Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4042

Search results for: stochastic extreme wind load

4042 A Stochastic Approach to Extreme Wind Speeds Conditions on a Small Axial Wind Turbine

Authors: Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip, Ebobenow Joseph

Abstract:

In this paper, to model a real life wind turbine, a probabilistic approach is proposed to model the dynamics of the blade elements of a small axial wind turbine under extreme stochastic wind speeds conditions. It was found that the power and the torque probability density functions even though decreases at these extreme wind speeds but are not infinite. Moreover, we also found that it is possible to stabilize the power coefficient (stabilizing the output power) above rated wind speeds by turning some control parameters. This method helps to explain the effect of turbulence on the quality and quantity of the harness power and aerodynamic torque.

Keywords: probability, probability density function, stochastic, turbulence

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4041 Efficient Wind Fragility Analysis of Concrete Chimney under Stochastic Extreme Wind Incorporating Temperature Effects

Authors: Soumya Bhattacharjya, Avinandan Sahoo, Gaurav Datta

Abstract:

Wind fragility analysis of chimney is often carried out disregarding temperature effect. However, the combined effect of wind and temperature is the most critical limit state for chimney design. Hence, in the present paper, an efficient fragility analysis for concrete chimney is explored under combined wind and temperature effect. Wind time histories are generated by Davenports Power Spectral Density Function and using Weighed Amplitude Wave Superposition Technique. Fragility analysis is often carried out in full Monte Carlo Simulation framework, which requires extensive computational time. Thus, in the present paper, an efficient adaptive metamodelling technique is adopted to judiciously approximate limit state function, which will be subsequently used in the simulation framework. This will save substantial computational time and make the approach computationally efficient. Uncertainty in wind speed, wind load related parameters, and resistance-related parameters is considered. The results by the full simulation approach, conventional metamodelling approach and proposed adaptive metamodelling approach will be compared. Effect of disregarding temperature in wind fragility analysis will be highlighted.

Keywords: adaptive metamodelling technique, concrete chimney, fragility analysis, stochastic extreme wind load, temperature effect

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4040 Effects of Wind Load on the Tank Structures with Various Shapes and Aspect Ratios

Authors: Doo Byong Bae, Jae Jun Yoo, Il Gyu Park, Choi Seowon, Oh Chang Kook

Abstract:

There are several wind load provisions to evaluate the wind response on tank structures such as API, Euro-code, etc. the assessment of wind action applying these provisions is made by performing the finite element analysis using both linear bifurcation analysis and geometrically nonlinear analysis. By comparing the pressure patterns obtained from the analysis with the results of wind tunnel test, most appropriate wind load criteria will be recommended.

Keywords: wind load, finite element analysis, linear bifurcation analysis, geometrically nonlinear analysis

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4039 Wind Turbines Optimization: Shield Structure for a High Wind Speed Conditions

Authors: Daniyar Seitenov, Nazim Mir-Nasiri

Abstract:

Optimization of horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine has been performed using a shield protection that automatically protects the generator shaft at extreme wind speeds from over speeding, mechanical damage and continues generating electricity during the high wind speed conditions. A semi-exposed to wind generator has been designed and its structure has been described in this paper. The simplified point-force dynamic load model on the blades has been derived for normal and extreme wind conditions with and without shield involvement. Numerical simulation has been conducted at different values of wind speed to study the efficiency of shield application. The obtained results show that the maximum power generated by the wind turbine with shield does not exceed approximately the rated value of the generator, where shield serves as an automatic break for extreme wind speed values of 15 m/sec and above. Meantime the wind turbine without shield produced a power that is much larger than the rated value. The optimized horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine with shield protection is suitable for low and medium power generation when installed on the roofs of high rise buildings for harvesting wind energy. Wind shield works automatically with no power consumption. The structure of the generator with the protection, math simulation of kinematics and dynamics of power generation has been described in details in this paper.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine optimization, high wind speed

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4038 Global Direct Search Optimization of a Tuned Liquid Column Damper Subject to Stochastic Load

Authors: Mansour H. Alkmim, Adriano T. Fabro, Marcus V. G. De Morais

Abstract:

In this paper, a global direct search optimization algorithm to reduce vibration of a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD), a class of passive structural control device, is presented. The objective is to find optimized parameters for the TLCD under stochastic load from different wind power spectral density. A verification is made considering the analytical solution of an undamped primary system under white noise excitation. Finally, a numerical example considering a simplified wind turbine model is given to illustrate the efficacy of the TLCD. Results from the random vibration analysis are shown for four types of random excitation wind model where the response PSDs obtained showed good vibration attenuation.

Keywords: generalized pattern search, parameter optimization, random vibration analysis, vibration suppression

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4037 Stochastic Energy and Reserve Scheduling with Wind Generation and Generic Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Amirhossein Khazali, Mohsen Kalantar

Abstract:

Energy storage units can play an important role to provide an economic and secure operation of future energy systems. In this paper, a stochastic energy and reserve market clearing scheme is presented considering storage energy units. The approach is proposed to deal with stochastic and non-dispatchable renewable sources with a high level of penetration in the energy system. A two stage stochastic programming scheme is formulated where in the first stage the energy market is cleared according to the forecasted amount of wind generation and demands and in the second stage the real time market is solved according to the assumed scenarios.

Keywords: energy and reserve market, energy storage device, stochastic programming, wind generation

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4036 Effect of Drag Coefficient Models concerning Global Air-Sea Momentum Flux in Broad Wind Range including Extreme Wind Speeds

Authors: Takeshi Takemoto, Naoya Suzuki, Naohisa Takagaki, Satoru Komori, Masako Terui, George Truscott

Abstract:

Drag coefficient is an important parameter in order to correctly estimate the air-sea momentum flux. However, The parameterization of the drag coefficient hasn’t been established due to the variation in the field data. Instead, a number of drag coefficient model formulae have been proposed, even though almost all these models haven’t discussed the extreme wind speed range. With regards to such models, it is unclear how the drag coefficient changes in the extreme wind speed range as the wind speed increased. In this study, we investigated the effect of the drag coefficient models concerning the air-sea momentum flux in the extreme wind range on a global scale, comparing two different drag coefficient models. Interestingly, one model didn’t discuss the extreme wind speed range while the other model considered it. We found that the difference of the models in the annual global air-sea momentum flux was small because the occurrence frequency of strong wind was approximately 1% with a wind speed of 20m/s or more. However, we also discovered that the difference of the models was shown in the middle latitude where the annual mean air-sea momentum flux was large and the occurrence frequency of strong wind was high. In addition, the estimated data showed that the difference of the models in the drag coefficient was large in the extreme wind speed range and that the largest difference became 23% with a wind speed of 35m/s or more. These results clearly show that the difference of the two models concerning the drag coefficient has a significant impact on the estimation of a regional air-sea momentum flux in an extreme wind speed range such as that seen in a tropical cyclone environment. Furthermore, we estimated each air-sea momentum flux using several kinds of drag coefficient models. We will also provide data from an observation tower and result from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) concerning the influence of wind flow at and around the place.

Keywords: air-sea interaction, drag coefficient, air-sea momentum flux, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

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4035 Wind Power Forecast Error Simulation Model

Authors: Josip Vasilj, Petar Sarajcev, Damir Jakus

Abstract:

One of the major difficulties introduced with wind power penetration is the inherent uncertainty in production originating from uncertain wind conditions. This uncertainty impacts many different aspects of power system operation, especially the balancing power requirements. For this reason, in power system development planing, it is necessary to evaluate the potential uncertainty in future wind power generation. For this purpose, simulation models are required, reproducing the performance of wind power forecasts. This paper presents a wind power forecast error simulation models which are based on the stochastic process simulation. Proposed models capture the most important statistical parameters recognized in wind power forecast error time series. Furthermore, two distinct models are presented based on data availability. First model uses wind speed measurements on potential or existing wind power plant locations, while the seconds model uses statistical distribution of wind speeds.

Keywords: wind power, uncertainty, stochastic process, Monte Carlo simulation

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4034 Mitigation of Wind Loads on a Building Using Small Wind Turbines

Authors: Arindam Chowdhury, Andres Tremante, Mohammadtaghi Moravej, Bodhisatta Hajra, Ioannis Zisis, Peter Irwin

Abstract:

Extreme wind events, such as hurricanes, have caused significant damage to buildings, resulting in losses worth millions of dollars. The roof of a building is most vulnerable to wind-induced damage due to the high suctions experienced by the roof in extreme wind conditions. Wind turbines fitted to buildings can help generate energy, but to our knowledge, their application to wind load mitigation is not well known. This paper presents results from an experimental study to assess the effect of small wind turbines (developed and patented by the first and second authors) on the wind loads on a low rise building roof. The tests were carried out for an open terrain at the Wall of Wind (WOW) experimental facility at Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA, for three cases – bare roof, roof fitted with wind turbines placed closer to the roof edges, and roof with wind turbines placed away from the roof edges. Results clearly indicate that the presence of the wind turbines reduced the mean and peak pressure coefficients (less suction) on the roof when compared to the bare deck case. Furthermore, the peak pressure coefficients were found to be lower (less suction) when the wind turbines were placed closer to the roof, than away from the roof. Flow visualization studies using smoke and gravel clearly showed that the presence of the turbines disrupted the formation of vortices formed by cornering winds, thereby reducing roof suctions and preventing lift off of roof coverings. This study shows that the wind turbines besides generating wind energy, can be used for mitigating wind induced damage to the building roof. Future research must be directed towards understanding the effect of these wind turbines on other roof geometries (e.g. hip/gable) in different terrain conditions.

Keywords: wall of wind, wind loads, wind turbine, building

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4033 Damage Cost for Private Property by Extreme Wind over the past 10 Years in Korea

Authors: Gou-Moon Choi, Woo-Young Jung, Chan-Young Yune

Abstract:

Recently, the natural disaster has increased worldwide. In Korea, the damage to life and property caused by a typhoon, heavy rain, heavy snow, and an extreme wind also increases every year. Among natural disasters, the frequency and the strength of wind have increased because sea surface temperature has risen due to the increase of the average temperature of the Earth. In the case of extreme wind disaster, it is impossible to control or reduce the occurrence, and the recovery cost always exceeds the damage cost. Therefore, quantitative estimation of the damage cost for extreme wind needs to be established beforehand to install proactive countermeasures. In this study, the damage cost for private properties was analyzed based on the data for the past 10 years in Korea. The damage cost curve was also suggested for the metropolitan cities and provinces. The result shows the possibility for the regional application of the damage cost curve because the damage cost of the regional area is estimated based on the cost of cities and provinces.

Keywords: damage cost, extreme wind, natural disaster, private property

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4032 Application of Stochastic Models to Annual Extreme Streamflow Data

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi

Abstract:

This study was designed to find the best stochastic model (using of time series analysis) for annual extreme streamflow (peak and maximum streamflow) of Karkheh River at Iran. The Auto-regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model used to simulate these series and forecast those in future. For the analysis, annual extreme streamflow data of Jelogir Majin station (above of Karkheh dam reservoir) for the years 1958–2005 were used. A visual inspection of the time plot gives a little increasing trend; therefore, series is not stationary. The stationarity observed in Auto-Correlation Function (ACF) and Partial Auto-Correlation Function (PACF) plots of annual extreme streamflow was removed using first order differencing (d=1) in order to the development of the ARIMA model. Interestingly, the ARIMA(4,1,1) model developed was found to be most suitable for simulating annual extreme streamflow for Karkheh River. The model was found to be appropriate to forecast ten years of annual extreme streamflow and assist decision makers to establish priorities for water demand. The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) codes were used to determinate of the best model for this series.

Keywords: stochastic models, ARIMA, extreme streamflow, Karkheh river

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4031 Effect of Adding Horizontal Steel Bracing System to Ordinary Moment Steel Frames Subjected to Wind Load

Authors: Yousef Al-Qaryouti, Besan Alagawani

Abstract:

The main concern of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding horizontal steel bracing system to ordinary moment resisting steel frames subjected to wind load. Similar frames without bracing systems are also to be compared. A general analytical study was carried out to obtain the influence of such system in resisting wind load. Linear static analysis has been carried out using ETABS software by applying fixed wind load defined according to ASCE7-10 for three-, six-, nine-, and twelve-story ordinary moment steel frame buildings including and not including horizontal steel bracing system. The results showed that the lateral drift due to wind load decreased by adding horizontal bracing system. Also, the results show that effect of such system is more efficient to low-rise buildings.

Keywords: horizontal bracing system, steel moment frames, wind load resisting system, linear static analysis

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4030 Study on Shape Coefficient of Large Statue Building Based on CFD

Authors: Wang Guangda, Ma Jun, Zhao Caiqi, Pan Rui

Abstract:

Wind load is the main control load of large statue structures. Due to the irregular plane and elevation and uneven outer contour, statues’ shape coefficient can not pick up from the current code. Currently a common practice is based on wind tunnel test. But this method is time-consuming and high cost. In this paper, based on the fundamental theory of CFD, using fluid dynamics software of Fluent 15.0, a few large statue structure of 40 to 70m high, which are located in china , including large fairy statues and large Buddha statues, are analyzed by numerical wind tunnel. The results are contrasted with the recommended values in load code and the wind tunnel test results respectively. Results show that the shape coefficient has a good reliability by the numerical wind tunnel method of this kind of building. This will has a certain reference value of wind load values for large statues’ structure.

Keywords: large statue structure, shape coefficient, irregular structure, wind tunnel test, numerical wind tunnel simulation

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4029 Estimation of Probabilistic Fatigue Crack Propagation Models of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys under Various Load Ratio Conditions by Using the Interpolation of a Random Variable

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The essential purpose is to present the good fatigue crack propagation model describing a stochastic fatigue crack growth behavior in a rolled magnesium alloy, AZ31, under various load ratio conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments were carried out in laboratory air under four conditions of load ratio, R, using AZ31 to investigate the crack growth behavior. The stochastic fatigue crack growth behavior was analyzed using an interpolation of random variable, Z, introduced to an empirical fatigue crack propagation model. The empirical fatigue models used in this study are Paris-Erdogan model, Walker model, Forman model, and modified Forman model. It was found that the random variable is useful in describing the stochastic fatigue crack growth behaviors under various load ratio conditions. The good probabilistic model describing a stochastic fatigue crack growth behavior under various load ratio conditions was also proposed.

Keywords: magnesium alloys, fatigue crack propagation model, load ratio, interpolation of random variable

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4028 Spatial Analysis for Wind Risk Index Assessment

Authors: Ljiljana Seric, Vladimir Divic, Marin Bugaric

Abstract:

This paper presents methodology for spatial analysis of GIS data that is used for assessing the microlocation risk index from potential damages of high winds. The analysis is performed on freely available GIS data comprising information about wind load, terrain cover and topography of the area. The methodology utilizes the legislation of Eurocode norms for determination of wind load of buildings and constructions. The core of the methodology is adoption of the wind load parameters related to location on geographical spatial grid. Presented work is a part of the Wind Risk Project, supported by the European Commission under the Civil Protection Financial Instrument of the European Union (ECHO). The partners involved in Wind Risk project performed Wind Risk assessment and proposed action plan for three European countries – Slovenia, Croatia and Germany. The proposed method is implemented in GRASS GIS open source GIS software and demonstrated for Case study area of wider area of Split, Croatia. Obtained Wind Risk Index is visualized and correlated with critical infrastructures like buildings, roads and power lines. The results show good correlation between high Wind Risk Index with recent incidents related to wind.

Keywords: Eurocode norms, GIS, spatial analysis, wind distribution, wind risk

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4027 Nonlinear Response of Tall Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Buildings under Wind Loads

Authors: Mahtab Abdollahi Sarvi, Siamak Epackachi, Ali Imanpour

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete shear walls are commonly used as the lateral load-resisting system of mid- to high-rise office or residential buildings around the world. Design of such systems is often governed by wind rather than seismic effects, in particular in low-to-moderate seismic regions. The current design philosophy as per the majority of building codes under wind loads require elastic response of lateral load-resisting systems including reinforced concrete shear walls when subjected to the rare design wind load, resulting in significantly large wall sections needed to meet strength requirements and drift limits. The latter can highly influence the design in upper stories due to stringent drift limits specified by building codes, leading to substantial added costs to the construction of the wall. However, such walls may offer limited to moderate over-strength and ductility due to their large reserve capacity provided that they are designed and detailed to appropriately develop such over-strength and ductility under extreme wind loads. This would significantly contribute to reducing construction time and costs, while maintaining structural integrity under gravity and frequently-occurring and less frequent wind events. This paper aims to investigate the over-strength and ductility capacity of several imaginary office buildings located in Edmonton, Canada with a glance at earthquake design philosophy. Selected models are 10- to 25-story buildings with three types of reinforced concrete shear wall configurations including rectangular, barbell, and flanged. The buildings are designed according to National Building Code of Canada. Then fiber-based numerical models of the walls are developed in Perform 3D and by conducting nonlinear static (pushover) analysis, lateral nonlinear behavior of the walls are evaluated. Ductility and over-strength of the structures are obtained based on the results of the pushover analyses. The results confirmed moderate nonlinear capacity of reinforced concrete shear walls under extreme wind loads. This is while lateral displacements of the walls pass the serviceability limit states defined in Pre standard for Performance-Based Wind Design (ASCE). The results indicate that we can benefit the limited nonlinear response observed in the reinforced concrete shear walls to economize the design of such systems under wind loads.

Keywords: concrete shear wall, high-rise buildings, nonlinear static analysis, response modification factor, wind load

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4026 Analysis and Design of Offshore Met Mast Supported on Jacket Substructure

Authors: Manu Manu, Pardha J. Saradhi, Ramana M. V. Murthy

Abstract:

Wind Energy is accepted as one of the most developed, cost effective and proven renewable energy technologies to meet increasing electricity demands in a sustainable manner. Preliminary assessment studies along Indian Coastline by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy have indicated prospects for development of offshore wind power along Tamil Nadu Coast, India. The commercial viability of a wind project mainly depends on wind characteristics on site. Hence, it is internationally recommended to perform site-specific wind resource assessment based on two years’ wind profile as a part of the feasibility study. Conventionally, guy wire met mast are used onshore for the collection of wind profile. Installation of similar structure in offshore requires complex marine spread and are very expensive. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop 120 m long lattice tower supported on the jacket, piled to the seabed at Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu, India. Offshore met-masts are subjected to combined wind and hydrodynamic loads, and these lateral loads should be safely transferred to soil. The wind loads are estimated based on gust factor method, and the hydrodynamic loads are estimated by Morison’s equation along with suitable wave theory. The soil is modeled as three nonlinear orthogonal springs based on API standards. The structure configuration and optimum member sizes are obtained for extreme cyclone events. The dynamic behavior of mast under coupled wind and wave loads is also studied. The static responses of a mast with jacket type offshore platform have been studied using a frame model in SESAM. It is found from the study that the maximum displacement at the top of the mast for the random wave is 0.003 m and that of the tower for wind is 0.08 m during the steady state. The dynamic analysis results indicate that the structure is safe against coupled wind and wave loading.

Keywords: offshore wind, mast, static, aerodynamic load, hydrodynamic load

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4025 Calibration of Hybrid Model and Arbitrage-Free Implied Volatility Surface

Authors: Kun Huang

Abstract:

This paper investigates whether the combination of local and stochastic volatility models can be calibrated exactly to any arbitrage-free implied volatility surface of European option. The risk neutral Brownian Bridge density is applied for calibration of the leverage function of our Hybrid model. Furthermore, the tails of marginal risk neutral density are generated by Generalized Extreme Value distribution in order to capture the properties of asset returns. The local volatility is generated from the arbitrage-free implied volatility surface using stochastic volatility inspired parameterization.

Keywords: arbitrage free implied volatility, calibration, extreme value distribution, hybrid model, local volatility, risk-neutral density, stochastic volatility

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4024 Impact of Wind Energy on Cost and Balancing Reserves

Authors: Anil Khanal, Ali Osareh, Gary Lebby

Abstract:

Wind energy offers a significant advantage such as no fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, wind energy sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is able to accommodate the variability of wind in smaller proportion along with the daily load. However, at high penetration levels, the variability can severely impact the utility reserve requirements and the cost associated with it. In this paper, the impact of wind energy is evaluated in detail in formulating the total utility cost. The objective is to minimize the overall cost of generation while ensuring the proper management of the load. Overall cost includes the curtailment cost, reserve cost and the reliability cost as well as any other penalty imposed by the regulatory authority. Different levels of wind penetrations are explored and the cost impacts are evaluated. As the penetration level increases significantly, the reliability becomes a critical question to be answered. Here, we increase the penetration from the wind yet keep the reliability factor within the acceptable limit provided by NERC. This paper uses an economic dispatch (ED) model to incorporate wind generation into the power grid. Power system costs are analyzed at various wind penetration levels using Linear Programming. The goal of this study shows how the increases in wind generation will affect power system economics.

Keywords: wind power generation, wind power penetration, cost analysis, economic dispatch (ED) model

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4023 Stochastic Modelling for Mixed Mode Fatigue Delamination Growth of Wind Turbine Composite Blades

Authors: Chi Zhang, Hua-Peng Chen

Abstract:

With the increasingly demanding resources in the word, renewable and clean energy has been considered as an alternative way to replace traditional ones. Thus, one of practical examples for using wind energy is wind turbine, which has gained more attentions in recent research. Like most offshore structures, the blades, which is the most critical components of the wind turbine, will be subjected to millions of loading cycles during service life. To operate safely in marine environments, the blades are typically made from fibre reinforced composite materials to resist fatigue delamination and harsh environment. The fatigue crack development of blades is uncertain because of indeterminate mechanical properties for composite and uncertainties under offshore environment like wave loads, wind loads, and humid environments. There are three main delamination failure modes for composite blades, and the most common failure type in practices is subjected to mixed mode loading, typically a range of opening (mode 1) and shear (mode 2). However, the fatigue crack development for mixed mode cannot be predicted as deterministic values because of various uncertainties in realistic practical situation. Therefore, selecting an effective stochastic model to evaluate the mixed mode behaviour of wind turbine blades is a critical issue. In previous studies, gamma process has been considered as an appropriate stochastic approach, which simulates the stochastic deterioration process to proceed in one direction such as realistic situation for fatigue damage failure of wind turbine blades. On the basis of existing studies, various Paris Law equations are discussed to simulate the propagation of the fatigue crack growth. This paper develops a Paris model with the stochastic deterioration modelling according to gamma process for predicting fatigue crack performance in design service life. A numerical example of wind turbine composite materials is investigated to predict the mixed mode crack depth by Paris law and the probability of fatigue failure by gamma process. The probability of failure curves under different situations are obtained from the stochastic deterioration model for comparisons. Compared with the results from experiments, the gamma process can take the uncertain values into consideration for crack propagation of mixed mode, and the stochastic deterioration process shows a better agree well with realistic crack process for composite blades. Finally, according to the predicted results from gamma stochastic model, assessment strategies for composite blades are developed to reduce total lifecycle costs and increase resistance for fatigue crack growth.

Keywords: Reinforced fibre composite, Wind turbine blades, Fatigue delamination, Mixed failure mode, Stochastic process.

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4022 Optimal Management of Forest Stands under Wind Risk in Czech Republic

Authors: Zohreh Mohammadi, Jan Kaspar, Peter Lohmander, Robert Marusak, Harald Vacik, Ljusk Ola Eriksson

Abstract:

Storms are important damaging agents in European forest ecosystems. In the latest decades, significant economic losses in European forestry occurred due to storms. This study investigates the problem of optimal harvest planning when forest stands risk to be felled by storms. One of the most applicable mathematical methods which are being used to optimize forest management is stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). This method belongs to the adaptive optimization class. Sequential decisions, such as harvest decisions, can be optimized based on sequential information about events that cannot be perfectly predicted, such as the future storms and the future states of wind protection from other forest stands. In this paper, stochastic dynamic programming is used to maximize the expected present value of the profits from an area consisting of several forest stands. The region of analysis is the Czech Republic. The harvest decisions, in a particular time period, should be simultaneously taken in all neighbor stands. The reason is that different stands protect each other from possible winds. The optimal harvest age of a particular stand is a function of wind speed and different wind protection effects. The optimal harvest age often decreases with wind speed, but it cannot be determined for one stand at a time. When we consider a particular stand, this stand also protects other stands. Furthermore, the particular stand is protected by neighbor stands. In some forest stands, it may even be rational to increase the harvest age under the influence of stronger winds, in order to protect more valuable stands in the neighborhood. It is important to integrate wind risk in forestry decision-making.

Keywords: Czech republic, forest stands, stochastic dynamic programming, wind risk

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4021 Assessing the Effect of Grid Connection of Large-Scale Wind Farms on Power System Small-Signal Angular Stability

Authors: Wenjuan Du, Jingtian Bi, Tong Wang, Haifeng Wang

Abstract:

Grid connection of a large-scale wind farm affects power system small-signal angular stability in two aspects. Firstly, connection of the wind farm brings about the change of load flow and configuration of a power system. Secondly, the dynamic interaction is introduced by the wind farm with the synchronous generators (SGs) in the power system. This paper proposes a method to assess the two aspects of the effect of the wind farm on power system small-signal angular stability. The effect of the change of load flow/system configuration brought about by the wind farm can be examined separately by displacing wind farms with constant power sources, then the effect of the dynamic interaction of the wind farm with the SGs can be also computed individually. Thus, a clearer picture and better understanding on the power system small-signal angular stability as affected by grid connection of the large-scale wind farm are provided. In the paper, an example power system with grid connection of a wind farm is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.

Keywords: power system small-signal angular stability, power system low-frequency oscillations, electromechanical oscillation modes, wind farms, double fed induction generator (DFIG)

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4020 Using Gaussian Process in Wind Power Forecasting

Authors: Hacene Benkhoula, Mohamed Badreddine Benabdella, Hamid Bouzeboudja, Abderrahmane Asraoui

Abstract:

The wind is a random variable difficult to master, for this, we developed a mathematical and statistical methods enable to modeling and forecast wind power. Gaussian Processes (GP) is one of the most widely used families of stochastic processes for modeling dependent data observed over time, or space or time and space. GP is an underlying process formed by unrecognized operator’s uses to solve a problem. The purpose of this paper is to present how to forecast wind power by using the GP. The Gaussian process method for forecasting are presented. To validate the presented approach, a simulation under the MATLAB environment has been given.

Keywords: wind power, Gaussien process, modelling, forecasting

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4019 Optimizing the Insertion of Renewables in the Colombian Power Sector

Authors: Felipe Henao, Yeny Rodriguez, Juan P. Viteri, Isaac Dyner

Abstract:

Colombia is rich in natural resources and greatly focuses on the exploitation of water for hydroelectricity purposes. Alternative cleaner energy sources, such as solar and wind power, have been largely neglected despite: a) its abundance, b) the complementarities between hydro, solar and wind power, and c) the cost competitiveness of renewable technologies. The current limited mix of energy sources creates considerable weaknesses for the system, particularly when facing extreme dry weather conditions, such as El Niño event. In the past, El Niño have exposed the truly consequences of a system heavily dependent on hydropower, i.e. loss of power supply, high energy production costs, and loss of overall competitiveness for the country. Nonetheless, it is expected that the participation of hydroelectricity will increase in the near future. In this context, this paper proposes a stochastic lineal programming model to optimize the insertion of renewable energy systems (RES) into the Colombian electricity sector. The model considers cost-based generation competition between traditional energy technologies and alternative RES. This work evaluates the financial, environmental, and technical implications of different combinations of technologies. Various scenarios regarding the future evolution of costs of the technologies are considered to conduct sensitivity analysis of the solutions – to assess the extent of the participation of the RES in the Colombian power sector. Optimization results indicate that, even in the worst case scenario, where costs remain constant, the Colombian power sector should diversify its portfolio of technologies and invest strongly in solar and wind power technologies. The diversification through RES will contribute to make the system less vulnerable to extreme weather conditions, reduce the overall system costs, cut CO2 emissions, and decrease the chances of having national blackout events in the future. In contrast, the business as usual scenario indicates that the system will turn more costly and less reliable.

Keywords: energy policy and planning, stochastic programming, sustainable development, water management

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4018 Impact Study on a Load Rich Island and Development of Frequency Based Auto-Load Shedding Scheme to Improve Service Reliability of the Island

Authors: Md. Shafiullah, M. Shafiul Alam, Bandar Suliman Alsharif

Abstract:

Electrical quantities such as frequency, voltage, current are being fluctuated due to abnormalities in power system. Most of the abnormalities cause fluctuation in system frequency and sometimes extreme abnormalities lead to system blackout. To protect the system from complete blackout planned and proper islanding plays a very important role even in case of extreme abnormalities. Islanding operation not only helps stabilizing a faulted system but also supports power supplies to critical and important loads, in extreme emergency. But the islanding systems are weaker than integrated system so the stability of islands is the prime concern when an integrated system is disintegrated. In this paper, different impacts on a load rich island have been studied and a frequency based auto-load shedding scheme has been developed for sudden load addition, generation outage and combined effect of both to the island. The developed scheme has been applied to Khulna-Barisal Island to validate the effectiveness of the developed technique. Various types of abnormalities to the test system have been simulated and for the simulation purpose CYME PSAF (Power System Analysis Framework) has been used.

Keywords: auto load shedding, FS&FD relay, impact study, island, PSAF, ROCOF

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4017 Optimal Load Control Strategy in the Presence of Stochastically Dependent Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Almoataz Y. Abdelaziz, Yasser G. Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper presents a load control strategy based on modification of the Big Bang Big Crunch optimization method. The proposed strategy aims to determine the optimal load to be controlled and the corresponding time of control in order to minimize the energy purchased from substation. The presented strategy helps the distribution network operator to rely on the renewable energy sources in supplying the system demand. The renewable energy sources used in the presented study are modeled using the diagonal band Copula method and sequential Monte Carlo method in order to accurately consider the multivariate stochastic dependence between wind power, photovoltaic power and the system demand. The proposed algorithms are implemented in MATLAB environment and tested on the IEEE 37-node feeder. Several case studies are done and the subsequent discussions show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: big bang big crunch, distributed generation, load control, optimization, planning

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4016 Wind Load Reduction Effect of Exterior Porous Skin on Facade Performance

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo

Abstract:

Building envelope design is one of the most popular design fields of architectural profession in nowadays. The main design trend of such system is to highlight the designer's aesthetic intention from the outlook of building project. Due to the trend of current façade design, the building envelope contains more and more layers of components, such as double skin façade, photovoltaic panels, solar control system, or even ornamental components. These exterior components are designed for various functional purposes. Most researchers focus on how these exterior elements should be structurally sound secured. However, not many researchers consider these elements would help to improve the performance of façade system. When the exterior elements are deployed in large scale, it creates an additional layer outside of original façade system and acts like a porous interface which would interfere with the aerodynamic of façade surface in micro-scale. A standard façade performance consists with 'water penetration, air infiltration rate, operation force, and component deflection ratio', and these key performances are majorly driven by the 'Design Wind Load' coded in local regulation. A design wind load is usually determined by the maximum wind pressure which occurs on the surface due to the geometry or location of building in extreme conditions. This research was designed to identify the air damping phenomenon of micro turbulence caused by porous exterior layer leading to surface wind load reduction for improvement of façade system performance. A series of wind tunnel test on dynamic pressure sensor array covered by various scale of porous exterior skin was conducted to verify the effect of wind pressure reduction. The testing specimens were designed to simulate the typical building with two-meter extension offsetting from building surface. Multiple porous exterior skins were prepared to replicate various opening ratio of surface which may cause different level of damping effect. This research adopted 'Pitot static tube', 'Thermal anemometers', and 'Hot film probe' to collect the data of surface dynamic pressure behind porous skin. Turbulence and distributed resistance are the two main factors of aerodynamic which would reduce the actual wind pressure. From initiative observation, the reading of surface wind pressure was effectively reduced behind porous media. In such case, an actual building envelope system may be benefited by porous skin from the reduction of surface wind pressure, which may improve the performance of envelope system consequently.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, facade performance, turbulence and distributed resistance, wind tunnel test

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
4015 Assessment of Pier Foundations for Onshore Wind Turbines in Non-cohesive Soil

Authors: Mauricio Terceros, Jann-Eike Saathoff, Martin Achmus

Abstract:

In non-cohesive soil, onshore wind turbines are often found on shallow foundations with a circular or octagonal shape. For the current generation of wind turbines, shallow foundations with very large breadths are required. The foundation support costs thus represent a considerable portion of the total construction costs. Therefore, an economic optimization of the type of foundation is highly desirable. A conceivable alternative foundation type would be a pier foundation, which combines the load transfer over the foundation area at the pier base with the transfer of horizontal loads over the shaft surface of the pier. The present study aims to evaluate the load-bearing behavior of a pier foundation based on comprehensive parametric studies. Thereby, three-dimensional numerical simulations of both pier and shallow foundations are developed. The evaluation of the results focuses on the rotational stiffnesses of the proposed soil-foundation systems. In the design, the initial rotational stiffness is decisive for consideration of natural frequencies, whereas the rotational secant stiffness for a maximum load is decisive for serviceability considerations. A systematic analysis of the results at different load levels shows that the application of the typical pier foundation is presumably limited to relatively small onshore wind turbines.

Keywords: onshore wind foundation, pier foundation, rotational stiffness of soil-foundation system, shallow foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
4014 Design and Study of a Wind-Solar Hybrid System for Lighting Application

Authors: Nikhil V. Nayak, P. P. Revankar, M. B. Gorawar

Abstract:

Wind energy has been shown to be one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. With current technology, the low cost of wind energy is competitive with more conventional sources of energy such as coal. Most airfoil blades available for commercial grade wind turbines incorporate a straight span-wise profile and airfoil shaped cross sections. This paper is aimed at studying and designing a wind-solar hybrid system for light load application. The tools like qblade and solidworks are used to model and analyze the wind turbine system, the material used for the blade and hub is balsa wood and the tower a lattice type. The expected power output is 100 W for an average wind speed of 4.5 m/s.

Keywords: renewable energy, hybrid, airfoil blades, wind speeds, make-in-india, camber, QBlade, solidworks, balsa wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
4013 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed and the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life is presented. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, load ratio, magnesium alloys, probability distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 543