Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 220

Search results for: bubble nucleation

220 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux from q=20 kw/m2 to q=102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles.

Keywords: heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
219 Electric Field Effect on the Rise of Single Bubbles during Boiling

Authors: N. Masoudnia, M. Fatahi

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single bubbles, electric field, boiling, effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
218 Rising of Single and Double Bubbles during Boiling and Effect of Electric Field in This Process

Authors: Masoud Gholam Ale Mohammad, Mojtaba Hafezi Birgani

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes in the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single and double bubbles, electric field, boiling, rising

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
217 Bubble Growth in a Two Phase Upward Flow in a Miniature Tube

Authors: R. S. Hassani, S. Chikh, L. Tadrist, S. Radev

Abstract:

A bubbly flow in a vertical miniature tube is analyzed theoretically. The liquid and gas phase are co-current flowing upward. The gas phase is injected via a nozzle whose inner diameter is 0.11mm and it is placed on the axis of the tube. A force balance is applied on the bubble at its detachment. The set of governing equations are solved by use of Mathematica software. The bubble diameter and the bubble generation frequency are determined for various inlet phase velocities represented by the inlet mass quality. The results show different behavior of bubble growth and detachment depending on the tube size.

Keywords: two phase flow, bubble growth, mini-channel, generation frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
216 Investigation of Bubble Growth During Nucleate Boiling Using CFD

Authors: K. Jagannath, Akhilesh Kotian, S. S. Sharma, Achutha Kini U., P. R. Prabhu

Abstract:

Boiling process is characterized by the rapid formation of vapour bubbles at the solid–liquid interface (nucleate boiling) with pre-existing vapour or gas pockets. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an important tool to study bubble dynamics. In the present study, CFD simulation has been carried out to determine the bubble detachment diameter and its terminal velocity. Volume of fluid method is used to model the bubble and the surrounding by solving single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain. In the simulation, bubble is generated by allowing water-vapour to enter a cylinder filled with liquid water through an inlet at the bottom. After the bubble is fully formed, the bubble detaches from the surface and rises up during which the bubble accelerates due to the net balance between buoyancy force and viscous drag. Finally when these forces exactly balance each other, it attains a constant terminal velocity. The bubble detachment diameter and the terminal velocity of the bubble are captured by the monitor function provided in FLUENT. The detachment diameter and the terminal velocity obtained is compared with the established results based on the shape of the bubble. A good agreement is obtained between the results obtained from simulation and the equations in comparison with the established results.

Keywords: bubble growth, computational fluid dynamics, detachment diameter, terminal velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
215 Electrochemical Study of Copper–Tin Alloy Nucleation Mechanisms onto Different Substrates

Authors: Meriem Hamla, Mohamed Benaicha, Sabrine Derbal

Abstract:

In the present work, several materials such as M/glass (M = Pt, Mo) were investigated to test their suitability for studying the early nucleation stages and growth of copper-tin clusters. It was found that most of these materials stand as good substrates to be used in the study of the nucleation and growth of electrodeposited Cu-Sn alloys from aqueous solution containing CuCl2, SnCl2 as electroactive species and Na3C6H5O7 as complexing agent. Among these substrates, Pt shows instantaneous models followed by 3D diffusion-limited growth. On the other hand, the electrodeposited copper-tin thin films onto Mo substrate followed progressive nucleation. The deposition mechanism of the Cu-Sn films has been studied using stationary electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetery (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The structural, morphological and compositional of characterization have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX techniques respectively.

Keywords: electrodeposition, CuSn, nucleation, mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
214 3D Microbubble Dynamics in a Weakly Viscous Fluid Near a Rigid Boundary Subject to Ultrasound

Authors: K. Manmi, Q. X. Wang

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This paper investigates microbubble dynamics subject to ultrasound in a weakly viscous fluid near a rigid boundary. The phenomenon is simulated using a boundary integral method. The weak viscous effects are incorporated into the model through the normal stress balance across the bubble surface. The model agrees well with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a spherical bubble for several cycles. The effects of the fluid viscosity in the bubble dynamics are analyzed, including jet development, centroid movement and bubble volume.

Keywords: microbubble dynamics, bubble jetting, viscous effect, boundary integral method

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
213 Analysis of Two Phase Hydrodynamics in a Column Flotation by Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Balraju Vadlakonda, Narasimha Mangadoddy

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic behavior in a laboratory column flotation was analyzed using particle image velocimetry. For complete characterization of column flotation, it is necessary to determine the flow velocity induced by bubbles in the liquid phase, the bubble velocity and bubble characteristics:diameter,shape and bubble size distribution. An experimental procedure for analyzing simultaneous, phase-separated velocity measurements in two-phase flows was introduced. The non-invasive PIV technique has used to quantify the instantaneous flow field, as well as the time averaged flow patterns in selected planes of the column. Using the novel particle velocimetry (PIV) technique by the combination of fluorescent tracer particles, shadowgraphy and digital phase separation with masking technique measured the bubble velocity as well as the Reynolds stresses in the column. Axial and radial mean velocities as well as fluctuating components were determined for both phases by averaging the sufficient number of double images. Bubble size distribution was cross validated with high speed video camera. Average turbulent kinetic energy of bubble were analyzed. Different air flow rates were considered in the experiments.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry (PIV), bubble velocity, bubble diameter, turbulent kinetic energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
212 Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects

Authors: A. Alhelfi, B. Sunden

Abstract:

Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.

Keywords: cryogenic liquids, cavitation, rocket engineering, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
211 Design and Fabrication of Micro-Bubble Oxygenator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Hong-Yih Cheng

Abstract:

This paper applies the MEMS technology to design and fabricate a micro-bubble generator by a piezoelectric actuator. Coupled with a nickel nozzle plate, an annular piezoelectric ceramic was utilized as the primary structure of the generator. In operations, the piezoelectric element deforms transversely under an electric field applied across the thickness of the generator. The surface of the nozzle plate can expand or contract because of the induction of radial strain, resulting in the whole structure to bend, and successively transport oxygen micro-bubbles into the blood flow for enhancing the oxygen content in blood. In the tests, a high magnification microscope and a high speed CCD camera were employed to photograph the time evolution of meniscus shape of gaseous bubbles dispensed from the micro-bubble generator for flow visualization. This investigation thus explored the bubble formation process including the influences of inlet gas pressure along with driving voltage and resonance frequency on the formed bubble extent.

Keywords: micro-bubble, oxygenator, nozzle, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
210 CFD Study of Subcooled Boiling Flow at Elevated Pressure Using a Mechanistic Wall Heat Partitioning Model

Authors: Machimontorn Promtong, Sherman C. P. Cheung, Guan H. Yeoh, Sara Vahaji, Jiyuan Tu

Abstract:

The wide range of industrial applications involved with boiling flows promotes the necessity of establishing fundamental knowledge in boiling flow phenomena. For this purpose, a number of experimental and numerical researches have been performed to elucidate the underlying physics of this flow. In this paper, the improved wall boiling models, implemented on ANSYS CFX 14.5, were introduced to study subcooled boiling flow at elevated pressure. At the heated wall boundary, the Fractal model, Force balance approach and Mechanistic frequency model are given for predicting the nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter, and bubble departure frequency. The presented wall heat flux partitioning closures were modified to consider the influence of bubble sliding along the wall before the lift-off, which usually happens in the flow boiling. The simulation was performed based on the Two-fluid model, where the standard k-ω SST model was selected for turbulence modelling. Existing experimental data at around 5 bars were chosen to evaluate the accuracy of the presented mechanistic approach. The void fraction and Interfacial Area Concentration (IAC) are in good agreement with the experimental data. However, the predicted bubble velocity and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) are over-predicted. This over-prediction may be caused by consideration of only dispersed and spherical bubbles in the simulations. In the future work, the important physical mechanisms of bubbles, such as merging and shrinking during sliding on the heated wall will be incorporated into this mechanistic model to enhance its capability for a wider range of flow prediction.

Keywords: subcooled boiling flow, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), mechanistic approach, two-fluid model

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
209 CFD Modeling of Boiling in a Microchannel Based On Phase-Field Method

Authors: Rahim Jafari, Tuba Okutucu-Özyurt

Abstract:

The hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of a vaporized elongated bubble in a rectangular microchannel have been simulated based on Cahn-Hilliard phase-field method. In the simulations, the initially nucleated bubble starts growing as it comes in contact with superheated water. The growing shape of the bubble compared with the available experimental data in the literature.

Keywords: microchannel, boiling, Cahn-Hilliard method, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
208 Prediction of Bubbly Plume Characteristics Using the Self-Similarity Model

Authors: Li Chen, Alex Skvortsov, Chris Norwood

Abstract:

Gas releasing into water can be found in for many industrial situations. This process results in the formation of bubbles and acoustic emission which depends upon the bubble characteristics. If the bubble creation rates (bubble volume flow rate) are of interest, an inverse method has to be used based on the measurement of acoustic emission. However, there will be sound attenuation through the bubbly plume which will influence the measurement and should be taken into consideration in the model. The sound transmission through the bubbly plume depends on the characteristics of the bubbly plume, such as the shape and the bubble distributions. In this study, the bubbly plume shape is modelled using a self-similarity model, which has been normally applied for a single phase buoyant plume. The prediction is compared with the experimental data. It has been found the model can be applied to a buoyant plume of gas-liquid mixture. The influence of the gas flow rate and discharge nozzle size is studied.

Keywords: bubbly plume, buoyant plume, bubble acoustics, self-similarity model

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
207 Identification of the Main Transition Velocities in a Bubble Column Based on a Modified Shannon Entropy

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

The gas holdup fluctuations in a bubble column (0.15 m in ID) have been recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor in order to extract information about the main transition velocities. These parameters are very important for bubble column design, operation and scale-up. For this purpose, the classical definition of the Shannon entropy was modified and used to identify both the onset (at UG=0.034 m/s) of the transition flow regime and the beginning (at UG=0.089 m/s) of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The results were compared with the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) results. A slight discrepancy was found, namely the transition velocities identified by means of the KE were shifted to somewhat higher (0.045 and 0.101 m/s) superficial gas velocities UG.

Keywords: bubble column, gas holdup fluctuations, modified Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
206 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
205 Experiments to Study the Vapor Bubble Dynamics in Nucleate Pool Boiling

Authors: Parul Goel, Jyeshtharaj B. Joshi, Arun K. Nayak

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Nucleate boiling is characterized by the nucleation, growth and departure of the tiny individual vapor bubbles that originate in the cavities or imperfections present in the heating surface. It finds a wide range of applications, e.g. in heat exchangers or steam generators, core cooling in power reactors or rockets, cooling of electronic circuits, owing to its highly efficient transfer of large amount of heat flux over small temperature differences. Hence, it is important to be able to predict the rate of heat transfer and the safety limit heat flux (critical heat flux, heat flux higher than this can lead to damage of the heating surface) applicable for any given system. A large number of experimental and analytical works exist in the literature, and are based on the idea that the knowledge of the bubble dynamics on the microscopic scale can lead to the understanding of the full picture of the boiling heat transfer. However, the existing data in the literature are scattered over various sets of conditions and often in disagreement with each other. The correlations obtained from such data are also limited to the range of conditions they were established for and no single correlation is applicable over a wide range of parameters. More recently, a number of researchers have been trying to remove empiricism in the heat transfer models to arrive at more phenomenological models using extensive numerical simulations; these models require state-of-the-art experimental data for a wide range of conditions, first for input and later, for their validation. With this idea in mind, experiments with sub-cooled and saturated demineralized water have been carried out under atmospheric pressure to study the bubble dynamics- growth rate, departure size and frequencies for nucleate pool boiling. A number of heating elements have been used to study the dependence of vapor bubble dynamics on the heater surface finish and heater geometry along with the experimental conditions like the degree of sub-cooling, super heat and the heat flux. An attempt has been made to compare the data obtained with the existing data and the correlations in the literature to generate an exhaustive database for the pool boiling conditions.

Keywords: experiment, boiling, bubbles, bubble dynamics, pool boiling

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
204 Measurement of Steady Streaming from an Oscillating Bubble Using Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Yongseok Kwon, Woowon Jeong, Eunjin Cho, Sangkug Chung, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Steady streaming flow fields induced by a 500 um bubble oscillating at 12 kHz were measured using microscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). The accuracy of velocity measurement using a micro PIV system was checked by comparing the measured velocity fields with the theoretical velocity profiles in fully developed laminar flow. The steady streaming flow velocities were measured in the saggital plane of the bubble attached on the wall. Measured velocity fields showed upward jet flow with two symmetric counter-rotating vortices, and the maximum streaming velocity was about 12 mm/s, which was within the velocity ranges measured by other researchers. The measured streamlines were compared with the analytic solution, and they also showed a reasonable agreement.

Keywords: oscillating bubble, particle image velocimetry, microstreaming, vortices,

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
203 Efficient Oxygen Evolution and Gas Bubble Release by a Low-Bubble-Adhesion Iron-Nickel Vanadate Electrocatalyst

Authors: Kamran Dastafkan, Chuan Zhao

Abstract:

Improving surface chemistry is a promising approach in addition to the rational alteration in the catalyst composition to advance water electrolysis. Here, we demonstrate an evident enhancement of oxygen evolution on an iron-nickel vanadate catalyst synthesized by a facile successive ionic adsorption and reaction method. The vanadate-modified catalyst demonstrates a highly efficient oxygen evolution in 1 M KOH by requiring low overpotentials of 274 and 310 mV for delivering large current densities of 100 and 400 mA cm⁻², respectively where vigorous gas bubble evolution occurs. Vanadate modification augments the OER activity from three aspects. (i) Both the electrochemical surface area (47.1 cm²) and intrinsic activity (318 mV to deliver 10 mA cm⁻² per unit ECSA) of the catalytic sites are improved. (ii) The amorphous and roughened nanoparticle-comprised catalyst film exhibits a high surface wettability and a low-gas bubble-adhesion, which is beneficial for the accelerated mass transport and gas bubble dissipation at large current densities. The gas bubble dissipation behavior is studied by operando dynamic specific resistance measurements where a significant change in the variation of the interfacial resistance during the OER is detected for the vanadate-modified catalyst. (iii) The introduced vanadate poly-oxo-anions with high charge density have electronic interplay with Fe and Ni catalytic centers. Raman study reveals the structural evolution of β-NiOOH and γ-FeOOH phases during the OER through the vanadate-active site synergistic interactions. Achievement of a high catalytic turnover of 0.12 s⁻¹ put the developed FeNi vanadate among the best recent catalysts for water oxidation.

Keywords: gas bubble dissipation, iron-nickel vanadate, low-gas bubble-adhesion catalyst, oxygen evolution reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
202 Removal of Copper from Wastewaters by Nano-Micro Bubble Ion Flotation

Authors: R. Ahmadi, A. Khodadadi, M. Abdollahi

Abstract:

The removal of copper from a dilute synthetic wastewater (10 mg/L) was studied by ion flotation at laboratory scale. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a collector and ethanol as a frother. Different parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, foam height and bubble size distribution (multi bubble ion flotation) were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions in a Denver type flotation machine. To see into the effect of bubbles size distribution in this paper, a nano-micro bubble generator was designed. The nano and microbubbles that are generated in this way were combined with normal size bubbles generated mechanically. Under the optimum conditions (concentration of SDS: 192mg/l, ethanol: 0.5%v/v, pH value: 4 and froth height=12.5 cm) the best removal obtained for the system Cu/SDS with a dry foam (water recovery: 15.5%) was 85.6%. Coalescence of nano-microbubbles with bubbles of normal size belonging to mechanical flotation cell improved the removal of Cu to a maximum floatability of 92.8% and reduced the water recovery to a 13.1%.The flotation time decreased considerably at 37.5% when the multi bubble ion flotation was used.

Keywords: froth flotation, copper, water treatment, optimization, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
201 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky

Abstract:

Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
200 Importance of Solubility and Bubble Pressure Models to Predict Pressure of Nitrified Oil Based Drilling Fluid in Dual Gradient Drilling

Authors: Sajjad Negahban, Ruihe Wang, Baojiang Sun

Abstract:

Gas-lift dual gradient drilling is a solution for deepwater drilling challenges. As well, Continuous development of drilling technology leads to increase employment of mineral oil based drilling fluids and synthetic-based drilling fluids, which have adequate characteristics such as: high rate of penetration, lubricity, shale inhibition and low toxicity. The paper discusses utilization of nitrified mineral oil base drilling for deepwater drilling and for more accurate prediction of pressure in DGD at marine riser, solubility and bubble pressure were considered in steady state hydraulic model. The Standing bubble pressure and solubility correlations, and two models which were acquired from experimental determination were applied in hydraulic model. The effect of the black oil correlations, and new solubility and bubble pressure models was evaluated on the PVT parameters such as oil formation volume factor, density, viscosity, volumetric flow rate. Eventually, the consequent simulated pressure profile due to these models was presented.

Keywords: solubility, bubble pressure, gas-lift dual gradient drilling, steady state hydraulic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
199 Simulation of Ammonia-Water Two Phase Flow in Bubble Pump

Authors: Jemai Rabeb, Benhmidene Ali, Hidouri Khaoula, Chaouachi Bechir

Abstract:

The diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle consists of a generator bubble pump, an absorber, an evaporator and a condenser, and usually operates with ammonia/water/ hydrogen or helium as the working fluid. The aim of this paper is to study the stability problem a bubble pump. In fact instability can caused a reduction of bubble pump efficiency. To achieve this goal, we have simulated the behaviour of two-phase flow in a bubble pump by using a drift flow model. Equations of a drift flow model are formulated in the transitional regime, non-adiabatic condition and thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases. Equations resolution allowed to define void fraction, and liquid and vapour velocities, as well as pressure and mixing enthalpy. Ammonia-water mixing is used as working fluid, where ammonia mass fraction in the inlet is 0.6. Present simulation is conducted out for a heating flux of 2 kW/m² to 5 kW/m² and bubble pump tube length of 1 m and 2.5 mm of inner diameter. Simulation results reveal oscillations of vapour and liquid velocities along time. Oscillations decrease with time and with heat flux. For sufficient time the steady state is established, it is characterised by constant liquid velocity and void fraction values. However, vapour velocity does not have the same behaviour, it increases for steady state too. On the other hand, pressure drop oscillations are studied.

Keywords: bubble pump, drift flow model, instability, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
198 A Nonlinear Stochastic Differential Equation Model for Financial Bubbles and Crashes with Finite-Time Singularities

Authors: Haowen Xi

Abstract:

We propose and solve exactly a class of non-linear generalization of the Black-Scholes process of stochastic differential equations describing price bubble and crashes dynamics. As a result of nonlinear positive feedback, the faster-than-exponential price positive growth (bubble forming) and negative price growth (crash forming) are found to be the power-law finite-time singularity in which bubbles and crashes price formation ending at finite critical time tc. While most literature on the market bubble and crash process focuses on the nonlinear positive feedback mechanism aspect, very few studies concern the noise level on the same process. The present work adds to the market bubble and crashes literature by studying the external sources noise influence on the critical time tc of the bubble forming and crashes forming. Two main results will be discussed: (1) the analytical expression of expected value of the critical time is found and unexpected critical slowing down due to the coupling external noise is predicted; (2) numerical simulations of the nonlinear stochastic equation is presented, and the probability distribution of Prob(tc) is found to be the inverse gamma function.

Keywords: bubble, crash, finite-time-singular, numerical simulation, price dynamics, stochastic differential equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
197 Functional Cell Surface Display Using Ice Nucleation Protein from Erwina ananas on Escherischia coli

Authors: Mei Yuin Joanne Wee, Rosli Md. Illias

Abstract:

Cell surface display is the expression of a protein with an anchoring motif on the surface of the cell. This approach offers advantages when used in bioconversion in terms of easier purification steps and more efficient enzymatic reaction. A surface display system using ice nucleation protein (InaA) from Erwina ananas as an anchoring motif has been constructed to display xylanase (xyl) on the surface of Escherischia coli. The InaA was truncated so that it is made up of the N- and C-terminal domain (INPANC-xyl) and it has successfully directed xylanase to the surface of the cell. A study was also done on xylanase fused to two other ice nucleation proteins, InaK (INPKNC-xyl) and InaZ (INPZNC-xyl) from Pseudomonas syringae KCTC 1832 and Pseudomonas syringae S203 respectively. Surface localization of the fusion protein was verified using SDS-PAGE and Western blot on the cell fractions and all anchoring motifs were successfully displayed on the outer membrane of E. coli. Upon comparison, whole-cell activity of INPANC-xyl was more than six and five times higher than INPKNC-xyl and INPZNC-xyl respectively. Furthermore, the expression of INPANC-xyl on the surface of E. coli did not inhibit the growth of the cell. This is the first report of surface display system using ice nucleation protein, InaA from E. ananas. From this study, this anchoring motif offers an attractive alternative to the current surface display systems.

Keywords: cell surface display, Escherischia coli, ice nucleation protein, xylanase

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
196 Detecting Financial Bubbles Using Gap between Common Stocks and Preferred Stocks

Authors: Changju Lee, Seungmo Ku, Sondo Kim, Woojin Chang

Abstract:

How to detecting financial bubble? Addressing this simple question has been the focus of a vast amount of empirical research spanning almost half a century. However, financial bubble is hard to observe and varying over the time; there needs to be more research on this area. In this paper, we used abnormal difference between common stocks price and those preferred stocks price to explain financial bubble. First, we proposed the ‘W-index’ which indicates spread between common stocks and those preferred stocks in stock market. Second, to prove that this ‘W-index’ is valid for measuring financial bubble, we showed that there is an inverse relationship between this ‘W-index’ and S&P500 rate of return. Specifically, our hypothesis is that when ‘W-index’ is comparably higher than other periods, financial bubbles are added up in stock market and vice versa; according to our hypothesis, if investors made long term investments when ‘W-index’ is high, they would have negative rate of return; however, if investors made long term investments when ‘W-index’ is low, they would have positive rate of return. By comparing correlation values and adjusted R-squared values of between W-index and S&P500 return, VIX index and S&P500 return, and TED index and S&P500 return, we showed only W-index has significant relationship between S&P500 rate of return. In addition, we figured out how long investors should hold their investment position regard the effect of financial bubble. Using this W-index, investors could measure financial bubble in the market and invest with low risk.

Keywords: financial bubble detection, future return, forecasting, pairs trading, preferred stocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
195 Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Lauric Acid Methyl Ester from DSC Measurements

Authors: Charine Faith H. Lagrimas, Rommel N. Galvan, Rizalinda L. de Leon

Abstract:

An ongoing study, methyl laurate to be used as a refrigerant in an HVAC system, requires the crystallization kinetics of the said substance. Step-wise and normal forms of Avrami model parameters were used to describe the isothermal crystallization kinetics of methyl laurate at different temperatures from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. At 3 °C, parameters showed that methyl laurate exhibits a secondary crystallization. The primary crystallization occurred with instantaneous nuclei and spherulitic growth; followed by a secondary instantaneous nucleation with a lower growth of dimensionality, rod-like. At 4 °C to 6 °C, the exotherms from DSC implied that the system was under the isokinetic range. The kinetics behavior is the same which is instantaneous nucleation with one-dimensional growth. The differences for the isokinetic range temperatures are the activation energies (directly proportional to T) and nucleation rates (inversely proportional to T). From the images obtained during the crystallization of methyl laurate using an optical microscope, it is confirmed that the nucleation and crystal growth modes obtained from the optical microscope are consistent with the parameters from Avrami model.

Keywords: Avrami model, isothermal crystallization, lipids kinetics, methyl laurate

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
194 Stubble and Senesced Leaves Are the Primary Sites of Ice Nucleation Activity in Wheat

Authors: Amanuel Bekuma, Rebecca Swift, Sarah Jackson, Ben Biddulph

Abstract:

Economic loss to frost damage is increasing over the past years in the Western Australian Wheatbelt. Agronomic, genetic, and climatic works have still found a weak correlation between temperature and frost damage. One possibility that has not been explored within the Australian cropping system is whether ice nucleation active bacteria (INB) either present in situ on crop residue or introduced by rainfall could be responsible for the increased sensitivity of cereal plants to frost at different stages of development. This study investigated upper and lower leaf canopy, stubble, and soil as a potential site of ice nucleation activity (INA) and tracked the changes in INA during the plant development. We found that older leaves of wheat are the primary sites of ice nucleation (-4.7 to -6.3°C) followed by stubble (-5.7 to -6.7°C) which increases the risk of frost damage during heading and flowering (the most susceptible stages). However, healthy and green upper canopy leaves (flag and flag-2) and the soil have lower INA (< -11°C) during the frost-sensitive stage of wheat. We anticipate the higher INA on the stubble and older leaves to be due to the presence of biologically active ice-nucleating bacteria (INB), known to cause frost injury to sensitive plants at -5°C. Stubble retained or applied during the growing season further exacerbates additional frost risk by potentially increasing the INB load. The implications of the result for stubble and frost risk management in a frost-prone landscape will be discussed.

Keywords: frost, ice-nucleation-activity, stubble, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
193 Modeling of Full Range Flow Boiling Phenomenon in 23m Long Vertical Steam Generator Tube

Authors: Chaitanya R. Mali, V. Vinod, Ashwin W. Patwardhan

Abstract:

Design of long vertical steam generator (SG) tubes in nuclear power plant involves an understanding of different aspects of flow boiling phenomenon such as flow instabilities, flow regimes, dry out, critical heat flux, pressure drop, etc. The knowledge of the prediction of local thermal hydraulic characteristics is necessary to understand these aspects. For this purpose, the methodology has been developed which covers all the flow boiling regimes to model full range flow boiling phenomenon. In this methodology, the vertical tube is divided into four sections based on vapor fraction value at the end of each section. Different modeling strategies have been applied to the different sections of the vertical tube. Computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed on a vertical SG tube of 0.0126 m inner diameter and 23 m length. The thermal hydraulic parameters such as vapor fraction, liquid temperature, heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, heat flux distribution have been analyzed for different designed heat duties (1.1 MW (20%) to 3.3 MW (60%)) and flow conditions (10 % to 80 %). The sensitivity of different boiling parameters such as bubble departure diameter, nucleation site density, bubble departure frequency on the thermal hydraulic parameters was also studied. Flow instability has been observed at 20 % designed heat duty and 20 % flow conditions.

Keywords: thermal hydraulics, boiling, vapor fraction, sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
192 Household Low Temperature MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) Virus Inactivation Using a Hot Bubble Column Evaporator

Authors: Adrian Garrido Sanchis, Richard Pashley

Abstract:

The MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) virus was used as a surrogate to estimate the inactivation rates for enteric viruses when using a hot air bubble column evaporator (HBCE) system in the treatment of household wastewater. In this study, we have combined MS2 virus surface charging properties with thermal inactivation rates, using an improved double layer plaque assay technique, in order to assess the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water. When bubbling a continuous flow of dry air, at 200°C, only heats the aqueous solution in the bubble column to about 50°C. Viruses are not inactivated by this solution temperature, as confirmed separately from water bath heating experiments. Hence, the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water appeared to be caused entirely by collisions between the hot air bubbles and the virus organisms. This new energy efficient treatment for water reuse applications can reduce the thermal energy required to only 25% (about 113.7 kJ/L) of that required for boiling (about 450 kJ/L).

Keywords: MS2 virus inactivation, water reuse, hot bubble column evaporator, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
191 Bubble Point Pressures of CO2+Ethyl Palmitate by a Cubic Equation of State and the Wong-Sandler Mixing Rule

Authors: M. A. Sedghamiz, S. Raeissi

Abstract:

This study presents three different approaches to estimate bubble point pressures for the binary system of CO2 and ethyl palmitate fatty acid ethyl ester. The first method involves the Peng-Robinson (PR) Equation of State (EoS) with the conventional mixing rule of Van der Waals. The second approach involves the PR EOS together with the Wong Sandler (WS) mixing rule, coupled with the Uniquac Ge model. In order to model the bubble point pressures with this approach, the volume and area parameter for ethyl palmitate were estimated by the Hansen group contribution method. The last method involved the Peng-Robinson, combined with the Wong-Sandler Method, but using NRTL as the GE model. Results using the Van der Waals mixing rule clearly indicated that this method has the largest errors among all three methods, with errors in the range of 3.96–6.22 %. The Pr-Ws-Uniquac method exhibited small errors, with average absolute deviations between 0.95 to 1.97 percent. The Pr-Ws-Nrtl method led to the least errors where average absolute deviations ranged between 0.65-1.7%.

Keywords: bubble pressure, Gibbs excess energy model, mixing rule, CO2 solubility, ethyl palmitate

Procedia PDF Downloads 352