Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 265

Search results for: roof cladding

265 Wind Fragility for Honeycomb Roof Cladding Panels Using Screw Pull-Out Capacity

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

The failure of roof cladding mostly occurs due to the failing of the connection between claddings and purlins, which is the pull-out of the screw connecting the two parts when the pull-out load, i.e. typhoon, is higher than the resistance of the connection screw. As typhoon disasters in Korea are constantly on the rise, probability risk assessment (PRA) has become a vital tool to evaluate the performance of civil structures. In this study, we attempted to determine the fragility of roof cladding with the screw connection. Experimental study was performed to evaluate the pull-out resistance of screw joints between honeycomb panels and back frames. Subsequently, by means of Monte Carlo Simulation method, probability of failure for these types of roof cladding was determined. The results that the failure of roof cladding was depends on their location on the roof, for example, the edge most panel has the highest probability of failure.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, roof cladding, screw pull-out strength, wind fragility

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
264 Temperature Control and Comfort Level of Elementary School Building with Green Roof in New Taipei City, Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Ming Su, Mei-Shu Huang

Abstract:

To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue facing the challenge of climate change. Through literature reviews, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect relatively. Because there are not enough open space and park, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary school is asked priority to build green roof and important educational place to promote green roof concept. Testo 175-H1 recording device was used to record the temperature and humidity difference between roof surface and interior space below roof with and without green roof for the long-term. We also use questionnaire to investigate the awareness of comfort level of green roof and sensation of teachers and students of the elementary school. The results indicated the temperature of roof without greening was higher than that with greening about 2°C. But sometimes during noontime, the temperature of green roof was higher than that of non-green roof related to the character of the accumulation and dissipation of heat of greening probably. The temperature of interior space below green roof was normally lower than that without green roof about 1°C showed that green roof could lower the temperature. The humidity of the green roof was higher than the one without greening also indicated that green roof retained water better. Teachers liked to combine green roof concept in the curriculum, students wished all classes can take turns to maintain the green roof. Teachers and students that school had integrated green roof concept in the curriculum were more willing to participate in the maintenance work of green roof. Teachers and students who may access and touch the green roof can be more aware of the green roof benefit. We suggest architect to increase the accessibility and visibility of green roof, such as a part of the activity space. This idea can be a reference of the green roof curriculum design.

Keywords: comfort level, elementary school, green roof, heat island effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
263 The Temperature Effects on the Microstructure and Profile in Laser Cladding

Authors: P. C. Chiu, Jehnming Lin

Abstract:

In this study, a 50-W CO2 laser was used for the clad of 304L powders on the stainless steel substrate with a temperature sensor and image monitoring system. The laser power and cladding speed and focal position were modified to achieve the requirement of the workpiece flatness and mechanical properties. The numerical calculation is based on ANSYS to analyze the temperature change of the moving heat source at different surface positions when coating the workpiece, and the effect of the process parameters on the bath size was discussed. The temperature of stainless steel powder in the nozzle outlet reacting with the laser was simulated as a process parameter. In the experiment, the difference of the thermal conductivity in three-dimensional space is compared with single-layer cladding and multi-layer cladding. The heat dissipation pattern of the single-layer cladding is the steel plate and the multi-layer coating is the workpiece itself. The relationship between the multi-clad temperature and the profile was analyzed by the temperature signal from an IR pyrometer.

Keywords: laser cladding, temperature, profile, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
262 Nice Stadium: Design of a Flat Single Layer ETFE Roof

Authors: A. Escoffier, A. Albrecht, F. Consigny

Abstract:

In order to host the Football Euro in 2016, many French cities have launched architectural competitions in recent years to improve the quality of their stadiums. The winning project in Nice was designed by Wilmotte architects together with Elioth structural engineers. It has a capacity of 35,000 seats. Its roof structure consists of a complex 3D shape timber and steel lattice and is covered by 25,000m² of ETFE, 10,500m² of PES-PVC fabric and 8,500m² of photovoltaic panels. This paper focuses on the ETFE part of the cover. The stadium is one of the first constructions to use flat single layer ETFE on such a big area. Due to its relatively recent appearance in France, ETFE structures are not yet covered by any regulations and the existing codes for fabric structures cannot be strictly applied. Rather, they are considered as cladding systems and therefore have to be approved by an “Appréciation Technique d’Expérimentation” (ATEx), during which experimental tests have to be performed. We explain the method that we developed to justify the ETFE, which eventually led to bi-axial tests to clarify the allowable stress in the film.

Keywords: biaxial test, creep, ETFE, single layer, stadium roof

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
261 Thermal Behavior of Green Roof: Case Study at Seoul National University Retentive Green Roof

Authors: Theresia Gita Hapsari

Abstract:

There has been major concern about urban heating as urban clusters emerge and population migration from rural to urban areas continues. Green roof has been one of the main practice for urban heat island mitigation for the past decades, thus, this study was conducted to predict the cooling potential of retentive green roof in mitigating urban heat island. Retentive green roof was developed by Han in 2010. It has 320 mm height of retention wall surrounding the vegetation and 65mm depth of retention board underneath the soil, while most conventional green roof doesn’t have any retention wall and only maximum of 25 mm depth of drainage board. Seoul National University retentive green roof significantly reduced sensible heat movement towards the air by 0.5 kWh/m2, and highly enhanced the evaporation process as much as 0.5 – 5.4 kg/m2 which equals to 0.3 – 3.6 kWh/m2 of latent heat flux. These results indicate that with design enhancement, serving as a viable alternate for conventional green roof, retentive green roof contributes to overcome the limitation of conventional green roof which is the main solution for mitigating urban heat island.

Keywords: green roof, low impact development, retention board, thermal behavior, urban heat island

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
260 Roof Material Detection Based on Object-Based Approach Using WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

Authors: Ebrahim Taherzadeh, Helmi Z. M. Shafri, Kaveh Shahi

Abstract:

One of the most important tasks in urban area remote sensing is detection of impervious surface (IS), such as building roof and roads. However, detection of IS in heterogeneous areas still remains as one of the most challenging works. In this study, detection of concrete roof using an object-oriented approach was proposed. A new rule-based classification was developed to detect concrete roof tile. The proposed rule-based classification was applied to WorldView-2 image. Results showed that the proposed rule has good potential to predict concrete roof material from WorldView-2 images with 85% accuracy.

Keywords: object-based, roof material, concrete tile, WorldView-2

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
259 Effect of Cladding Direction on Residual Stress Distribution in Laser Cladded Rails

Authors: Taposh Roy, Anna Paradowska, Ralph Abrahams, Quan Lai, Michael Law, Peter Mutton, Mehdi Soodi, Wenyi Yan

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In this investigation, a laser cladding process with a powder feeding was used to deposit stainless steel 410L (high strength, excellent resistance to abrasion and corrosion, and great laser compatibility) onto railhead (higher strength, heat treated hypereutectoid rail grade manufactured in accordance with the requirements of European standard EN 13674 Part 1 for R400HT grade), to investigate the development and controllability of process-induced residual stress in the cladding, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and substrate and to analyse their correlation with hardness profile during two different laser cladding directions (across and along the track). Residual stresses were analysed by neutron diffraction at OPAL reactor, ANSTO. Neutron diffraction was carried out on the samples in longitudinal (parallel to the rail), transverse (perpendicular to the rail) and normal (through thickness) directions with high spatial resolution through the thickness. Due to the thick rail and thin cladding, 4 mm thick reference samples were prepared from every specimen by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). Metallography across the laser claded sample revealed four distinct zones: The clad zone, the dilution zone, HAZ and the substrate. Compressive residual stresses were found in the clad zone and tensile residual stress in the dilution zone and HAZ. Laser cladding in longitudinally cladding induced higher tensile stress in the HAZ, whereas transversely cladding rail showed lower tensile behavior.

Keywords: laser cladding, residual stress, neutron diffraction, HAZ

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
258 Thermal Behavior of the Extensive Green Roofs in Riyadh City

Authors: Ashraf Muharam, Nasser Al-Hemiddi, El Sayed Amer

Abstract:

Green roof is one of sustainable practice for reducing the environmental impact of a building. Green roofs are vegetation roofs that are partially or completely covered building's roof. It can provide multiple environmental benefits such as mitigation of urban heat island effect and protecting buildings against solar radiation. In Riyadh city buildings consume about 70 % of the total energy used in the building for cooling and heating because of the Riyadh's harsh and tropical climate. So, the study aim was identifying the thermal performance of extensive green roof and comparing its performance with concrete roof performance during summer season. The experimental validations results indicated that the extensive green roofs system was better than concrete roof system for lowering the indoor air temperature. It could reduce the indoor air temperature from 2°C to 5.5°C compared to the concrete roof system. Also, the finding of this study demonstrated that extensive green roof system could reduce 12% to 33% of energy consumption of air conditioning in Riyadh city during summer seasons by using environmentally friendly insulation.

Keywords: thermal performance, green roof system, concrete roof system, tropical climatic, internal temperatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
257 Mitigation of Wind Loads on a Building Using Small Wind Turbines

Authors: Arindam Chowdhury, Andres Tremante, Mohammadtaghi Moravej, Bodhisatta Hajra, Ioannis Zisis, Peter Irwin

Abstract:

Extreme wind events, such as hurricanes, have caused significant damage to buildings, resulting in losses worth millions of dollars. The roof of a building is most vulnerable to wind-induced damage due to the high suctions experienced by the roof in extreme wind conditions. Wind turbines fitted to buildings can help generate energy, but to our knowledge, their application to wind load mitigation is not well known. This paper presents results from an experimental study to assess the effect of small wind turbines (developed and patented by the first and second authors) on the wind loads on a low rise building roof. The tests were carried out for an open terrain at the Wall of Wind (WOW) experimental facility at Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA, for three cases – bare roof, roof fitted with wind turbines placed closer to the roof edges, and roof with wind turbines placed away from the roof edges. Results clearly indicate that the presence of the wind turbines reduced the mean and peak pressure coefficients (less suction) on the roof when compared to the bare deck case. Furthermore, the peak pressure coefficients were found to be lower (less suction) when the wind turbines were placed closer to the roof, than away from the roof. Flow visualization studies using smoke and gravel clearly showed that the presence of the turbines disrupted the formation of vortices formed by cornering winds, thereby reducing roof suctions and preventing lift off of roof coverings. This study shows that the wind turbines besides generating wind energy, can be used for mitigating wind induced damage to the building roof. Future research must be directed towards understanding the effect of these wind turbines on other roof geometries (e.g. hip/gable) in different terrain conditions.

Keywords: wall of wind, wind loads, wind turbine, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
256 CFD Modelling and Thermal Performance Analysis of Ventilated Double Skin Roof Structure

Authors: A. O. Idris, J. Virgone, A. I. Ibrahim, D. David, E. Vergnault

Abstract:

In hot countries, the major challenge is the air conditioning. The increase in energy consumption by air conditioning stems from the need to live in more comfortable buildings, which is understandable. But in Djibouti, one of the countries with the most expensive electricity in the world, this need is exacerbated by an architecture that is inappropriate and unsuitable for climatic conditions. This paper discusses the design of the roof which is the surface receiving the most solar radiation. The roof determines the general behavior of the building. The study presents Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling and analysis of the energy performance of a double skin ventilated roof. The particularity of this study is that it considers the climate of Djibouti characterized by hot and humid conditions in winter and very hot and humid in summer. Roof simulations are carried out using the Ansys Fluent software to characterize the flow and the heat transfer induced in the ventilated roof in steady state. This modeling is carried out by comparing the influence of several parameters such as the internal emissivity of the upper surface, the thickness of the insulation of the roof and the thickness of the ventilated channel on heat gain through the roof. The energy saving potential compared to the current construction in Djibouti is also presented.

Keywords: building, double skin roof, CFD, thermo-fluid analysis, energy saving, forced convection, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
255 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of an Extensive Green Roof with a Traditional Gravel-Asphalted Roof: An Application for the Lebanese Context

Authors: Makram El Bachawati, Rima Manneh, Thomas Dandres, Carla Nassab, Henri El Zakhem, Rafik Belarbi

Abstract:

A vegetative roof, also called a garden roof, is a "roofing system that endorses the growth of plants on a rooftop". Garden roofs serve several purposes for a building, such as embellishing the roofing system, enhancing the water management, and reducing the energy consumption and heat island effects. Lebanon is a Middle East country that lacks the use of a sustainable energy system. It imports 98% of its non-renewable energy from neighboring countries and suffers flooding during heavy rains. The objective of this paper is to determine if the implementation of vegetative roofs is effectively better than the traditional roofs for the Lebanese context. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in order to compare an existing extensive green roof to a traditional gravel-asphalted roof. The life cycle inventory (LCI) was established and modeled using the SimaPro 8.0 software, while the environmental impacts were classified using the IMPACT 2002+ methodology. Results indicated that, for the existing extensive green roof, the waterproofing membrane and the growing medium were the highest contributors to the potential environmental impacts. When comparing the vegetative to the traditional roof, results showed that, for all impact categories, the extensive green roof had the less environmental impacts.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, green roofs, vegatative roof, environmental impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
254 Effect of Green Roofs to Prevent the Dissipation of Energy in Mountainous Areas

Authors: Mina Ganji Morad, Maziar Azadisoleimanieh, Sina Ganji Morad

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A green roof is formed by green plants alive and has many positive impacts in the regional climatic, as well as indoor. Green roof system to prevent solar radiation plays a role in the cooling space. The cooling is done by reducing thermal fluctuations on the exterior of the roof and by increasing the roof heat capacity which cause to keep the space under the roof cool in the summer and heating rate increases during the winter. A roof garden is one of the recommended ways to reduce energy consumption in large cities. Despite the scale of the city green roofs have effective functions, such as beautiful view of city and decontaminating the urban landscape and reduce mental stress, and in an exchange of energy and heat from outside to inside spaces. This article is based on a review of 20 articles and 10 books and valid survey results on the positive effects of green roofs to prevent energy waste in the building. According to these publications, three of the conventional roof, green roof typical and green roof with certain administrative details (layers of glass) and the use of resistant plants and shrubs have been analyzed and compared their heat transfer. The results of these studies showed that one of the best green roof systems for mountainous climate is tree and shrub system that in addition to being resistant to climate change in mountainous regions, will benefit from the other advantages of green roof. Due to the severity of climate change in mountainous areas it is essential to prevent the waste of buildings heating and cooling energy. Proper climate design can greatly help to reduce energy.

Keywords: green roof, heat transfer, reducing energy consumption, mountainous areas, sustainable architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
253 Micro-Cantilever Tests on Hydride Blister and Zirconium Matrix of Zircaloy-4 Cladding Tube

Authors: Ho-A Kim, Jae-Soo Noh

Abstract:

During reactor operation, hydride blister can occur in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) claddings, and it could worsen the integrity of the claddings locally. Hydride blister can be critical when a pinch-type load is applied in the process of SNF handling and transportation. Micro-cantilever tests were performed to evaluate the risk of local hydride blister by comparing the fracture toughness of local hydride blister and pre-hydrided Zr alloy matrix of SNF cladding on a microscale. Hydride blister was generated by a gaseous charging procedure to simulate an SNF cladding. Micro-cantilevers and pre-cracks were ion-milled with the Ga+ ion beam of FEI Helios 600 at 30kV acceleration voltage. Micro-cantilever tests were conducted using PI 85 pico-indenter (HYSTRON) with for sided conductive diamond flat tip (1 μm x 1 μm) at a speed of 5 nm/sec. The results show that the hydride blister specimen could be fractured in the elastic deformation region, and the fracture toughness of the hydride blister specimen could drop up to 60% of that of the pre-hydrided Zr alloy matrix. Therefore, local hydride blister can degrade the integrity of SNF cladding, and the effect of hydride blister should be taken into account when evaluating failure criteria of claddings during handling, storage, and transportation of SNF.

Keywords: fracture toughness, hydride blister, micro-cantilever test, spent nuclear fuel cladding.

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
252 Studying the Effect of Shading by Rooftop PV Panels on Dwellings’ Thermal Performance

Authors: Saad Odeh

Abstract:

Thermal performance is considered to be a key measure in building sustainability. One of the technologies used in the current building sustainable design is the rooftop solar PV power generators. The application of this type of technology has expanded vastly during the last five years in many countries. This paper studies the effect of roof shading developed by the solar PV panels on dwellings’ thermal performance. The analysis in this work is performed by using two types of packages: “AccuRate Sustainability” for rating the energy efficiency of residential building design, and “PVSYST” for the solar PV power system design. The former package is used to calculate the annual heating and cooling load, and the later package is used to evaluate the power production from the roof top PV system. The analysis correlates the electrical energy generated from the PV panels to the change in the heating and cooling load due to roof shading. Different roof orientation, roof inclination, roof insulation, as well as PV panel area are considered in this study. The analysis shows that the drop in energy efficiency due to the shaded area of the roof by PV panels is negligible compared to the energy generated by these panels.

Keywords: PV panel, thermal performance, roof shading, energy efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
251 Improvement of Fatigue and Fatigue Corrosion Resistances of Turbine Blades Using Laser Cladding

Authors: Sami I. Jafar, Sami A. Ajeel, Zaman A. Abdulwahab

Abstract:

The turbine blades used in electric power plants are made of low alloy steel type 52. These blades will be subjected to fatigue and also at other times to fatigue corrosion with aging time. Due to their continuous exposure to cyclic rotational stresses in corrosive steam environments, The current research aims to deal with this problem using the laser cladding method for low alloy steel type 52, which works to re-compose the metallurgical structure and improve the mechanical properties by strengthening the resulting structure, which leads to an increase in fatigue and wears resistance, therefore, an increase in the life of these blades is observed.

Keywords: fatigue, fatigue corrosion, turbine blades, laser cladding

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
250 A Review on the Development and Challenges of Green Roof Systems in Malaysia

Authors: M. F. Chow, M. F. Abu Bakar

Abstract:

Green roof system is considered a relatively new concept in Malaysia even though it has been implemented widely in the developed countries. Generally, green roofs provide many benefits such as enhancing aesthetical quality of the built environment, reduce urban heat island effect, reduce energy consumption, improve stormwater attenuation, and reduce noise pollution. A better understanding on the implementation of green roof system in Malaysia is crucial, as Malaysia’s climate is different if compared with the climate in temperate countries where most of the green roof studies have been conducted. This study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system which focuses on i) types of plants and method of planting; ii) engineering design for green roof system; iii) its hydrological performance on reducing stormwater runoff; and iv) benefits of green roofs with respect to energy. Literature review has been conducted to identify the development and obstacles associated with green roofs systems in Malaysia. The study had identified the challenges and potentials of green roofs development in Malaysia. This study also provided the recommendations on standard design and strategies on the implementation of green roofs in Malaysia in the near future.

Keywords: engineering design, green roof, sustainable development, tropical countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
249 The Study of Groundcover for Heat Reduction

Authors: Winai Mankhatitham

Abstract:

This research investigated groundcover on the roof (green roof) which can reduce the temperature and carbon monoxide. This study is divided into 3 main aspects: 1) Types of groundcover affecting heat reduction, 2) The efficiency on heat reduction of 3 types of groundcover, i.e. lawn, arachis pintoi, and purslane, 3) Database for designing green roof. This study has been designed as an experimental research by simulating the 3 types of groundcover in 3 trays placed in the green house for recording the temperature change for 24 hours. The results showed that the groundcover with the highest heat reduction efficiency was lawn. The dense of the lawn can protect the heat transfer to the soil. For the further study, there should be a comparative study of the thickness and the types of soil to get more information for the suitable types of groundcover and the soil for designing the energy saving green roof.

Keywords: green roof, heat reduction, groundcover, energy saving

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
248 Recommending Appropriate Type of Green Roof Considering Urban Typology and Climatic Zoning in Iran

Authors: Ghazal Raheb

Abstract:

Population growth in big cities of Iran has led to limitation of land resources, more consumption of non-renewable sources of energy and many environmental problems. Emerging of overbuilt urban areas and decreasing amount of green spaces cause the appearance of an undesirable landscape in the cities. Green roof technology is a solution to improve environmental concerns in urban areas which combines green spaces with buildings as the private or semi-private spaces. Successful implementation in different areas definitely depends on accommodation of green roof type with the environment and urban and building typology in Iran. This paper is aiming to provide some recommendation for selecting appropriate type of green roof and executive solutions considering to climatic zoning and urban situation in Iran. Two main aspects which have been considered are environmental and urban typology factors.

Keywords: green roof, urban typology, climate zone, landscape

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
247 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: F. M. Mohamed, A. Y. Abdelaziz

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The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection system

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
246 High-Frequency Acoustic Microscopy Imaging of Pellet/Cladding Interface in Nuclear Fuel Rods

Authors: H. Saikouk, D. Laux, Emmanuel Le Clézio, B. Lacroix, K. Audic, R. Largenton, E. Federici, G. Despaux

Abstract:

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel rods are made of ceramic pellets (e.g. UO2 or (U,Pu) O2) assembled in a zirconium cladding tube. By design, an initial gap exists between these two elements. During irradiation, they both undergo transformations leading progressively to the closure of this gap. A local and non destructive examination of the pellet/cladding interface could constitute a useful help to identify the zones where the two materials are in contact, particularly at high burnups when a strong chemical bonding occurs under nominal operating conditions in PWR fuel rods. The evolution of the pellet/cladding bonding during irradiation is also an area of interest. In this context, the Institute of Electronic and Systems (IES- UMR CNRS 5214), in collaboration with the Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), is developing a high frequency acoustic microscope adapted to the control and imaging of the pellet/cladding interface with high resolution. Because the geometrical, chemical and mechanical nature of the contact interface is neither axially nor radially homogeneous, 2D images of this interface need to be acquired via this ultrasonic system with a highly performing processing signal and by means of controlled displacement of the sample rod along both its axis and its circumference. Modeling the multi-layer system (water, cladding, fuel etc.) is necessary in this present study and aims to take into account all the parameters that have an influence on the resolution of the acquired images. The first prototype of this microscope and the first results of the visualization of the inner face of the cladding will be presented in a poster in order to highlight the potentials of the system, whose final objective is to be introduced in the existing bench MEGAFOX dedicated to the non-destructive examination of irradiated fuel rods at LECA-STAR facility in CEA-Cadarache.

Keywords: high-frequency acoustic microscopy, multi-layer model, non-destructive testing, nuclear fuel rod, pellet/cladding interface, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
245 Tribological Study of TiC Powder Cladding on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Yuan-Ching Lin, Sin-Yu Chen, Pei-Yu Wu

Abstract:

This study reports the improvement in the wear performance of A6061 aluminum alloy clad with mixed powders of titanium carbide (TiC), copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. The wear performance of the A6061 clad layers was evaluated by performing pin-on-disc mode wear test. Experimental results clearly indicate an enhancement in the hardness of the clad layer by about two times that of the A6061 substrate without cladding. Wear test demonstrated a significant improvement in the wear performance of the clad layer when compared with the A6061 substrate without cladding. Moreover, the interface between the clad layer and the A6061 substrate exhibited superior metallurgical bonding. Due to this bonding, the clad layer did not spall during the wear test; as such, massive wear loss was prevented. Additionally, massive oxidized particulate debris was generated on the worn surface during the wear test; this resulted in three-body abrasive wear and reduced the wear behavior of the clad surface.

Keywords: GTAW、A6061 aluminum alloy, 、surface modification, tribological study, TiC powder cladding

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
244 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Roofing System for Abu Dhabi

Authors: Iyasu Eibedingil

Abstract:

The construction industry is one of the major factors responsible for causing a negative impact on the environment. It has the largest share in the use of natural resources including land use, material extraction, and greenhouse gases emissions. For this reason, it is imperative to reduce its environmental impact through the construction of sustainable buildings with less impact. These days, it is possible to measure the environmental impact by using different tools such as the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Given this premise, this study explored the environmental impact of two types of roofing systems through comparative life cycle assessment approach. The tiles were analyzed to select the most environmentally friendly roofing system for the villa at Khalifa City A, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. These products are available in various forms; however, in this study concrete roof tiles and clay roof tiles were considered. The results showed that concrete roof tiles have lower environmental impact. In all scenarios considered, manufacturing the roof tiles locally, using recovered fuels for firing clay tiles, and using renewable energy (electricity from PV plant) showed that the concrete roof tiles were found to be excellent in terms of its embodied carbon, embodied the energy and various other environmental performance indicators.

Keywords: clay roof tile, concrete roof tile, life cycle assessment, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
243 Study on the Effect of Different Media on Green Roof Water Retention

Authors: Chen Zhi-Wei, Hsieh Wei-Fang

Abstract:

Taiwan annual rainfall is global average of 2.5 times, plus city excessive development, green constantly to reduced, instead of is big area of artificial base disc, makes Taiwan rainy season during occurred of storm cannot timely of emissions, led to flood constantly, and rain also cannot was retained again using, led to city hydrological balance suffered damage, and to Regulation city of by brings of negative effect, increased green covered rate became most effective of method, and city land limited, so roof green gradually became a alternative program. Green roofs have become one of the Central and local government policy initiatives for urban development, in foreign countries, such as the United States, and Japan, and Singapore etc. Development of roof greening as an important policy, has become a trend of the times. In recent years, many experts and scholars are also on the roof greening all aspects of research, mostly for green roof for the environmental impact of benefits, such as: carbon reduction, cooling, thermostat, but research on the benefits of green roofs under water cut but it is rare. Therefore, this research literature from green roof in to view and analyze what kind of medium suitable for roof greening and use of green base plate combination simulated green roof structure, via different proportions of the medium with water retention plate and drainage board, experiment with different planting base plate combination of water conservation performance. Research will want to test the effect of roof planting base mix, promotion of relevant departments and agencies in future implementation of green roofs, prompted the development of green roofs, which in the end Taiwan achieve sustainable development of the urban environment help.

Keywords: thin-layer roof greening and planting medium, water efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
242 Investigation on Dry Sliding Wear for Laser Cladding of Stellite 6 Produced on a P91 Steel Substrate

Authors: Alain Kusmoko, Druce Dunne, Huijun Li

Abstract:

Stellite 6 was deposited by laser cladding on a chromium bearing substrate (P91) with energy inputs of 1 kW (P91-1) and 1.8 kW (P91-1.8). The chemical compositions and microstructures of these coatings were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The microhardness of the coatings was measured and the wear mechanism of the coatings was assessed using a pin-on-plate (reciprocating) wear testing machine. The results showed less cracking and pore development for Stellite 6 coatings applied to the P91 steel substrate with the lower heat input (P91-1). Further, the Stellite coating for P91-1 was significantly harder than that obtained for P91-1.8. The wear test results indicated that the weight loss for P91-1 was much lower than for P91-1.8. It is concluded that the lower hardness of the coating for P91-1.8, together with the softer underlying substrate structure, markedly reduced the wear resistance of the Stellite 6 coating.

Keywords: friction and wear, laser cladding, P91 steel, Stellite 6 coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
241 Study on the Influence of Cladding and Finishing Materials of Apartment Buildings on the Architectural Identity of Amman

Authors: Asil Zureigat, Ayat Odat

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Analyzing the old and bringing in the new is an ever ongoing process in driving innovations in architecture. This paper looks at the excessive use of stone in apartment buildings in Amman and speculates on the existing possibilities of changing the cladding material. By looking at architectural exceptions present in Amman the paper seeks to make the exception, the rule by adding new materials to the architectural library of Amman and in turn, project a series of possible new identities to the existing stone scape. Through distributing a survey, conducting a photographic study on exceptional buildings and shedding light on the historical narrative of stone, the paper highlights the ways in which new finishing materials such as plaster, paint and stone variations could be introduced in an attempt to project a new architectural identity to Amman.

Keywords: architectural city identity, cladding materials, façade architecture, image of the city

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
240 Numerical Modeling on the Vehicle Interior Noise Produced by Rain-the-Roof Excitation

Authors: Zilong Peng, Jun Fan

Abstract:

With the improvement of the living standards, the requirement on the acoustic comfort of the vehicle interior environment is becoming higher. The rain-the-roof producing interior noise is a common phenomenon for the vehicle, which usually discourages the conversation, especially for the heavy rain. This paper presents some numerical results about the rain-the-roof noise. The impact of each water drop is modeled as a short pulse, and the excitation locations on the roof are generated randomly. The vehicle body is simplified to a box closed with some certain-thickness shells. According to the main frequency components of the rain excitation, the analyzing frequency range is divided as low, high and middle frequency domains, which makes the vehicle body are modeled using finite element method (FEM), statistical energy analysis (SEA) and hybrid FE-SEA method, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of spatial distribution density and size of the rain on the sound pressure level are also discussed. These results may provide a guide for designing a more silent vehicle in the special weather.

Keywords: rain-the-roof noise, vehicle, finite element method, statistical energy analysis

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239 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Laser Cladding in Various Tilting Pad Bearing Materials

Authors: Si-Geun Choi, Hoon-Jae Park, Jung-Woo Cho, Jin-Ho Lim, Jin-Young Park, Joo-Young Oh, Jae-Il Jeong Seock-Sam Kim, Young Tae Cho, Chan Gyu Kim, Jong-Hyoung Kim

Abstract:

The tilting pad bearing is a kind of the fluid film bearing and it can contribute to the high speed and the high load performance compared to other bearings including the rolling element bearing. Furthermore, the tilting bearing has many advantages such as high stability at high-speed performance, long life, high damping, high impact resistance and low noise. Therefore, it mostly used in mid to large size turbomachines, despite the high price disadvantage. Recently, manufacture and process employing laser techniques advancing at a fast-growing rate in mechanical industry, the dissimilar metal weld process employing laser techniques is actively studied. Moreover, also, Industry fields try to apply for welding the white metal and the back metal using laser cladding method for high durability. Furthermore, it has followed that laser cladding method has a lot better bond strength, toughness, anti-abrasion and environment-friendly than centrifugal casting method through preceding research. Therefore, the laser cladding method has a lot better quality, cost reduction, eco-friendliness and permanence of technology than the centrifugal casting method or the gravity casting method. In this study, we compare the mechanical properties of different bearing materials by evaluating the behavior of laser cladding layer with various materials (i.e. SS400, SCM440, S20C) under the same parameters. Furthermore, we analyze the porosity of various tilting pad bearing materials which white metal treated on samples. SEM, EDS analysis and hardness tests of three materials are shown to understand the mechanical properties and tribological behavior. W/D ratio, surface roughness results with various materials are performed in this study.

Keywords: laser cladding, tilting pad bearing, white metal, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
238 Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Dilution, Mechanical, and Metallurgical Properties in Cladding of 308 on Mild Steel

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Parminder Singh Saini

Abstract:

The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the cladding of the AISI 308 on the mild steel plates using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Ultrasonic vibrations were applied to molten austenitic stainless steel during the welding process. Due to acoustically induced cavitations and streaming there is a complete mixture of the clad metal and the base metal. It was revealed that cladding of AISI 308 over mild steel along with ultrasonic vibrations result in uniform and finer grain structures. The effect of the vibration on the dilution, mechanical properties and metallographic studies were also studied. It was found that the welding done using the ultrasonic vibration has the less dilution and CVN value for the vibrated sample was also high.

Keywords: surfacing, ultrasonic vibrations, mechanical properties, shielded metal arc welding

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237 Study of Ambient Air Quality on Building's Roof of Dhaka City

Authors: Koninika Tanzim

Abstract:

The gaseous pollutants, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 affect the environment of Dhaka City. These pollutants are mainly released from stationary sources, like, fossil-fueled, power plants, industrial units and brickfields around the city. Suspended particulate matters including PM10 and PM2.5 are also contributing to air pollution in Dhaka City. SO2, NO2 and O3 are determined by using UV and visible spectrophotometry. The sensor type devised has been used for the determination of CO in ambient air. Lead in the suspended particulate matter was determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected at ground level and on the roof of a seven-storied building. For all the criteria pollutants, the concentration at the roof was found to the lower than that at the ground level. The average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were found to the 241.5 and 81.1 mg/m3 at the ground level. On the roof of a 7 storied building was however 49.99 mg/m3 and 25.88 mg/m3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. The concentration of Pb varied from 0.011 to 0.04 mg/m3 at the ground level. The values for Pb at the roof level were significantly lower. The values for SO2, NO2, CO and O3 were found to be higher than the USEPA values.

Keywords: gaseous air pollutant, PM, lead, gravimetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption, ambient air quality

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236 Re-Inhabiting the Roof: Han Slawick Covered Roof Terrace, Amsterdam

Authors: Simone Medio

Abstract:

If we observe many modern cities from above, we are typically confronted with a sea of asphalt-clad flat rooftops. In contrast to the modernist expectation of a populated flat roof, flat rooftops in modern multi-story buildings are rarely used. On the contrary, they typify a desolate and abandoned landscape encouraging mechanical system allocation. Flat roof technology continues to be seen as a state-of-fact in most multi-storey building designs and its greening its prevalent environmental justification. This paper aims to seek a change in the approach to flat roofing. It makes a case for the opportunity at hand for architectonically resolute, sheltered, livable spaces that make a better use of the environment at rooftop level. The researcher is looking for the triggers that allow for that change to happen in the design process of case study buildings. The paper begins by exploring Han Slawick covered roof terrace in Amsterdam as a simple and essential example of transforming the flat roof in a usable, inhabitable space. It investigates the design challenges and the logistic, financial and legislative hurdles faced by the architect, and the outcomes in terms of building performance and occupant use and satisfaction. The researcher uses a grounded research methodology with direct interview process to the architect in charge of the building and the building user. Energy simulation tools and calculation of running costs are also used as further means of validating change.

Keywords: environmental design, flat rooftop persistence, roof re-habitation, tectonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 201