Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1639

Search results for: concrete chimney

1639 Efficient Wind Fragility Analysis of Concrete Chimney under Stochastic Extreme Wind Incorporating Temperature Effects

Authors: Soumya Bhattacharjya, Avinandan Sahoo, Gaurav Datta

Abstract:

Wind fragility analysis of chimney is often carried out disregarding temperature effect. However, the combined effect of wind and temperature is the most critical limit state for chimney design. Hence, in the present paper, an efficient fragility analysis for concrete chimney is explored under combined wind and temperature effect. Wind time histories are generated by Davenports Power Spectral Density Function and using Weighed Amplitude Wave Superposition Technique. Fragility analysis is often carried out in full Monte Carlo Simulation framework, which requires extensive computational time. Thus, in the present paper, an efficient adaptive metamodelling technique is adopted to judiciously approximate limit state function, which will be subsequently used in the simulation framework. This will save substantial computational time and make the approach computationally efficient. Uncertainty in wind speed, wind load related parameters, and resistance-related parameters is considered. The results by the full simulation approach, conventional metamodelling approach and proposed adaptive metamodelling approach will be compared. Effect of disregarding temperature in wind fragility analysis will be highlighted.

Keywords: adaptive metamodelling technique, concrete chimney, fragility analysis, stochastic extreme wind load, temperature effect

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1638 Submodeling of Mega-Shell Reinforced Concrete Solar Chimneys

Authors: Areeg Shermaddo, Abedulgader Baktheer

Abstract:

Solar updraft power plants (SUPPs) made from reinforced concrete (RC) are an innovative technology to generate solar electricity. An up to 1000 m high chimney represents the major part of each SUPP ensuring the updraft of the warmed air from the ground. Numerical simulation of nonlinear behavior of such large mega shell concrete structures is a challenging task, and computationally expensive. A general finite element approach to simulate reinforced concrete bearing behavior is presented and verified on a simply supported beam, as well as the technique of submodeling. The verified numerical approach is extended and consecutively transferred to a more complex chimney structure of a SUPP. The obtained results proved the reliability of submodeling technique in analyzing critical regions of simple and complex mega concrete structures with high accuracy and dramatic decrease in the computation time.

Keywords: ABAQUS, nonlinear analysis, submodeling, SUPP

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
1637 CFD Analysis of Passive Cooling Building by Using Solar Chimney for Mild or Warm Climates

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

This research presents the design and analysis of solar air-conditioning systems particularly solar chimney which is a passive strategy for natural ventilation, and demonstrates the structures of these systems’ using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and finally compares the results with several examples, which have been studied experimentally and carried out previously. In order to improve the performance of solar chimney system, highly efficient sub-system components are considered for the design. The general purpose of the research is to understand how efficiently solar chimney systems generate cooling, and is to improve the efficient of such systems for integration with existing and future domestic buildings.

Keywords: active and passive solar technologies, solar cooling system, solar chimney, natural ventilation, cavity depth, CFD models for solar chimney

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
1636 Optimization of Solar Chimney Power Production

Authors: Olusola Bamisile, Oluwaseun Ayodele, Mustafa Dagbasi

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to optimize the power produced by a solar chimney wind turbine. The cut out speed and the maximum possible production are considered while performing the optimization. Solar chimney is one of the solar technologies that can be used in rural areas at cheap cost. With over 50% of rural areas still yet to have access to electricity. The OptimTool in MATLAB is used to maximize power produced by the turbine subject to certain constraints. The results show that an optimized turbine produces about ten times the power of the normal turbine which is 111 W/h. The rest of the research discuss in detail solar chimney power plant and the optimization simulation used in this study.

Keywords: solar chimney, optimization, wind turbine, renewable energy systems

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1635 Experimental Study to Determine the Effect of Wire Mesh Pore Size on Natural Draft Chimney Performance

Authors: Md. Mizanur Rahman, Chu Chi Ming, Mohd Suffian Bin Misaran

Abstract:

Chimney is an important part of the industries to remove waste heat from the processes side to the atmosphere. The increased demand of energy helps to restart to think about the efficiency of chimney as well as to find out a valid option to replace forced draft chimney system from industries. In this study natural draft chimney model is air flow rate; exit air temperature and pressure losses are studied through modification with wire mesh screen and compare the results with without wire mesh screen chimney model. The heat load is varies from 0.1 kW to 1kW and three different wire mesh screens that have pore size 0.15 mm2, 0.40 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 respectively are used. The experimental results show that natural draft chimney model with wire mesh screens significantly restored the flow losses compared to the system without wire mesh screen. The natural draft chimney model with 0.40 mm2 pore size wire mesh screen can minimize the draft losses better than others and able to enhance velocity about 54 % exit air temperature about 41% and pressure loss decreased by about 20%. Therefore, it can be decided that the wire mesh screens significantly minimize the draft losses in the natural draft chimney and 0.40 mm2 pore size screen will be a suitable option.

Keywords: natural draft dhimney, wire mesh screen, natural draft flow, mechanical engineering

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1634 Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a PCM Integrated Solar Chimney

Authors: J. Carlos Frutos Dordelly, M. Coillot, M. El Mankibi, R. Enríquez Miranda, M. José Jimenez, J. Arce Landa

Abstract:

Natural ventilation systems have increasingly been the subject of research due to rising energetic consumption within the building sector and increased environmental awareness. In the last two decades, the mounting concern of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for an efficient passive ventilation system have driven the development of new alternative passive technologies such as ventilated facades, trombe walls or solar chimneys. The objective of the study is the assessment of PCM panels in an in situ solar chimney for the establishment of a numerical model. The PCM integrated solar chimney shows slight performance improvement in terms of mass flow rate and external temperature and outlet temperature difference. An increase of 11.3659 m3/h can be observed during low wind speed periods. Additionally, the surface temperature across the chimney goes beyond 45 °C and allows the activation of PCM panels.

Keywords: energy storage, natural ventilation, phase changing materials, solar chimney, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1633 The Reliability Analysis of Concrete Chimneys Due to Random Vortex Shedding

Authors: Saba Rahman, Arvind K. Jain, S. D. Bharti, T. K. Datta

Abstract:

Chimneys are generally tall and slender structures with circular cross-sections, due to which they are highly prone to wind forces. Wind exerts pressure on the wall of the chimneys, which produces unwanted forces. Vortex-induced oscillation is one of such excitations which can lead to the failure of the chimneys. Therefore, vortex-induced oscillation of chimneys is of great concern to researchers and practitioners since many failures of chimneys due to vortex shedding have occurred in the past. As a consequence, extensive research has taken place on the subject over decades. Many laboratory experiments have been performed to verify the theoretical models proposed to predict vortex-induced forces, including aero-elastic effects. Comparatively, very few proto-type measurement data have been recorded to verify the proposed theoretical models. Because of this reason, the theoretical models developed with the help of experimental laboratory data are utilized for analyzing the chimneys for vortex-induced forces. This calls for reliability analysis of the predictions of the responses of the chimneys produced due to vortex shedding phenomena. Although several works of literature exist on the vortex-induced oscillation of chimneys, including code provisions, the reliability analysis of chimneys against failure caused due to vortex shedding is scanty. In the present study, the reliability analysis of chimneys against vortex shedding failure is presented, assuming the uncertainty in vortex shedding phenomena to be significantly more than other uncertainties, and hence, the latter is ignored. The vortex shedding is modeled as a stationary random process and is represented by a power spectral density function (PSDF). It is assumed that the vortex shedding forces are perfectly correlated and act over the top one-third height of the chimney. The PSDF of the tip displacement of the chimney is obtained by performing a frequency domain spectral analysis using a matrix approach. For this purpose, both chimney and random wind forces are discretized over a number of points along with the height of the chimney. The method of analysis duly accounts for the aero-elastic effects. The double barrier threshold crossing level, as proposed by Vanmarcke, is used for determining the probability of crossing different threshold levels of the tip displacement of the chimney. Assuming the annual distribution of the mean wind velocity to be a Gumbel type-I distribution, the fragility curve denoting the variation of the annual probability of threshold crossing against different threshold levels of the tip displacement of the chimney is determined. The reliability estimate is derived from the fragility curve. A 210m tall concrete chimney with a base diameter of 35m, top diameter as 21m, and thickness as 0.3m has been taken as an illustrative example. The terrain condition is assumed to be that corresponding to the city center. The expression for the PSDF of the vortex shedding force is taken to be used by Vickery and Basu. The results of the study show that the threshold crossing reliability of the tip displacement of the chimney is significantly influenced by the assumed structural damping and the Gumbel distribution parameters. Further, the aero-elastic effect influences the reliability estimate to a great extent for small structural damping.

Keywords: chimney, fragility curve, reliability analysis, vortex-induced vibration

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1632 Comparison of Wake Oscillator Models to Predict Vortex-Induced Vibration of Tall Chimneys

Authors: Saba Rahman, Arvind K. Jain, S. D. Bharti, T. K. Datta

Abstract:

The present study compares the semi-empirical wake-oscillator models that are used to predict vortex-induced vibration of structures. These models include those proposed by Facchinetti, Farshidian, and Dolatabadi, and Skop and Griffin. These models combine a wake oscillator model resembling the Van der Pol oscillator model and a single degree of freedom oscillation model. In order to use these models for estimating the top displacement of chimneys, the first mode vibration of the chimneys is only considered. The modal equation of the chimney constitutes the single degree of freedom model (SDOF). The equations of the wake oscillator model and the SDOF are simultaneously solved using an iterative procedure. The empirical parameters used in the wake-oscillator models are estimated using a newly developed approach, and response is compared with experimental data, which appeared comparable. For carrying out the iterative solution, the ode solver of MATLAB is used. To carry out the comparative study, a tall concrete chimney of height 210m has been chosen with the base diameter as 28m, top diameter as 20m, and thickness as 0.3m. The responses of the chimney are also determined using the linear model proposed by E. Simiu and the deterministic model given in Eurocode. It is observed from the comparative study that the responses predicted by the Facchinetti model and the model proposed by Skop and Griffin are nearly the same, while the model proposed by Fashidian and Dolatabadi predicts a higher response. The linear model without considering the aero-elastic phenomenon provides a less response as compared to the non-linear models. Further, for large damping, the prediction of the response by the Euro code is relatively well compared to those of non-linear models.

Keywords: chimney, deterministic model, van der pol, vortex-induced vibration

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1631 Response of Solar Updraft Power Plants Incorporating Material Nonlinearity

Authors: Areeg Shermaddo

Abstract:

Solar updraft power plants (SUPP) provide a great potential for green and environmentally friendly renewable power generation. An up to 1000 m high chimney represents one of the major parts of each SUPP, which consist of the main shell structure and the stiffening rings. Including the nonlinear material behavior in a simulation of the chimney is computationally a demanding task. However, allowing the formation of cracking in concrete leads to a more economical design of the structure. In this work, an FE model of a SUPP is presented incorporating the nonlinear material behavior. The effect of wind loading intensity on the structural response is explored. Furthermore, the influence of the stiffness of the ring beams on the global behavior is as well investigated. The obtained results indicate that the minimum reinforcement is capable of carrying the tensile stresses provided that the ring beams are rather stiff.

Keywords: ABAQUS, nonlinear analysis, ring beams, SUPP

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1630 Impact of the Quality of Aggregate on the Elasticity Modulus of Concrete

Authors: K. Krizova

Abstract:

This objective of this article is to present concrete that differs by the size of the aggregate used. The set of concrete contained six concrete recipes manufactured as traditional vibrated concrete containing identical basic components of concrete. The experiment focused on monitoring the resulting properties of hardened concrete, specifically the primary strength and modulus of the concrete elasticity and the developing parameters from 7 to 180 days were assessed.

Keywords: aggregate, cement, concrete, elasticity modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1629 Numerical Analysis of a Pilot Solar Chimney Power Plant

Authors: Ehsan Gholamalizadeh, Jae Dong Chung

Abstract:

Solar chimney power plant is a feasible solar thermal system which produces electricity from the Sun. The objective of this study is to investigate buoyancy-driven flow and heat transfer through a built pilot solar chimney system called 'Kerman Project'. The system has a chimney with the height and diameter of 60 m and 3 m, respectively, and the average radius of its solar collector is about 20 m, and also its average collector height is about 2 m. A three-dimensional simulation was conducted to analyze the system, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this model, radiative transfer equation was solved using the discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model taking into account a non-gray radiation behavior. In order to modelling solar irradiation from the sun’s rays, the solar ray tracing algorithm was coupled to the computation via a source term in the energy equation. The model was validated with comparing to the experimental data of the Manzanares prototype and also the performance of the built pilot system. Then, based on the numerical simulations, velocity and temperature distributions through the system, the temperature profile of the ground surface and the system performance were presented. The analysis accurately shows the flow and heat transfer characteristics through the pilot system and predicts its performance.

Keywords: buoyancy-driven flow, computational fluid dynamics, heat transfer, renewable energy, solar chimney power plant

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1628 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Built-In Thermoelectric Generator Modules with Elliptical Pin-Fin Heat Sink

Authors: J. Y Jang, C. Y. Tseng

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical model of thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules attached to a large chimney plate is proposed and solved numerically using a control volume based finite difference formulation. The TEG module consists of a thermoelectric generator, an elliptical pin-fin heat sink, and a cold plate for water cooling. In the chimney, the temperature of flue gases is 450-650K. Therefore, the effects of convection and radiation heat transfer are considered. Although the TEG hot-side temperature and thus the electric power output can be increased by inserting an elliptical pin-fin heat sink into the chimney tunnel to increase the heat transfer area, the pin fin heat sink would cause extra pumping power at the same time. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of geometrical parameters on the electric power output and chimney pressure drop characteristics. In addition, the effects of different operating conditions, including various inlet velocities (Vin = 1, 3, 5 m/s) and inlet temperatures (Tgas = 450, 550, 650K) are discussed in detail. The predicted numerical data for the power vs. current (P-I) curve are in good agreement (within 11%) with the experimental data.

Keywords: thermoelectric generator, waste heat recovery, pin-fin heat sink, experimental and numerical analysis

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1627 Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

Authors: R. Pernicova, D. Dobias

Abstract:

The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standards. Regulations are detailed and described especially for European Union and for Czech Republic.

Keywords: concrete, Czech republic, pavements, recycled concrete aggregate, RCA, standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
1626 Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Umi Nadiah Nor Ali, Mohammed Alias Yusof, Norazman Mohamad Nor, Vikneswaran Munikanan

Abstract:

In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.

Keywords: high tensile concrete, waterproofing agent, concrete, rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1625 Reinforced Concrete, Problems and Solutions: A Literature Review

Authors: Omar Alhamad, Waleed Eid

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete is a concrete lined with steel so that the materials work together in the resistance forces. Reinforcement rods or mesh are used for tensile, shear, and sometimes intense pressure in a concrete structure. Reinforced concrete is subject to many natural problems or industrial errors. The result of these problems is that it reduces the efficiency of the reinforced concrete or its usefulness. Some of these problems are cracks, earthquakes, high temperatures or fires, as well as corrosion of reinforced iron inside reinforced concrete. There are also factors of ancient buildings or monuments that require some techniques to preserve them. This research presents some general information about reinforced concrete, the pros and cons of reinforced concrete, and then presents a series of literary studies of some of the late published researches on the subject of reinforced concrete and how to preserve it, propose solutions or treatments for the treatment of reinforced concrete problems, raise efficiency and quality for a longer period. These studies have provided advanced and modern methods and techniques in the field of reinforced concrete.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, treatment, concrete, corrosion, seismic, cracks

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1624 A Study on Behaviour of Normal Strength Concrete and High Strength Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Butchi Kameswara Rao Chittem, Rooban Kumar

Abstract:

Cement concrete is a complex mixture of different materials. Concrete is believed to have a good fire resistance. Behaviour of concrete depends on its mix proportions and its constituent materials when it is subjected to elevated temperatures. Loss in compressive strength, loss in weight or mass, change in colour and spall of concrete are reported in literature as effects of elevated temperature on concrete. In this paper results are reported on the behaviour of normal strength concrete and high strength concrete subjected to temperatures 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C and different cooling regimes viz. air cooling, water quenching. Rebound hammer test was also conducted to study the changes in surface hardness of concrete specimens subjected to elevated temperatures.

Keywords: normal strength concrete, high-strength concrete, temperature, NDT

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
1623 Automatic Integrated Inverter Type Smart Device for Safe Kitchen

Authors: K. M. Jananni, R. Nandini

Abstract:

The proposed wireless, inverter type design of a LPG leakage monitoring system aims to provide a smart and safe kitchen. The system detects the LPG gas leak using Nano-sensors and alerts the concerned individual through GSM system. The system uses two sensors, one attached to the chimney and other to the regulator of the LPG cylinder. Upon a leakage being detected, the sensor at the regulator actuates the system to cut off the gas supply immediately using a solenoid control valve. The sensor at the chimney checks for the permissible level of LPG mix in the air and when the level exceeds the threshold, the system sends an automatic SMS to the numbers saved. Further the sensor actuates the mini suction system fixed at the chimney within 20 seconds of a leakage to suck out the gas until the level falls well below the threshold. As a safety measure, an automatic window opening and alarm feature is also incorporated into the system. The key feature of this design is that the system is provided with a special inverter designed to make the device function effectively even during power failures. In this paper, utilization of sensors in the kitchen area is discussed and this gives the proposed architecture for real time field monitoring with a PIC Micro-controller.

Keywords: nano sensors, global system for mobile communication, GSM, micro controller, inverter

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1622 Wood Ashes from Electrostatic Filter as a Replacement for the Fly Ashes in Concrete

Authors: Piotr-Robert Lazik, Harald Garrecht

Abstract:

Many concrete technologists are looking for a solution to replace Fly Ashes that would be unavailable in a few years as an element that occurs as a major component of many types of concrete. The importance of such component is clear - it saves cement and reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that occurs during cement production. Wood Ashes from electrostatic filter can be used as a valuable substitute in concrete. The laboratory investigations showed that the wood ash concrete had a compressive strength comparable to coal fly ash concrete. These results indicate that wood ash can be used to manufacture normal concrete.

Keywords: wood ashes, fly ashes, electric filter, replacement, concrete technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
1621 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain

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1620 Role of Sequestration of CO2 Due to the Carbonation in Total CO2 Emission Balance in Concrete Life

Authors: P. P. Woyciechowski

Abstract:

Calculation of the carbon footprint of cement concrete is a complex process including consideration of the phase of primary life (components and concrete production processes, transportation, construction works, maintenance of concrete structures) and secondary life, including demolition and recycling. Taking into consideration the effect of concrete carbonation can lead to a reduction in the calculated carbon footprint of concrete. In this paper, an example of CO2 balance for small bridge elements made of Portland cement reinforced concrete was done. The results include the effect of carbonation of concrete in a structure and of concrete rubble after demolition. It was shown that important impact of carbonation on the balance is possible only when rubble carbonation is possible. It was related to the fact that only the sequestration potential in the secondary phase of concrete life has significant value.

Keywords: carbon footprint, balance of carbon dioxide in nature, concrete carbonation, the sequestration potential of concrete

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1619 Prospective Use of Rice Husk Ash to Produce Concrete in India

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Moulick

Abstract:

In this paper the author studied the possibilities of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) available in India; to produce concrete. The effect of RHA on concrete discussed. Traditional uses of Rice Husk in India pointed out and the advantages of using RHA in making concrete highlighted. Suggestion provided regarding prospective application of RHA concrete in India which in turn will definitely reduce the cost of concrete and environmental friendly due to utilization of waste and replacement of Cement.

Keywords: cement replacement, concrete, environmental friendly, rice husk ash

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1618 Effect of Concrete Waste Quality on the Compressive Strength of Recycled Concrete

Authors: Kebaili Bachir

Abstract:

The reuse of concrete waste as a secondary aggregate could be an efficient solution for sustainable development and long-term environmental protection. The variable nature of waste concrete, with various compressive strengths, can have a negative effect on the final compressive strength of recycled concrete. Accordingly, an experimental test programme was developed to evaluate the effect of parent concrete qualities on the performance of recycled concrete. Three grades with different compressive strengths 10MPa, 20MPa, and 30MPa were considered in the study; moreover, an unknown compressive strength was introduced as well. The trial mixes used 40% secondary aggregates (both course and fine) and 60% of natural aggregates. The compressive strength of the test concrete decrease between 15 and 25% compared to normal concrete with no secondary aggregates. This work proves that the strength properties of the parent concrete have a limited effect on the compressive strength of recycled concrete. Low compressive strength parent concrete when crushed generate a high percentage of recycled coarse aggregates with the less attached mortar and give the same compressive strength as an excellent parent concrete. However, the decrease in compressive strength can be mitigated by increasing the cement content 4% by weight of recycled aggregates used.

Keywords: compressive, concrete, quality, recycled, strength

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1617 Durability of Lightweight Concrete Material Made from Date Palma Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Almograbi

Abstract:

Libya is one of the largest producers of dates from date palm, generating about 60000 tonnes of date palm seeds (DPS) annually. This large amount of seeds led to studies into the possible use as aggregates in lightweight concrete for some special structures. The utilization of DPS as aggregate in concrete provides a good solution as alternative aggregate to the stone aggregate. It has been recognized that, DPS can be used as coarse aggregate in structural lightweight concrete industry. For any structure member, the durability is one of the most important considerations during its service life. This paper presents the durability properties of DPS concrete. These include the water permeability, water absorption, sorptivity and chloride penetration. The test results obtained were comparable to the conventional lightweight concrete.

Keywords: date palm seeds, lightweight concrete, durability, sustainability, permeability of concrete, water absorption of concrete, sorptivity of concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 541
1616 Influence of Bio-Based Admixture on Compressive Strength of Concrete for Columns

Authors: K. Raza, S. Gul, M. Ali

Abstract:

Concrete is a fundamental building material, extensively utilized by the construction industry. Problems related to the strength of concrete is an immense issue for the sustainability of concrete structures. Concrete mostly loses its strength due to the cracks produced in it by shrinkage or hydration process. This study aims to enhance the strength and service life of the concrete structures by incorporating bio-based admixture in the concrete. By the injection of bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete, it will self-heal the cracks by producing calcium carbonate. Minimization of cracks will compact the microstructure of the concrete, due to which strength will increase. For this study, Bacillus subtilis will be used as a bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete. Calcium lactate up to 1.5% will be used as the food source for the Bacillus subtilis in concrete. Two formulations containing 0 and 5% of Bacillus subtilis by weight of cement, will be used for the casting of concrete specimens. Direct mixing method will be adopted for the usage of bio-based admixture in concrete. Compressive strength test will be carried out after 28 days of curing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) will be performed for the examination of micro-structure of concrete. Results will be drawn by comparing the test results of 0 and 5% the formulations. It will be recommended to use to bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete for columns because of the satisfactory increase in the compressive strength of concrete.

Keywords: bio-based admixture, Bacillus subtilis, calcium lactate, compressive strength

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1615 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

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1614 A Review on Concrete Structures in Fire

Authors: S. Iffat, B. Bose

Abstract:

Concrete as a construction material is versatile because it displays high degree of fire-resistance. Concrete’s inherent ability to combat one of the most devastating disaster that a structure can endure in its lifetime, can be attributed to its constituent materials which make it inert and have relatively poor thermal conductivity. However, concrete structures must be designed for fire effects. Structural components should be able to withstand dead and live loads without undergoing collapse. The properties of high-strength concrete must be weighed against concerns about its fire resistance and susceptibility to spalling at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the causes, effects and some remedy of deterioration in concrete due to fire hazard will be discussed. Some cost effective solutions to produce a fire resistant concrete will be conversed through this paper.

Keywords: concrete, fire, spalling, temperature, compressive strength, density

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1613 Innovative Acoustic Emission Techniques for Concrete Health Monitoring

Authors: Rahmat Ali, Beenish Khan, Aftabullah, Abid A. Shah

Abstract:

This research is an attempt to investigate the wide range of events using acoustic emission (AE) sensors of the concrete cubes subjected to different stress condition loading and unloading of concrete cubes. A total of 27 specimens were prepared and tested including 18 cubic (6”x6”x6”) and nine cylindrical (4”x8”) specimens were molded from three batches of concrete using w/c of 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60. The compressive strength of concrete was determined from concrete cylinder specimens. The deterioration of concrete was evaluated using the occurrence of felicity and Kaiser effects at each stress condition. It was found that acoustic emission hits usually exceeded when damage increases. Additionally, the correlation between AE techniques and the load applied were determined by plotting the normalized values. The influence of w/c on sensitivity of the AE technique in detecting concrete damages was also investigated.

Keywords: acoustic emission, concrete, felicity ratio, sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1612 On the Creep of Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma

Abstract:

Analysis of deferred deformations of concrete under sustained load shows that the creep has a leading role on deferred deformations of concrete structures. Knowledge of the creep characteristics of concrete is a Necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable deformation in pre-stressed concrete or reinforced and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. In this study, we propose a prediction model that involves the acting principal parameters on the deferred behaviour of concrete structures. For the estimation of the model parameters Levenberg-Marquardt method has proven very satisfactory. A confrontation between the experimental results and the predictions of models designed shows that it is well suited to describe the evolution of the creep of concrete structures.

Keywords: concrete structure, creep, modelling, prediction

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1611 Substitution of Natural Aggregates by Crushed Concrete Waste in Concrete Products Manufacturing

Authors: Jozef Junak, Nadezda Stevulova

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to the use of different types of industrial wastes in concrete production. From examined waste (crushed concrete waste) our tested concrete samples with dimension 150 mm were prepared. In these samples, fractions 4/8 mm and 8/16 mm by recycled concrete aggregate with a range of variation from 0 to 100% were replaced. Experiment samples were tested for compressive strength after 2, 7, 14 and 28 days of hardening. From obtained results it is evident that all samples prepared with washed recycled concrete aggregates met the requirement of standard for compressive strength of 20 MPa already after 14 days of hardening. Sample prepared with recycled concrete aggregates (4/8 mm: 100% and 8/16 mm: 60%) reached 101% of compressive strength value (34.7 MPa) after 28 days of hardening in comparison with the reference sample (34.4 MPa). The lowest strength after 28 days of hardening (27.42 MPa) was obtained for sample consisting of recycled concrete in proportion of 40% for 4/8 fraction and 100% for 8/16 fraction of recycled concrete.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, re-use, workability, compressive strength

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1610 Possibilities of Utilization Zeolite in Concrete

Authors: M. Sedlmajer, J. Zach, J. Hroudova, P. Rovnaníkova

Abstract:

There are several possibilities of reducing the required amount of cement in concrete production. Natural zeolite is one of the raw materials which can partly substitute Portland cement. The effort to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete production is brings both economical as well as ecological benefits. The paper presents the properties of concrete containing natural zeolite as an active admixture in the concrete which partly substitutes Portland cement. The properties discussed here bring information about the basic mechanical properties and frost resistance of concrete containing zeolite. The properties of concretes with the admixture of zeolite are compared with a reference concrete with no content of zeolite. The properties of the individual concretes are observed for 360 days.

Keywords: concrete, zeolite, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, durability

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