heterogeneous scientific workflow systems. Requirements to achieve interoperability are identified. This paper also provides a detailed investigation and design of models and solutions for system requirements, and considers how workflow interoperability models provided by Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) can be achieved using the PS-SWIF system.

Keywords: publish/subscribe, scientific workflow, web services, workflow interoperability

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4941 An Architecture Framework for Design of Assembly Expert System

Authors: Chee Fai Tan, L. S. Wahidin, S. N. Khalil

Abstract:

Nowadays, manufacturing cost is one of the important factors that will affect the product cost as well as company profit. There are many methods that have been used to reduce the manufacturing cost in order for a company to stay competitive. One of the factors that effect manufacturing cost is the time. Expert system can be used as a method to reduce the manufacturing time. The purpose of the expert system is to diagnose and solve the problem of design of assembly. The paper describes an architecture framework for design of assembly expert system that focuses on commercial vehicle seat manufacturing industry.

Keywords: design of assembly, expert system, vehicle seat, mechanical engineering

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4940 Current Issues on Enterprise Architecture Implementation Evaluation

Authors: Fatemeh Nikpay, Rodina Binti Ahmad, Babak Darvish Rouhani

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is employed by enterprises for providing integrated Information Systems (ISs) in order to support alignment of their business and Information Technology (IT). Evaluation of EA implementation can support enterprise to reach intended goals. There are some problems in current evaluation methods of EA implementation that lead to ineffectiveness implementation of EA. This paper represents current issues on evaluation of EA implementation. In this regard, we set the framework in order to represent evaluation’s issues based on their functionality and structure. The results of this research not only increase the knowledge of evaluation, but also could be useful for both academics and practitioners in order to realize the current situation of evaluations.

Keywords: current issues on EA implementation evaluation, evaluation, enterprise architecture, evaluation of enterprise architecture implementation

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4939 A Coevolutionary Framework of Business-IT Alignment through the Lens of Enterprise Architecture

Authors: Mengmeng Zhang, Honghui Chen, Kalle Lyytinen

Abstract:

The major challenges for sustainable business-IT alignment (BITA) in a company root in its volatile external competitive environment, increasingly complex internal relationships, and subversive IT roles. Failure to adequately address BITA results in wasting organizational resources, losing competitive advantages, and failing to produce adequate returns on investments. The coevolution is more suitable to describe the dynamic relationships of business and IT and has received certain attention in recent years. Multiple mechanisms for achieving BITC (e.g., sharing domain knowledge, modular design) were obtained. However, instead of a complete managing process, BITC achievement is still hard to operate in practice. This study emphasizes what the BITC management process looks like and how to execute this coevolution step-by-step. A practical coevolutionary framework that combines the enterprise architecture (EA) method with misalignment analysis is proposed in this paper. It contains steps of EA design, misalignment detection, misalignment correction, and EA management /misalignment prevention. The step of misalignment correction is especially discussed at length. This study also evaluates the proposed framework by comparing the characteristics, principles, and approaches of coevolution in the literature.

Keywords: business-IT alignment, business-IT coevolution, enterprise architecture, misalignment analysis, misalignment correction

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4938 A Web Service-Based Framework for Mining E-Learning Data

Authors: Felermino D. M. A. Ali, S. C. Ng

Abstract:

E-learning is an evolutionary form of distance learning and has become better over time as new technologies emerged. Today, efforts are still being made to embrace E-learning systems with emerging technologies in order to make them better. Among these advancements, Educational Data Mining (EDM) is one that is gaining a huge and increasing popularity due to its wide application for improving the teaching-learning process in online practices. However, even though EDM promises to bring many benefits to educational industry in general and E-learning environments in particular, its principal drawback is the lack of easy to use tools. The current EDM tools usually require users to have some additional technical expertise to effectively perform EDM tasks. Thus, in response to these limitations, this study intends to design and implement an EDM application framework which aims at automating and simplify the development of EDM in E-learning environment. The application framework introduces a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that hides the complexity of technical details and enables users to perform EDM in an automated fashion. The framework was designed based on abstraction, extensibility, and interoperability principles. The framework implementation was made up of three major modules. The first module provides an abstraction for data gathering, which was done by extending Moodle LMS (Learning Management System) source code. The second module provides data mining methods and techniques as services; it was done by converting Weka API into a set of Web services. The third module acts as an intermediary between the first two modules, it contains a user-friendly interface that allows dynamically locating data provider services, and running knowledge discovery tasks on data mining services. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the overhead of the proposed framework through a combination of simulation and implementation. The experiments have shown that the overhead introduced by the SOA mechanism is relatively small, therefore, it has been concluded that a service-oriented architecture can be effectively used to facilitate educational data mining in E-learning environments.

Keywords: educational data mining, e-learning, distributed data mining, moodle, service-oriented architecture, Weka

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4937 A Framework for Event-Based Monitoring of Business Processes in the Supply Chain Management of Industry 4.0

Authors: Johannes Atug, Andreas Radke, Mitchell Tseng, Gunther Reinhart

Abstract:

In modern supply chains, large numbers of SKU (Stock-Keeping-Unit) need to be timely managed, and any delays in noticing disruptions of items often limit the ability to defer the impact on customer order fulfillment. However, in supply chains of IoT-connected enterprises, the ERP (Enterprise-Resource-Planning), the MES (Manufacturing-Execution-System) and the SCADA (Supervisory-Control-and-Data-Acquisition) systems generate large amounts of data, which generally glean much earlier notice of deviations in the business process steps. That is, analyzing these streams of data with process mining techniques allows the monitoring of the supply chain business processes and thus identification of items that deviate from the standard order fulfillment process. In this paper, a framework to enable event-based SCM (Supply-Chain-Management) processes including an overview of core enabling technologies are presented, which is based on the RAMI (Reference-Architecture-Model for Industrie 4.0) architecture. The application of this framework in the industry is presented, and implications for SCM in industry 4.0 and further research are outlined.

Keywords: cyber-physical production systems, event-based monitoring, supply chain management, RAMI (Reference-Architecture-Model for Industrie 4.0)

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4936 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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4935 A Framework for Internet Education: Personalised Approach

Authors: Zoe Wong

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for internet education. This framework uses the personalized learning approach for everyone who can freely develop their qualifications & careers. The key components of the framework includes students, teachers, assessments and infrastructure. It allows remove the challenges and limitations of the current educational system and allows learners' to cope with progressing learning materials.

Keywords: internet education, personalized approach, information technology, framework

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4934 A Flagship Framework with Feet of Clay: Operational and Structural Challenges of the African Peace and Security Architecture

Authors: Wiriranai Brilliant Masara

Abstract:

The African Peace and Security Architecture is widely celebrated and revered as a paragon of the will to address peace and security challenges in Africa. However, like any other institution, it is embedded with operational and institutional challenges that prevent it from effectively carrying out its mandate and turning goals into achieved results. The article examines the fundamental flaws and weaknesses of the African Peace and Security Architecture by focusing on its institutions, norms, instruments, and its relationship to Africa’s Regional Economic Communities. Therefore, the article reviews the flaws of the five elements of the African Peace and Security Architecture which are the Peace and Security Council, Panel of the Wise, Continental Early Warning System, African Standby Force, and Peace Fund.

Keywords: African Union, African Peace and Security Architecture, peace and security council, continental early warning system, African Standby Force, Panel of the Wise, Peace Fund

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4933 Architectural Design as Knowledge Production: A Comparative Science and Technology Study of Design Teaching and Research at Different Architecture Schools

Authors: Kim Norgaard Helmersen, Jan Silberberger

Abstract:

Questions of style and reproducibility in relation to architectural design are not only continuously debated; the very concepts can seem quite provocative to architects, who like to think of architectural design as depending on intuition, ideas, and individual personalities. This standpoint - dominant in architectural discourse - is challenged in the present paper presenting early findings from a comparative STS-inspired research study of architectural design teaching and research at different architecture schools in varying national contexts. In philosophy of science framework, the paper reflects empirical observations of design teaching at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen and presents a tentative theoretical framework for the on-going research project. The framework suggests that architecture – as a field of knowledge production – is mainly dominated by three epistemological positions, which will be presented and discussed. Besides serving as a loosely structured framework for future data analysis, the proposed framework brings forth the argument that architecture can be roughly divided into different schools of thought, like the traditional science disciplines. Without reducing the complexity of the discipline, describing its main intellectual positions should prove fruitful for the future development of architecture as a theoretical discipline, moving an architectural critique beyond discussions of taste preferences. Unlike traditional science disciplines, there is a lack of a community-wide, shared pool of codified references in architecture, with architects instead referencing art projects, buildings, and famous architects, when positioning their standpoints. While these inscriptions work as an architectural reference system, to be compared to codified theories in academic writing of traditional research, they are not used systematically in the same way. As a result, architectural critique is often reduced to discussions of taste and subjectivity rather than epistemological positioning. Architects are often criticized as judges of taste and accused that their rationality is rooted in cultural-relative aesthetical concepts of taste closely linked to questions of style, but arguably their supposedly subjective reasoning, in fact, forms part of larger systems of thought. Putting architectural ‘styles’ under a loop, and tracing their philosophical roots, can potentially open up a black box in architectural theory. Besides ascertaining and recognizing the existence of specific ‘styles’ and thereby schools of thought in current architectural discourse, the study could potentially also point at some mutations of the conventional – something actually ‘new’ – of potentially high value for architectural design education.

Keywords: architectural theory, design research, science and technology studies (STS), sociology of architecture

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4932 [Keynote]: No-Trust-Zone Architecture for Securing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

Authors: Michael Okeke, Andrew Blyth

Abstract:

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) as the state of the art Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are used in many different critical infrastructures, from smart home to energy systems and from locomotives train system to planes. Security of SCADA systems is vital since many lives depend on it for daily activities and deviation from normal operation could be disastrous to the environment as well as lives. This paper describes how No-Trust-Zone (NTZ) architecture could be incorporated into SCADA Systems in order to reduce the chances of malicious intent. The architecture is made up of two distinctive parts which are; the field devices such as; sensors, PLCs pumps, and actuators. The second part of the architecture is designed following lambda architecture, which is made up of a detection algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Hadoop framework for data processing and storage. Apache Spark will be a part of the lambda architecture for real-time analysis of packets for anomalies detection.

Keywords: industrial control system (ics, no-trust-zone (ntz), particle swarm optimisation (pso), supervisory control and data acquisition (scada), swarm intelligence (SI)

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4931 Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito’s Conceptual Architecture

Authors: Serap Durmus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in ‘Architecture and Philosophy Readings’ elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito’s buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the paper contains Toyo Ito’s philosophy, his discourses and buildings and also thinking similarities with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Thus, the workshop of course is about architecture and philosophy relationship. With this aspect, a holistic graphic representation is aimed for Toyo Ito who thinks that everything composes a whole. As a result, it can be said that architect and philosopher interaction in architecture and philosophy relation supports creative thinking. Conceptual architecture of Toyo Ito has philosophical roots and his philosophy can be read over his buildings and can be represent totally via a holistic pattern.

Keywords: architecture, conceptual architecture, Gilles Deleuze, philosophy, Toyo Ito

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4930 Islamic Architecture and the Challenges against It

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

Abstract:

Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to lack of necessary information and also successive wars which have overtaken the Muslims as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Muslims but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art and culture of Muslims and civilization.

Keywords: art, culture, civilization, Islamic architecture, Muslims

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