Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Chayanika Kala

17 Column Studies on Chromium(VI) Adsorption onto Kala Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) Seed Powder

Authors: Sumi Deka, Krishna Gopal Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

This paper evaluate the industrial use of Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed powder (KSP) for the continuous adsorption of Cr(VI) in a column adsorption process. Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Kala jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed Powder have been examined with the variation of (a) bed depth of the adsorbents, (b) flow rate of the adsorbents and (c) Cr(VI) concentration. The results showed that both the adsorption and the regeneration of the Cr(VI) onto Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) seed Powder (KSP) can effectively occur in the column mode of adsorption. On increasing the bed depth, the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto KSP increases whereas on increasing the flow rate and the Cr(VI) concentration of KSP adsorption decreases. The results of the column studies were also fitted to Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model. The BDST model was appropriate for designing the column for industrial purpose.

Keywords: bed-depth-service-time, continuous adsorption, Cr(VI), KSP

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16 The Nutritional Value of Peanut Seeds Grown in Wetlands Var, Petite Kaloise

Authors: Ati Sabrina, Arbouche Fodil

Abstract:

Petite Kaloise is an endemic variety of peanut in El Kala region preceding was grown dry around the three lakes (Mellah, obeira, and Tonga) was threatened by extinctions whose study of its nutritional value allows us to initiate its recovery and revive its culture. the results of the study showed that the rate of the mineral is low due to the absence of fertilization , the fat is between (48.79, 32.33, and 43.07) % respectively for sites (EL KALA, Frine, and OUM TEBOUL). Nitrogen matter is of the order of 29.86 %. lignin remains low, the rate is around 3.94 % promoting good digestibility of organic matter.

Keywords: digestible, lakes, petite kaloise, nutritional value

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15 Amyloid Deposition in Granuloma of Tuberculosis Patients: A Pilot Study

Authors: Shreya Ghosh, Akansha Garg, Chayanika Kala, Ashwani Kumar Thakur

Abstract:

Background: Granuloma formation is one of the characteristic features of tuberculosis. Besides, chronic inflammation underlying tuberculosis is often indicated by an increase in the concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein. The connection between tuberculosis and SAA-driven secondary amyloidosis is well documented. However, SAA-derived amyloid deposition start sites are not well understood in tuberculosis and other chronic inflammatory conditions. It was hypothesized that granuloma could be a potential site for an amyloid deposition because both SAA protein and proteases that cleave SAA into aggregation-prone fragments are reported to be present in the granuloma. Here the authors have shown the presence of SAA-derived amyloid deposits in the granuloma of tuberculosis patients. Methodology: Over a period of two years, tuberculosis patients were screened, and biopsies were collected from the affected organs of the patients. The gold standard, Congo red dye staining, was used to identify amyloid deposits in the tissue sections of tuberculosis patients containing granulomatous structure. Results: 11 out of 150 FFPE biopsy specimens of tuberculosis patients showed eosinophilic hyaline-rich deposits surrounding granuloma. Upon Congo red staining, these deposits exhibited characteristic apple-green birefringence under polarized light, confirming amyloid deposits. Further, upon immunohistochemical staining with anti-SAA, the amyloid enriched areas showed positive immunoreactivity. Conclusion: In this pilot study, we have shown that granuloma can be a potential site for serum amyloid A-derived amyloid formation in tuberculosis patients. Moreover, the presence of amyloid gave significant cues that granuloma might be a probable amyloid deposition start in tuberculosis patients. This study will set a stage to expand the clinical and fundamental research in the understanding of amyloid formation in granuloma underlying tuberculosis and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: amyloid, granuloma, periphery, serum amyloid A, tuberculosis

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14 Acacia mearnsii De Wild-A New Scourge on Cork Oak Forests of El Kala National Park (North-Eastern Algeria)

Authors: Samir Chekchaki, ArifaBeddiar

Abstract:

Nowadays, more and more species are introduced outside their natural range. If most of them remain difficult, some may adopt a much more dynamic behavior. Indeed, we have witnessed in recent decades, the development of high forests of Acacia mearnsii in El Kala National Park. Introduced indefinitely, this leguminous intended to make money (nitrogen supply for industrial plantations of Eucalyptus), became one of the most invasive and more costly in terms of forest management. It has crossed all barriers: it has acclimatized, naturalized and then expanded through diverse landscapes; entry into competition with native species such as cork oak and altered ecosystem functioning. Therefore, it is interesting to analyze this new threat by relying on plants as bio-indicator for assessing biodiversity at different scales. We have identified the species present in several plots distributed in a range of vegetation types subjected to different degrees of disturbance by using the braun-blanquet method. Fifty-six species have been recorded. They are distributed in 48 genera and 29 families. The analysis of the relative frequency of species correlated with relative abundance clearly shows that the Acacia mearnsii feels marginalized. The ecological analysis of this biological invasion shows that disruption of either natural or anthropogenic origin (fire, prolonged drought, cut) represent the factors that exacerbate invasion by opening invasion windows. The lifting of seeds of Acacia mearnsii lasting physical dormancy (and variable) is ensured by the thermal shock in relation to its heliophilous character.

Keywords: Acacia mearnsii De Wild, El Kala National park, fire, invasive, vegetation

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13 Climate Change and Migration from Ngala and Kala-Balge LGAs, North-Eastern Borno State, Nigeria

Authors: Adam Modu Abbas

Abstract:

Nigeria, due to its location, size and population is very vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Little effort is however made to address most of the problems, despite the fact that sufficient understanding is made on the impact of climate change and problems emanating from it are also always being propagated. Migration, one of the resultant effects of climate change is however given less attention. This paper focuses on the climate change impact and one of resulting effects, migration and its associated problems. Purposive sampling technique was adopted in sampling 250 respondents who were mainly family members of out-migrants from Ngala and Kala-Balge LGAs of North-eastern Borno State, Nigeria. Available literatures were consulted for the types of climate change impacts. The results revealed that, climate change leads to climatic variation over the space with numerous effects on the environment such as intermittent droughts, desertification/deforestation, low water table and establishment of dams across the courses of the main sources of water supply to the Lake Chad. Many people in the study area either migrated to Cameroon’s Darrak, Lake Doi and Mayo Mbund, Lagos, Nigeria, leaving some members of their families at home. More than half of respondents indicated that the heads of the households migrated as a result of poor harvest due to diminishing or fluctuating rains/drought and/or drying of river Surbewel. It is recommended that; inter-basin water transfers should be embarked upon.

Keywords: climate, change, migration, dam, intermittent

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12 Soil-Vegetation Relationship in the Watersheds of the Tonga and OubeïRa Lakes, Algeria

Authors: Nafaa Zaafour

Abstract:

Located at the north eastern of Algeria, the National Park of El-Kala (PNEK) is a set of landscapes whose bioclimatic stages of vegetation extend from sub-humid to humid. In order to know the soil occupation in this complex, an initiated ecological soil cartography using a stratified sampling plan of vegetation had made, the study area occupies two-thirds of the northern National Park of El Kala, it has been divided into 380 plots of 1km2 of which, 76 were the subject of a detailed floristic inventory and sampling of soils. The inventory of vegetation carried out on different sites has allowed identifying several plant groups that share the soil cover with the following distribution: The group of cork oak, this formation occupies the biggest part of the area, it develops mainly on Incepttisols, Alfisols and Mollisols; The group of kermes oak, occupies a large area, it grows on Mollisols and Alfisols; The group of maritime pine, it occupies the same soils as the Kermes Oak; The group of Mirbeck oak, installed on Regosols, it is located in the Eastern part, on the Algerian-Tunisian border; The group of eucalyptus, it grows mainly on Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols; The group of wetland, it grows along the banks of lakes and rivers, which primarily develops on Histosols soil Mollisols and Vertisols; The cultures, distributed mainly around the lakes occupy several soil types on Histosols, the Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols. This great diversity of vegetation is linked not only to the soil variability but also to climate, hydrological and geological variability.

Keywords: Algeria, cartography, soil, vegetation

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11 Imperfect Production Inventory Model with Inspection Errors and Fuzzy Demand and Deterioration Rates

Authors: Chayanika Rout, Debjani Chakraborty, Adrijit Goswami

Abstract:

Our work presents an inventory model which illustrates imperfect production and imperfect inspection processes for deteriorating items. A cost-minimizing model is studied considering two types of inspection errors, namely, Type I error of falsely screening out a proportion of non-defects, thereby passing them on for rework and Type II error of falsely not screening out a proportion of defects, thus selling those to customers which incurs a penalty cost. The screened items are reworked; however, no returns are entertained due to deteriorating nature of the items. In more practical situations, certain parameters such as the demand rate and the deterioration rate of inventory cannot be accurately determined, and therefore, they are assumed to be triangular fuzzy numbers in our model. We calculate the optimal lot size that must be produced in order to minimize the total inventory cost for both the crisp and the fuzzy models. A numerical example is also considered to exemplify the procedure which is followed by the analysis of sensitivity of various parameters on the decision variable and the objective function.

Keywords: deteriorating items, EPQ, imperfect quality, rework, type I and type II inspection errors

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10 Automatic Tagging and Accuracy in Assamese Text Data

Authors: Chayanika Hazarika Bordoloi

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to work on a highly inflectional language called Assamese. This is also one of the national languages of India and very little has been achieved in terms of computational research. Building a language processing tool for a natural language is not very smooth as the standard and language representation change at various levels. This paper presents inflectional suffixes of Assamese verbs and how the statistical tools, along with linguistic features, can improve the tagging accuracy. Conditional random fields (CRF tool) was used to automatically tag and train the text data; however, accuracy was improved after linguistic featured were fed into the training data. Assamese is a highly inflectional language; hence, it is challenging to standardizing its morphology. Inflectional suffixes are used as a feature of the text data. In order to analyze the inflections of Assamese word forms, a list of suffixes is prepared. This list comprises suffixes, comprising of all possible suffixes that various categories can take is prepared. Assamese words can be classified into inflected classes (noun, pronoun, adjective and verb) and un-inflected classes (adverb and particle). The corpus used for this morphological analysis has huge tokens. The corpus is a mixed corpus and it has given satisfactory accuracy. The accuracy rate of the tagger has gradually improved with the modified training data.

Keywords: CRF, morphology, tagging, tagset

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9 An Embedded High Speed Adder for Arithmetic Computations

Authors: Kala Bharathan, R. Seshasayanan

Abstract:

In this paper, a 1-bit Embedded Logic Full Adder (EFA) circuit in transistor level is proposed, which reduces logic complexity, gives low power and high speed. The design is further extended till 64 bits. To evaluate the performance of EFA, a 16, 32, 64-bit both Linear and Square root Carry Select Adder/Subtractor (CSLAS) Structure is also proposed. Realistic testing of proposed circuits is done on 8 X 8 Modified Booth multiplier and comparison in terms of power and delay is done. The EFA is implemented for different multiplier architectures for performance parameter comparison. Overall delay for CSLAS is reduced to 78% when compared to conventional one. The circuit implementations are done on TSMC 28nm CMOS technology using Cadence Virtuoso tool. The EFA has power savings of up to 14% when compared to the conventional adder. The present implementation was found to offer significant improvement in terms of power and speed in comparison to other full adder circuits.

Keywords: embedded logic, full adder, pdp, xor gate

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8 Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of Olea europea Var. Oleaster Oil and Determination of Its Effects on Blood Parameters

Authors: Asma Gherib, Imen Merzougui, Cherifa Henchiri

Abstract:

This present study has allowed to evaluate the physico chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and the hypolipidemic effect of Oleaster oil Olea europea var. Oleaster, from the area of El Kala, "Eastern Algeria" on rats "Wistar albinos". The physico chemical characteristics: acidity (0,73%), peroxide value (14, 16 meqO2/kg oil) and iodine value (74,08 g iodine/100 g of oil) are consistent with international standards. The dosage of FA revealed a wealth of oil with UFA (76,7%), mainly composed of 65.43% of MUFA whose major fatty acid is oleic acid (63,57%). The experiment on rats receiving a diet rich in saturated fats and hydrogenated oils revealed that the consumption of Oleaster oil at the dose of 10 g and 20 g for 15 and 30 days improves plasma lipid profile by decreasing the rates of TC, TG, TL, and LDL-C with an increase in the rate of HDL-C serum. The importance of these effects depends on the dose and period of treatment.

Keywords: oleaster oil, fatty acid, Olea europea, oleic acid, lipid profile

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7 A Mixed Approach to Assess Information System Risk, Operational Risk, and Congolese Microfinance Institutions Performance

Authors: Alfred Kamate Siviri, Angelus Mafikiri Tsongo, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug

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Digitalization and information systems well organized have been selected as relevant measures to mitigate operational risks within organizations. Unfortunately, information system comes with new threats that can cause severe damage and quick organization lockout. This study aims to measure perceived information system risks and their effects on operational risks within the microfinance institution in D.R. Congo. Also, the factors influencing the operational risk are identified, and the link between operational risk with other risks and performance is to be assessed. The study proposes a research model drawn on the combination of Resources-Based-View, dynamic capabilities, the agency theory, the Information System Security Model, and social theories of risk. Therefore, we suggest adopting a mixed methods research with the sole aim of increasing the literature that already exists on perceived operational risk assessment and its link with other risk and performance, a focus on IT risk.

Keywords: Democratic Republic Congo, information system risk, microfinance performance, operational risk

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6 A Case Study on the Census of Technological Capacities in Health Care in Rural Sanitary Institutions in South Cameroon

Authors: Doriane Micaela Andeme Bikoro, Samuel Fosso Wamba, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug

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Currently one of the leading fields in the market of technological innovation is digital health. In developed countries, this booming innovation is experiencing an exponential speed. We understand that in developed countries, e-health could also revolutionize the practice of medicine and therefore fill the many failures observed in medical care. Everything leads to believe that future technology is oriented towards the medical sector. The aim of this work is to explore at the same time the technological resources and the potential of health care based on new technologies; it is a case study in a rural area of Southern Cameroon. Among other things, we will make a census of the shortcomings and problems encountered, and we will propose various appropriate solutions. The work methodology used here is essentially qualitative. We used two qualitative data collection techniques, direct observation, and interviews. In fact, we spent two weeks in the field observing and conducting some semi-directive interviews with some of those responsible for these health structures. This study was conducted in three health facilities in the south of the country; including two health centers and a rural hospital. Many technological failures have been identified in the day-to-day management of these health facilities and especially in the administration of health care to patients. We note major problems such as the digital divide, the lack of qualified personnel, the state of isolation of this area. This is why various proposals are made to improve the health sector in Cameroon both technologically and medically.

Keywords: Cameroon, capacities, census, digital health, qualitative method, rural area

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5 Association of Mir-196a Expression in Esophageal Tissue with Barrett´s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Petra Borilova Linhartova, Michaela Ruckova, Sabina Sevcikova, Natalie Mlcuchova, Jan Bohm, Katerina Zukalova, Monika Vlachova, Jiri Dolina, Lumir Kunovsky, Radek Kroupa, Zdenek Pavlovsky, Zdenek Danek, Tereza Deissova, Lydie Izakovicova Holla, Ondrej Slaby, Zdenek Kala

Abstract:

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy that frequently develops from Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant pathologic change occurring in the lower end of the esophagus. Specific microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, were repeatedly proved to play key roles in the pathogenesis of these diseases. This pilot study aimed to analyze four selected miRNAs in esophageal tissues from healthy controls (HC) and patients with reflux esophagitis (RE)/BE/EAC, as well as to compare expression at the site of Barrett's mucosa/adenocarcinoma and healthy esophageal tissue outside the area of the main pathology in patients with BE/EAC. In this pilot study, 22 individuals (3 HC, 8 RE, 5 BE, 6 EAC) were included and endoscopically examined. RNA was isolated from the fresh-frozen esophageal tissue (stored in the RNAlater™ Stabilization Solution −70°C) using the AllPrep DNA/RNA/miRNA Universal Kit. Subsequent RT-qPCR analysis was performed using selected TaqMan MicroRNA Assays for miR-21, miR-34a, miR-196a, miR-196b, and endogenous control (RNU44). While the expression of miR-21 in the esophageal tissue with the main pathology was decreased in BE and EAC patients in comparison to the group of HC and RE patients (p=0.01), the expression of miR-196a was increased in the BE and EAC patients (p<0.01). Correlations between those miRNAs expression in tissue and severity of diagnosis were observed (p<0.05). In addition, miR-196a was significantly more expressed at the site with the main pathology than in paired adjacent esophageal tissue in BE and EAC patients (p<0.01). In conclusion, our pilot results showed that miR-196a, which regulates the proliferation, invasion, and migration (and was previously associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and marked as a potential therapeutic target), could be a diagnostic tissue biomarker for BE and EAC as well.

Keywords: microRNA, barrett´s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, biomarker

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4 Triploid Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for Better Aquaculture and Ecological Risk Management

Authors: N. N. Pandey, Raghvendra Singh, Biju S. Kamlam, Bipin K. Vishwakarma, Preetam Kala

Abstract:

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is an exotic salmonid fish, well known for its fast growth, tremendous ability to thrive in diverse conditions, delicious flesh and hard fighting nature in Europe and other countries. Rainbow trout farming has a great potential for its contribution to the mainstream economy of Himalayan states in India and other temperate countries. These characteristics establish them as one of the most widely introduced and cultured fish across the globe, and its farming is also prominent in the cold water regions of India. Nevertheless, genetic fatigue, slow growth, early maturity, and low productivity are limiting the expansion of trout production. Moreover, farms adjacent to natural streams or other water sources are subject to escape of domesticated rainbow trout into the wild, which is a serious environmental concern as the escaped fish is subject to contaminate and disrupt the receiving ecosystem. A decline in production traits due to early maturity prolongs the culture duration and affects the profit margin of rainbow trout farms in India. A viable strategy that could overcome these farming constraints in large scale operation is the production of triploid fish that are sterile and more heterozygous. For better triploidy induction rate (TR), heat shock at 28°C for 10 minutes and pressure shock 9500 psi pressure for 5 minutes is applied to green eggs with 90-100% of triploidy success and 72-80% survival upto swim-up fry stage. There is 20% better growth in aquaculture with triploids rainbow trout over diploids. As compared to wild diploid fish, larger sized and fitter triploid rainbow trout in natural waters attract to trout anglers, and support the development of recreational fisheries by state fisheries departments without the risk of contaminating existing gene pools and disrupting local fish diversity. Overall, enhancement of productivity in rainbow trout farms and trout production in coldwater regions, development of lucrative trout angling and better ecological management is feasible with triploid rainbow trout.

Keywords: rainbow trout, triploids fish, heat shock, pressure shock, trout angling

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3 Re-interpreting Ruskin with Respect to the Wall

Authors: Anjali Sadanand, R. V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Architecture morphs with advances in technology and the roof, wall, and floor as basic elements of a building, follow in redefining themselves over time. Their contribution is bound by time and held by design principles that deal with function, sturdiness, and beauty. Architecture engages with people to give joy through its form, material, design structure, and spatial qualities. This paper attempts to re-interpret John Ruskin’s “Seven lamps of Architecture” in the context of the architecture of the modern and present period. The paper focuses on the “wall” as an element of study in this context. Four of Ruskin’s seven lamps will be discussed, namely beauty, truth, life, and memory, through examples of architecture ranging from modernism to contemporary architecture of today. The study will focus on the relevance of Ruskin’s principles to the “wall” in specific, in buildings of different materials and over a range of typologies from all parts of the world. Two examples will be analyzed for each lamp. It will be shown that in each case, there is relevance to the significance of Ruskin’s lamps in modern and contemporary architecture. Nature to which Ruskin alludes to for his lamp of “beauty” is found in the different expressions of interpretation used by Corbusier in his Villa Stein façade based on proportion found in nature and in the direct expression of Toyo Ito in his translation of an understanding of the structure of trees into his façade design of the showroom for a Japanese bag boutique. “Truth” is shown in Mies van der Rohe’s Crown Hall building with its clarity of material and structure and Studio Mumbai’s Palmyra House, which celebrates the use of natural materials and local craftsmanship. “Life” is reviewed with a sustainable house in Kerala by Ashrams Ravi and Alvar Aalto’s summer house, which illustrate walls as repositories of intellectual thought and craft. “Memory” is discussed with Charles Correa’s Jawahar Kala Kendra and Venturi’s Vana Venturi house and discloses facades as text in the context of its materiality and iconography. Beauty is reviewed in Villa Stein and Toyo Ito’s Branded Retail building in Tokyo. The paper thus concludes that Ruskin’s Lamps can be interpreted in today’s context and add richness to meaning to the understanding of architecture.

Keywords: beauty, design, facade, modernism

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2 Analysis of Non-Conventional Roundabout Performance in Mixed Traffic Conditions

Authors: Guneet Saini, Shahrukh, Sunil Sharma

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Traffic congestion is the most critical issue faced by those in the transportation profession today. Over the past few years, roundabouts have been recognized as a measure to promote efficiency at intersections globally. In developing countries like India, this type of intersection still faces a lot of issues, such as bottleneck situations, long queues and increased waiting times, due to increasing traffic which in turn affect the performance of the entire urban network. This research is a case study of a non-conventional roundabout, in terms of geometric design, in a small town in India. These types of roundabouts should be analyzed for their functionality in mixed traffic conditions, prevalent in many developing countries. Microscopic traffic simulation is an effective tool to analyze traffic conditions and estimate various measures of operational performance of intersections such as capacity, vehicle delay, queue length and Level of Service (LOS) of urban roadway network. This study involves analyzation of an unsymmetrical non-circular 6-legged roundabout known as “Kala Aam Chauraha” in a small town Bulandshahr in Uttar Pradesh, India using VISSIM simulation package which is the most widely used software for microscopic traffic simulation. For coding in VISSIM, data are collected from the site during morning and evening peak hours of a weekday and then analyzed for base model building. The model is calibrated on driving behavior and vehicle parameters and an optimal set of calibrated parameters is obtained followed by validation of the model to obtain the base model which can replicate the real field conditions. This calibrated and validated model is then used to analyze the prevailing operational traffic performance of the roundabout which is then compared with a proposed alternative to improve efficiency of roundabout network and to accommodate pedestrians in the geometry. The study results show that the alternative proposed is an advantage over the present roundabout as it considerably reduces congestion, vehicle delay and queue length and hence, successfully improves roundabout performance without compromising on pedestrian safety. The study proposes similar designs for modification of existing non-conventional roundabouts experiencing excessive delays and queues in order to improve their efficiency especially in the case of developing countries. From this study, it can be concluded that there is a need to improve the current geometry of such roundabouts to ensure better traffic performance and safety of drivers and pedestrians negotiating the intersection and hence this proposal may be considered as a best fit.

Keywords: operational performance, roundabout, simulation, VISSIM

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1 A Systematic Review on the Whole-Body Cryotherapy versus Control Interventions for Recovery of Muscle Function and Perceptions of Muscle Soreness Following Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Runners

Authors: Michael Nolte, Iwona Kasior, Kala Flagg, Spiro Karavatas

Abstract:

Background: Cryotherapy has been used as a post-exercise recovery modality for decades. Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is an intervention which involves brief exposures to extremely cold air in order to induce therapeutic effects. It is currently being investigated for its effectiveness in treating certain exercise-induced impairments. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether WBC as a recovery intervention is more, less, or equally as effective as other interventions at reducing perceived levels of muscle soreness and promoting recovery of muscle function after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) from running. Methods: A systematic review of the current literature was performed utilizing the following MeSH terms: cryotherapy, whole-body cryotherapy, exercise-induced muscle damage, muscle soreness, muscle recovery, and running. The databases utilized were PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCO Host, and Google Scholar. Articles were included if they were published within the last ten years, had a CEBM level of evidence of IIb or higher, had a PEDro scale score of 5 or higher, studied runners as primary subjects, and utilized both perceived levels of muscle soreness and recovery of muscle function as dependent variables. Articles were excluded if subjects did not include runners, if the interventions included PBC instead of WBC, and if both muscle performance and perceived muscle soreness were not assessed within the study. Results: Two of the four articles revealed that WBC was significantly more effective than treatment interventions such as far-infrared radiation and passive recovery at reducing perceived levels of muscle soreness and restoring muscle power and endurance following simulated trail runs and high-intensity interval running, respectively. One of the four articles revealed no significant difference between WBC and passive recovery in terms of reducing perceived muscle soreness and restoring muscle power following sprint intervals. One of the four articles revealed that WBC had a harmful effect compared to CWI and passive recovery on both perceived muscle soreness and recovery of muscle strength and power following a marathon. Discussion/Conclusion: Though there was no consensus in terms of WBC’s effectiveness at treating exercise-induced muscle damage following running compared to other interventions, it seems as though WBC may at least have a time-dependent positive effect on muscle soreness and recovery following high-intensity interval runs and endurance running, marathons excluded. More research needs to be conducted in order to determine the most effective way to implement WBC as a recovery method for exercise-induced muscle damage, including the optimal temperature, timing, duration, and frequency of treatment.

Keywords: cryotherapy, physical therapy intervention, physical therapy, whole body cryotherapy

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