Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4671

Search results for: small francis turbine generator

4671 A Study on Analysis of Magnetic Field in Induction Generator for Small Francis Turbine Generator

Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Han-Sang Jeong, Yeon-Ho Ok, Jae-Ho Choi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to verify validity of design by testing output of induction generator through finite element analysis before manufacture of induction generator designed. Characteristics in the operating domain of induction generator can be understood through analysis of magnetic field according to load (rotational speed) of induction generator. Characteristics of induction generator such as induced voltage, current, torque, magnetic flux density (magnetic flux saturation), and loss can be predicted by analysis of magnetic field.

Keywords: electromagnetic analysis, induction generator, small hydro power generator, small francis turbine generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 549
4670 Thermal Assessment of Outer Rotor Direct Drive Gearless Small-Scale Wind Turbines

Authors: Yusuf Yasa, Erkan Mese

Abstract:

This paper investigates the thermal issue of permanent magnet synchronous generator which is frequently used in direct drive gearless small-scale wind turbine applications. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is designed with 2.5 kW continuous and 6 kW peak power. Then considering generator geometry, mechanical design of wind turbine is performed. Thermal analysis and optimization is carried out considering all wind turbine components to reach realistic results. These issue is extremely important in research and development(R&D) process for wind turbine applications.

Keywords: direct drive, gearless wind turbine, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), small-scale wind turbine, thermal management

Procedia PDF Downloads 558
4669 Development of an Analytical Model for a Synchronous Permanent Magnet Generator

Authors: T. Sahbani, M. Bouteraa, R. Wamkeue

Abstract:

Wind Turbine are considered to be one of the more efficient system of energy production nowadays, a reason that leads the main industrial companies in wind turbine construction and researchers in over the world to look for better performance and one of the ways for that is the use of the synchronous permanent magnet generator. In this context, this work is about developing an analytical model that could simulate different situation in which the synchronous generator may go through, and of course this model match perfectly with the numerical and experimental model.

Keywords: MATLAB, synchronous permanent magnet generator, wind turbine, analytical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
4668 Experimental and CFD of Desgined Small Wind Turbine

Authors: Tarek A. Mekail, Walid M. A. Elmagid

Abstract:

Many researches have concentrated on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blade through testing and theoretical studies. A small wind turbine blade is designed, fabricated and tested. The power performance of small horizontal axis wind turbines is simulated in details using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The three-dimensional CFD models are presented using ANSYS-CFX v13 software for predicting the performance of a small horizontal axis wind turbine. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data measured from a small wind turbine model, which designed according to a vehicle-based test system. The analysis of wake effect and aerodynamic of the blade can be carried out when the rotational effect was simulated. Finally, comparison between experimental, numerical and analytical performance has been done. The comparison is fairly good.

Keywords: small wind turbine, CFD of wind turbine, CFD, performance of wind turbine, test of small wind turbine, wind turbine aerodynamic, 3D model

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
4667 Design and Development of Wind Turbine Emulator to Operate with 1.5 kW Induction Generator

Authors: Himani Ratna Dahiya

Abstract:

This paper contributes to design a Wind Emulator coupled to 1.5 kW Induction generator for Wind Energy Conversion System. A wind turbine emulator (WTE) is important equipment for developing wind energy conversion systems. It offers a controllable test environment that allows the evaluation and improvement of control schemes for electric generators that is hard to achieve with an actual wind turbine since the wind speed varies randomly. In this paper a wind emulator is modeled and simulated using MATLAB. Verification of the simulation results is done by experimental setup using DC motor-Induction generator set, LABVIEW and data acquisition card.

Keywords: Wind Turbine Emulator, LABVIEW, matlab, induction generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
4666 Unsteady Numerical Analysis of Sediment Erosion Affected High Head Francis Turbine

Authors: Saroj Gautam, Ram Lama, Hari Prasad Neopane, Sailesh Chitrakar, Biraj Singh Thapa, Baoshan Zhu

Abstract:

Sediment flowing along with the water in rivers flowing in South Asia erodes the turbine components. The erosion of turbine components is influenced by the nature of fluid flow along with components of typical turbine types. This paper examines two cases of high head Francis turbines with the same speed number numerically. The numerical investigation involves both steady-state and transient analysis of the numerical model developed for both cases. Furthermore, the influence of leakage flow from the clearance gap of guide vanes is also examined and compared with no leakage flow. It presents the added pressure pulsation to rotor-stator-interaction in the turbine runner for both cases due to leakage flow. It was also found that leakage flow was a major contributor to the sediment erosion in those turbines.

Keywords: sediment erosion, Francis turbine, leakage flow, rotor stator interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
4665 Software Development for Both Small Wind Performance Optimization and Structural Compliance Analysis with International Safety Regulations

Authors: K. M. Yoo, M. H. Kang

Abstract:

Conventional commercial wind turbine design software is limited to large wind turbines due to not incorporating with low Reynold’s Number aerodynamic characteristics typically for small wind turbines. To extract maximum annual energy product from an intermediately designed small wind turbine associated with measured wind data, numerous simulation is highly recommended to have a best fitting planform design with proper airfoil configuration. Since depending upon wind distribution with average wind speed, an optimal wind turbine planform design changes accordingly. It is theoretically not difficult, though, it is very inconveniently time-consuming design procedure to finalize conceptual layout of a desired small wind turbine. Thus, to help simulations easier and faster, a GUI software is developed to conveniently iterate and change airfoil types, wind data, and geometric blade data as well. With magnetic generator torque curve, peak power tracking simulation is also available to better match with the magnetic generator. Small wind turbine often lacks starting torque due to blade optimization. Thus this simulation is also embedded along with yaw design. This software provides various blade cross section details at user’s design convenience such as skin thickness control with fiber direction option, spar shape, and their material properties. Since small wind turbine is under international safety regulations with fatigue damage during normal operations and safety load analyses with ultimate excessive loads, load analyses are provided with each category mandated in the safety regulations.

Keywords: GUI software, Low Reynold’s number aerodynamics, peak power tracking, safety regulations, wind turbine performance optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
4664 Emulation of a Wind Turbine Using Induction Motor Driven by Field Oriented Control

Authors: L. Benaaouinate, M. Khafallah, A. Martinez, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba

Abstract:

This paper concerns with the modeling, simulation, and emulation of a wind turbine emulator for standalone wind energy conversion systems. By using emulation system, we aim to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine torque on the generator shaft: it provides the testing facilities to optimize generator control strategies in a controlled environment, without reliance on natural resources. The aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical models have been detailed as well as the control of pitch angle using Fuzzy Logic for horizontal axis wind turbines. The wind turbine emulator consists mainly of an induction motor with AC power drive with torque control. The control of the induction motor and the mathematical models of the wind turbine are designed with MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the induction motor control system and the functionality of the wind turbine emulator for providing all necessary parameters of the wind turbine system such as wind speed, output torque, power coefficient and tip speed ratio. The findings are of direct practical relevance.

Keywords: electrical generator, induction motor drive, modeling, pitch angle control, real time control, renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine emulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
4663 Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Cavitating Turbulent Flow in Francis Turbines with ANSYS

Authors: Raza Abdulla Saeed

Abstract:

In this study, the three-dimensional cavitating turbulent flow in a complete Francis turbine is simulated using mixture model for cavity/liquid two-phase flows. Numerical analysis is carried out using ANSYS CFX software release 12, and standard k-ε turbulence model is adopted for this analysis. The computational fluid domain consist of spiral casing, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. The computational domain is discretized with a three-dimensional mesh system of unstructured tetrahedron mesh. The finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the governing equations of the mixture model. Results of cavitation on the runner’s blades under three different boundary conditions are presented and discussed. From the numerical results it has been found that the numerical method was successfully applied to simulate the cavitating two-phase turbulent flow through a Francis turbine, and also cavitation is clearly predicted in the form of water vapor formation inside the turbine. By comparison the numerical prediction results with a real runner; it’s shown that the region of higher volume fraction obtained by simulation is consistent with the region of runner cavitation damage.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, hydraulic francis turbine, numerical simulation, two-phase mixture cavitation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
4662 Development of Low Noise Savonius Wind Turbines

Authors: Sanghyeon Kim, Cheolung Cheong

Abstract:

Savonius wind turbines are a drag-type of vertical-axis wind turbine that has been used most commonly as a small-scale wind generator. However, noise is a main hindrance to wide spreading of Savonius wind turbines, just like other wind turbines. Although noise levels radiating from Savonius wind turbines may be relatively low because of their small size, they induce relatively high annoyance due to their prolonged noise exposure to the near community. Therefore, aerodynamic noise of small vertical-axis wind turbines is one of most important design parameters. In this paper, aerodynamic noise characteristics of Savonius wind turbines are investigated using the hybrid CAA techniques, and their low noise designs are proposed based on understanding of noise generation mechanism. First, flow field around the turbine are analyzed by solving 3-D unsteady incompressible RANS equations. Then, noise radiation is predicted using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. Two distinct harmonic noise components, the well-know BPF components and the harmonics whose fundamental frequency is much higher than the BPF are identified. On a basis of this finding, S-shaped blades are proposed as low noise designs and it can reduce the noise levels of Savonius wind turbines by up to 2.7 dB.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, Savonius wind turbine, vertical-axis wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
4661 An Approach to Wind Turbine Modeling for Increasing Its Efficiency

Authors: Rishikesh Dingari, Sai Kiran Dornala

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple method of achieving maximum power by mechanical energy transmission device (METD) with integration to induction generator is proposed. METD functioning is explained and dynamic response of system to step input is plotted. Induction generator is being operated at self-excited mode with excitation capacitor at stator. Voltage and current are observed when linked to METD.

Keywords: mechanical energy transmitting device(METD), self-excited induction generator, wind turbine, hydraulic actuators

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
4660 Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis for Overall Efficiency Improvement and Temperature Reduction in Gas Turbines

Authors: Jeni A. Popescu, Ionut Porumbel, Valeriu A. Vilag, Cleopatra F. Cuciumita

Abstract:

The paper presents a thermodynamic cycle analysis for three turboshaft engines. The first is the cycle is a Brayton cycle, describing the evolution of a classical turboshaft, based on the Klimov TV2 engine. The other two cycles aim at approaching an Ericsson cycle, by replacing the Brayton cycle adiabatic expansion in the turbine by quasi-isothermal expansion. The maximum quasi-Ericsson cycles temperature is set to a lower value than the maximum Brayton cycle temperature, equal to the Brayton cycle power turbine inlet temperature, in order to decrease the engine NOx emissions. Also, the power distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine is maintained the same. In the first of the two considered quasi-Ericsson cycle, the efficiencies of the gas generator turbine stage. Also, the power distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine is maintained the same. In the first of the two considered quasi-Ericsson cycle, the efficiencies of the gas generator turbine stages are maintained the same as for the reference case, while for the second, the efficiencies are increased in order to obtain the same shaft power as in the reference case. It is found that in the first case, both the shaft power and the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine decrease, while in the second, the power is maintained, and even a slight increase in efficiency can be noted.

Keywords: combustion, Ericsson, thermodynamic analysis, turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 530
4659 Power Control of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Used in Wind Turbine by RST Controller

Authors: A. Boualouch, A. Frigui, T. Nasser, A. Essadki, A.Boukhriss

Abstract:

This work deals with the vector control of the active and reactive powers of a Double-Fed Induction generator DFIG used as a wind generator by the polynomial RST controller. The control of the statoric power transfer between the machine and the grid is achieved by acting on the rotor parameters and control is provided by the polynomial controller RST. The performance and robustness of the controller are compared with PI controller and evaluated by simulation results in MATLAB/simulink.

Keywords: DFIG, RST, vector control, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 572
4658 Feasibility Study on a Conductive-Type Cooling System for an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator

Authors: Yang-Gyun Kim, Eun-Taek Woo, Myeong-Gon Lee, Yun-Hyun Cho, Seung-Ho Han

Abstract:

For the sustainable development of wind energy, energy industries have invested in the development of highly efficient wind turbines such as an axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator. The AFPM generator, however, has a history of overheating on the surface of the stator, so that power production decreases significantly. A proper cooling system, therefore, is needed. Although a convective-type cooling system has been developed, the size of the air blower must be increased when the generator’s capacity exceeds 2.5 MW. In this paper, we proposed a newly developed conductive-type cooling system using a heat pipe wound to the stator of a 2.5 MW AFPM generator installed on an offshore wind turbine. The numerical results showed that the temperatures on the stator surface using convective-type cooling system and the proposed conductive-type cooling system at thermal saturation were 60 and 76°C, respectively, which met the requirements for power production. The temperatures of the permanent magnet cased by the radiant heating from the stator surface were 53°C and 66°C, respectively, in each case. As a result, the permanent magnet did not reach the malfunction temperature. Although the cooling temperatures in the case of the conductive-type cooling system were higher than that of the convective-type cooling system, the relatively small size of the water pump and radiators make a light-weight design of the AFPM generator possible.

Keywords: wind turbine, axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator, conductive-type cooling system

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
4657 Wind Turbines Optimization: Shield Structure for a High Wind Speed Conditions

Authors: Daniyar Seitenov, Nazim Mir-Nasiri

Abstract:

Optimization of horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine has been performed using a shield protection that automatically protects the generator shaft at extreme wind speeds from over speeding, mechanical damage and continues generating electricity during the high wind speed conditions. A semi-exposed to wind generator has been designed and its structure has been described in this paper. The simplified point-force dynamic load model on the blades has been derived for normal and extreme wind conditions with and without shield involvement. Numerical simulation has been conducted at different values of wind speed to study the efficiency of shield application. The obtained results show that the maximum power generated by the wind turbine with shield does not exceed approximately the rated value of the generator, where shield serves as an automatic break for extreme wind speed values of 15 m/sec and above. Meantime the wind turbine without shield produced a power that is much larger than the rated value. The optimized horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine with shield protection is suitable for low and medium power generation when installed on the roofs of high rise buildings for harvesting wind energy. Wind shield works automatically with no power consumption. The structure of the generator with the protection, math simulation of kinematics and dynamics of power generation has been described in details in this paper.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine optimization, high wind speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
4656 Inverterless Grid Compatible Micro Turbine Generator

Authors: S. Ozeri, D. Shmilovitz

Abstract:

Micro‐Turbine Generators (MTG) are small size power plants that consist of a high speed, gas turbine driving an electrical generator. MTGs may be fueled by either natural gas or kerosene and may also use sustainable and recycled green fuels such as biomass, landfill or digester gas. The typical ratings of MTGs start from 20 kW up to 200 kW. The primary use of MTGs is for backup for sensitive load sites such as hospitals, and they are also considered a feasible power source for Distributed Generation (DG) providing on-site generation in proximity to remote loads. The MTGs have the compressor, the turbine, and the electrical generator mounted on a single shaft. For this reason, the electrical energy is generated at high frequency and is incompatible with the power grid. Therefore, MTGs must contain, in addition, a power conditioning unit to generate an AC voltage at the grid frequency. Presently, this power conditioning unit consists of a rectifier followed by a DC/AC inverter, both rated at the full MTG’s power. The losses of the power conditioning unit account to some 3-5%. Moreover, the full-power processing stage is a bulky and costly piece of equipment that also lowers the overall system reliability. In this study, we propose a new type of power conditioning stage in which only a small fraction of the power is processed. A low power converter is used only to program the rotor current (i.e. the excitation current which is substantially lower). Thus, the MTG's output voltage is shaped to the desired amplitude and frequency by proper programming of the excitation current. The control is realized by causing the rotor current to track the electrical frequency (which is related to the shaft frequency) with a difference that is exactly equal to the line frequency. Since the phasor of the rotation speed and the phasor of the rotor magnetic field are multiplied, the spectrum of the MTG generator voltage contains the sum and the difference components. The desired difference component is at the line frequency (50/60 Hz), whereas the unwanted sum component is at about twice the electrical frequency of the stator. The unwanted high frequency component can be filtered out by a low-pass filter leaving only the low-frequency output. This approach allows elimination of the large power conditioning unit incorporated in conventional MTGs. Instead, a much smaller and cheaper fractional power stage can be used. The proposed technology is also applicable to other high rotation generator sets such as aircraft power units.

Keywords: gas turbine, inverter, power multiplier, distributed generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
4655 Bi-Directional Impulse Turbine for Thermo-Acoustic Generator

Authors: A. I. Dovgjallo, A. B. Tsapkova, A. A. Shimanov

Abstract:

The paper is devoted to one of engine types with external heating – a thermoacoustic engine. In thermoacoustic engine heat energy is converted to an acoustic energy. Further, acoustic energy of oscillating gas flow must be converted to mechanical energy and this energy in turn must be converted to electric energy. The most widely used way of transforming acoustic energy to electric one is application of linear generator or usual generator with crank mechanism. In both cases, the piston is used. Main disadvantages of piston use are friction losses, lubrication problems and working fluid pollution which cause decrease of engine power and ecological efficiency. Using of a bidirectional impulse turbine as an energy converter is suggested. The distinctive feature of this kind of turbine is that the shock wave of oscillating gas flow passing through the turbine is reflected and passes through the turbine again in the opposite direction. The direction of turbine rotation does not change in the process. Different types of bidirectional impulse turbines for thermoacoustic engines are analyzed. The Wells turbine is the simplest and least efficient of them. A radial impulse turbine has more complicated design and is more efficient than the Wells turbine. The most appropriate type of impulse turbine was chosen. This type is an axial impulse turbine, which has a simpler design than that of a radial turbine and similar efficiency. The peculiarities of the method of an impulse turbine calculating are discussed. They include changes in gas pressure and velocity as functions of time during the generation of gas oscillating flow shock waves in a thermoacoustic system. In thermoacoustic system pressure constantly changes by a certain law due to acoustic waves generation. Peak values of pressure are amplitude which determines acoustic power. Gas, flowing in thermoacoustic system, periodically changes its direction and its mean velocity is equal to zero but its peak values can be used for bi-directional turbine rotation. In contrast with feed turbine, described turbine operates on un-steady oscillating flows with direction changes which significantly influence the algorithm of its calculation. Calculated power output is 150 W with frequency 12000 r/min and pressure amplitude 1,7 kPa. Then, 3-d modeling and numerical research of impulse turbine was carried out. As a result of numerical modeling, main parameters of the working fluid in turbine were received. On the base of theoretical and numerical data model of impulse turbine was made on 3D printer. Experimental unit was designed for numerical modeling results verification. Acoustic speaker was used as acoustic wave generator. Analysis if the acquired data shows that use of the bi-directional impulse turbine is advisable. By its characteristics as a converter, it is comparable with linear electric generators. But its lifetime cycle will be higher and engine itself will be smaller due to turbine rotation motion.

Keywords: acoustic power, bi-directional pulse turbine, linear alternator, thermoacoustic generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
4654 Recursive Parametric Identification of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Turbine

Authors: A. El Kachani, E. Chakir, A. Ait Laachir, A. Niaaniaa, J. Zerouaoui

Abstract:

This document presents an adaptive controller based on recursive parametric identification applied to a wind turbine based on the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIG), to compensate the faults and guarantee efficient of the DFIG. The proposed adaptive controller is based on the recursive least square algorithm which considers that the best estimator for the vector parameter is the vector x minimizing a quadratic criterion. Furthermore, this method can improve the rapidity and precision of the controller based on a model. The proposed controller is validated via simulation on a 5.5 kW DFIG-based wind turbine. The results obtained seem to be good. In addition, they show the advantages of an adaptive controller based on recursive least square algorithm.

Keywords: adaptive controller, recursive least squares algorithm, wind turbine, doubly fed induction generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
4653 Multi-Objective Optimization of Run-of-River Small-Hydropower Plants Considering Both Investment Cost and Annual Energy Generation

Authors: Amèdédjihundé H. J. Hounnou, Frédéric Dubas, François-Xavier Fifatin, Didier Chamagne, Antoine Vianou

Abstract:

This paper presents the techno-economic evaluation of run-of-river small-hydropower plants. In this regard, a multi-objective optimization procedure is proposed for the optimal sizing of the hydropower plants, and NSGAII is employed as the optimization algorithm. Annual generated energy and investment cost are considered as the objective functions, and number of generator units (n) and nominal turbine flow rate (QT) constitute the decision variables. Site of Yeripao in Benin is considered as the case study. We have categorized the river of this site using its environmental characteristics: gross head, and first quartile, median, third quartile and mean of flow. Effects of each decision variable on the objective functions are analysed. The results gave Pareto Front which represents the trade-offs between annual energy generation and the investment cost of hydropower plants, as well as the recommended optimal solutions. We noted that with the increase of the annual energy generation, the investment cost rises. Thus, maximizing energy generation is contradictory with minimizing the investment cost. Moreover, we have noted that the solutions of Pareto Front are grouped according to the number of generator units (n). The results also illustrate that the costs per kWh are grouped according to the n and rise with the increase of the nominal turbine flow rate. The lowest investment costs per kWh are obtained for n equal to one and are between 0.065 and 0.180 €/kWh. Following the values of n (equal to 1, 2, 3 or 4), the investment cost and investment cost per kWh increase almost linearly with increasing the nominal turbine flowrate while annual generated. Energy increases logarithmically with increasing of the nominal turbine flowrate. This study made for the Yeripao river can be applied to other rivers with their own characteristics.

Keywords: hydropower plant, investment cost, multi-objective optimization, number of generator units

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
4652 The Design, Control and Dynamic Performance of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for Wind Power System

Authors: Olusegun Solomon

Abstract:

This paper describes the concept for the design and maximum power point tracking control for an interior permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine system. Two design concepts are compared to outline the effect of magnet design on the performance of the interior permanent magnet synchronous generator. An approximate model that includes the effect of core losses has been developed for the machine to simulate the dynamic performance of the wind energy system. An algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking control is included to describe the process for maximum power extraction.

Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous generator, wind power system, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
4651 Flux-Linkage Performance of DFIG Under Different Types of Faults and Locations

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa Mahmoud Sedky

Abstract:

The double-fed induction generator wind turbine has recently received a great attention. The steady state performance and response of double fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine are now well understood. This paper presents the analysis of stator and rotor flux linkage dq models operation of DFIG under different faults and at different locations.

Keywords: double fed induction motor, wind energy, flux linkage, short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
4650 Heat Transfer in Direct-Driven Generator for Large-Scaled Wind Turbine

Authors: Dae-Gyun Ahn, Eun-Teak Woo, Yun-Hyun Cho, Seung-Ho Han

Abstract:

For the sustainable development of wind energy, energy industries have invested in the development of highly efficient wind generators such as the Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) generator. The AFPM generator, however, has a history of overheating on the surface of the stator, so that power production decreases significantly. A proper cooling system, therefore, is needed. Although a convective-type cooling system has been developed, the size of the air blower must be increased when the generator’s capacity exceeds 2.5MW. In this study, a newly developed conductive-type cooling system was proposed for the 2.5MW AFPM generator installed on an offshore wind turbine. Through electromagnetic thermal analysis, the efficiency of the heat transfer on the stator surface was investigated. When using the proposed cooling system, the temperatures on the stator surface and on the permanent magnet under conditions of thermal saturation were 76 and 66 C, respectively. (KETEP 20134030200320)

Keywords: heat transfer, thermal analysis, axial flux permanent magnet, conductive-type cooling system

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
4649 Analysis of Flux-Linkage Performance of DFIG by Using Simulink under Different Types of Faults and Locations

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa Mahmoud Sedky

Abstract:

The double-fed induction generator wind turbine has recently received a great attention. The steady state performance and response of double fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine are now well understood. This paper presents the analysis of stator and rotor flux linkage dq models operation of DFIG under different faults and at different locations.

Keywords: double fed induction motor, wind energy, flux linkage, short circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
4648 Energy Harvesting and Storage System for Marine Applications

Authors: Sayem Zafar, Mahmood Rahi

Abstract:

Rigorous international maritime regulations are in place to limit boat and ship hydrocarbon emissions. The global sustainability goals are reducing the fuel consumption and minimizing the emissions from the ships and boats. These maritime sustainability goals have attracted a lot of research interest. Energy harvesting and storage system is designed in this study based on hybrid renewable and conventional energy systems. This energy harvesting and storage system is designed for marine applications, such as, boats and small ships. These systems can be utilized for mobile use or off-grid remote electrification. This study analyzed the use of micro power generation for boats and small ships. The energy harvesting and storage system has two distinct systems i.e. dockside shore-based system and on-board system. The shore-based system consists of a small wind turbine, photovoltaic (PV) panels, small gas turbine, hydrogen generator and high-pressure hydrogen storage tank. This dockside system is to provide easy access to the boats and small ships for supply of hydrogen. The on-board system consists of hydrogen storage tanks and fuel cells. The wind turbine and PV panels generate electricity to operate electrolyzer. A small gas turbine is used as a supplementary power system to contribute in case the hybrid renewable energy system does not provide the required energy. The electrolyzer performs the electrolysis on distilled water to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen is stored in high-pressure tanks. The hydrogen from the high-pressure tank is filled in the low-pressure tanks on-board seagoing vessels to operate the fuel cell. The boats and small ships use the hydrogen fuel cell to provide power to electric propulsion motors and for on-board auxiliary use. For shore-based system, a small wind turbine with the total length of 4.5 m and the disk diameter of 1.8 m is used. The small wind turbine dimensions make it big enough to be used to charge batteries yet small enough to be installed on the rooftops of dockside facility. The small dimensions also make the wind turbine easily transportable. In this paper, PV, sizing and solar flux are studied parametrically. System performance is evaluated under different operating and environmental conditions. The parametric study is conducted to evaluate the energy output and storage capacity of energy storage system. Results are generated for a wide range of conditions to analyze the usability of hybrid energy harvesting and storage system. This energy harvesting method significantly improves the usability and output of the renewable energy sources. It also shows that small hybrid energy systems have promising practical applications.

Keywords: energy harvesting, fuel cell, hybrid energy system, hydrogen, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
4647 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie

Abstract:

In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
4646 Stability Analysis of a Low Power Wind Turbine for the Simultaneous Generation of Energy through Two Electric Generators

Authors: Daniel Icaza, Federico Córdova, Chiristian Castro, Fernando Icaza, Juan Portoviejo

Abstract:

In this article, the mathematical model is presented, and simulations were carried out using specialized software such as MATLAB before the construction of a 900-W wind turbine. The present study was conducted with the intention of taking advantage of the rotation of the blades of the wind generator after going through a process of amplification of speed by means of a system of gears to finally mechanically couple two electric generators of similar characteristics. This coupling allows generating a maximum voltage of 6 V in DC for each generator and putting in series the 12 V DC is achieved, which is later stored in batteries and used when the user requires it. Laboratory tests were made to verify the level of power generation produced based on the wind speed at the entrance of the blades.

Keywords: smart grids, wind turbine, modeling, renewable energy, robust control

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
4645 Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity

Authors: Zakir Husain, Neem Sagar, Neeraj Gupta

Abstract:

Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution network, radial network, wind turbine generating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
4644 Cost Analysis of Hybrid Wind Energy Generating System Considering CO2 Emissions

Authors: M. A. Badr, M. N. El Kordy, A. N. Mohib, M. M. Ibrahim

Abstract:

The basic objective of the research is to study the effect of hybrid wind energy on the cost of generated electricity considering the cost of reduction CO2 emissions. The system consists of small wind turbine(s), storage battery bank and a diesel generator (W/D/B). Using an optimization software package, different system configurations are investigated to reach optimum configuration based on the net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE) as economic optimization criteria. The cost of avoided CO2 is taken into consideration. The system is intended to supply the electrical load of a small community (gathering six families) in a remote Egyptian area. The investigated system is not connected to the electricity grid and may replace an existing conventional diesel powered electric supply system to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The simulation results showed that W/D energy system is more economic than diesel alone. The estimated COE is 0.308$/kWh and extracting the cost of avoided CO2, the COE reached 0.226 $/kWh which is an external benefit of wind turbine, as there are no pollutant emissions through operational phase.

Keywords: hybrid wind turbine systems, remote areas electrification, simulation of hybrid energy systems, techno-economic study

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4643 Simulation of Wind Generator with Fixed Wind Turbine under Matlab-Simulink

Authors: Mahdi Motahari, Mojtaba Farzaneh, Armin Parsian Nejad

Abstract:

The rapidly growing wind industry is highly expressing the need for education and training worldwide, particularly on the system level. Modelling and simulating wind generator system using Matlab-Simulink provides expert help in understanding wind systems engineering and system design. Working under Matlab-Simulink we present the integration of the developed WECS model with public electrical grid. A test of the calculated power and Cp related to the experimental equivalent data, using statistical analysis is performed. The statistical indicators of accuracy show better results of the presented method with RMSE: 21%, 22%, MBE : 0.77%, 0.12 % and MAE :3%, 4%.On the other hand we study its behavior when integrated in whole power system. Three level of wind speeds have been chosen: low with 5m/s as the mean value, medium with 8m/s as the mean value and high speed with 12m/s as the mean value. These allowed predicting and supervising the active power produced by the system, characterized respectively by the middle powers of -150 kW, -250kW and -480 kW which will be injected directly into the public electrical grid and the reactive power, characterized respectively by the middle powers of 60 kW, 180 kW and 320 kW and will be consumed by the wind generator.

Keywords: modelling, simulation, wind generator, fixed speed wind turbine, Matlab-Simulink

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
4642 Reinforced Concrete Foundation for Turbine Generators

Authors: Siddhartha Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Steam Turbine-Generators (STG) and Combustion Turbine-Generator (CTG) are used in almost all modern petrochemical, LNG plants and power plant facilities. The reinforced concrete table top foundations are required to support these high speed rotating heavy machineries and is one of the most critical and challenging structures on any industrial project. The paper illustrates through a practical example, the step by step procedure adopted in designing a table top foundation supported on piles for a steam turbine generator with operating speed of 60 Hz. Finite element model of a table top foundation is generated in ANSYS. Piles are modeled as springs-damper elements (COMBIN14). Basic loads are adopted in analysis and design of the foundation based on the vendor requirements, industry standards, and relevant ASCE & ACI codal provisions. Static serviceability checks are performed with the help of Misalignment Tolerance Matrix (MTM) method in which the percentage of misalignment at a given bearing due to displacement at another bearing is calculated and kept within the stipulated criteria by the vendor so that the machine rotor can sustain the stresses developed due to this misalignment. Dynamic serviceability checks are performed through modal and forced vibration analysis where the foundation is checked for resonance and allowable amplitudes, as stipulated by the machine manufacturer. Reinforced concrete design of the foundation is performed by calculating the axial force, bending moment and shear at each of the critical sections. These values are calculated through area integral of the element stresses at these critical locations. Design is done as per ACI 318-05.

Keywords: steam turbine generator foundation, finite element, static analysis, dynamic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 185