Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 315

Search results for: fermented flour

315 Effect of Fermentation Time on Some Functional Properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seed Flour

Authors: Ocheme B. Ocheme, Omobolanle O. Oloyede, S. James, Eleojo V. Akpa

Abstract:

The effect of fermentation time on some functional properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed flour was examined. Fermentation, an effective processing method used to improve nutritional quality of plant foods, tends to affect the characteristics of food components and their behaviour in food systems just like other processing methods. Hence the need for this study. Moringa seeds were fermented naturally by soaking in potable water and allowing it to stand for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At the end of fermentation, the seeds were oven dried at 600C for 12 hours and then milled into flour. Flour obtained from unfermented seeds served as control: hence a total of five flour samples. The functional properties were analyzed using standard methods. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) increased the water holding capacity of Moringa seed flour from 0.86g/g - 2.31g/g. The highest value was observed after 48 hours of fermentation The same trend was observed for oil absorption capacity with values between 0.87 and 1.91g/g. Flour from unfermented Moringa seeds had a bulk density of 0.60g/cm3 which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the bulk densities of flours from seeds fermented for 12, 24 and 48. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) decreased the dispersibility of Moringa seed flours from 36% to 21, 24, 29 and 20% after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of fermentation respectively. The flours’ emulsifying capacities increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing fermentation time with values between 50 – 68%. The flour obtained from seeds fermented for 12 hours had a significantly (p<0.05) higher foaming capacity of 16% while the flour obtained from seeds fermented for 0, 24 and 72 hours had the least foaming capacities of 9%. Flours from seeds fermented for 12 and 48 hours had better functional properties than flours from seeds fermented for 24 and 72 hours.

Keywords: fermentation, flour, functional properties, Moringa

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314 Functional, Pasting and Colour Characteristics of OGI (A Fermented Maize Meal) as Affected by Stage of Moringa Seed Inclusion

Authors: Olajide Emmanuel Adedeji, Olufunke O. Ezekiel

Abstract:

Moringa seed (20%) was incorporated into ogi (80%) at different stages in the flow line of ogi flour. Functional, pasting and L*a*b* colour characteristics of the samples were determined using standard methods. Loose and packed bulk densities ranged from 0.32 to 0.39 g/cm3 and 0.57 to 0.70 g/cm3 respectively. 100% ogi flour had the lowest values in both parameters. Water absorption and swelling capacities of the samples ranged from 0.89 to 1.80 ml/g and from 5.81 to 6.99 respectively. Pasting viscosity ranged from 870.33 RVU to 4660.67 RVU with the sample produced through the incorporation of full fat moringa seed flour during souring stage and 100% ogi flour having the least and highest values respectively. Stage of moringa seed inclusion also had effect on the trough, breakdown and final viscosity of the samples. The range of values obtained for these pasting parameters were 599.33-2940.00 RVU, 271.00-1720.67 RVU and 840.00-5451.67 RVU respectively. There was no significant difference (p≥ 0.05) in L*(a measure of whiteness) among the co fermented, blend of ogi and full fat moringa flours, blend of ogi and defatted moringa flour and 100% ogi flour samples. Low values were recorded for these samples in a* (measure of redness), b* (measure of yellowness) and colour intensity.

Keywords: stage of inclusion, functional property, ogi, moringa seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
313 Property of Fermented Sweet Potato Flour and Its Suitability for Composite Noodle

Authors: Neti Yuliana, Srisetyani, Siti Nurdjanah, Dewi Sartika, Yoan Martiansari, Putri Nabila

Abstract:

Naturally sweet potato flour usually requires a modification process to improve its inherent property for expanding its application in food system. The study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour (SPF), to increase its utilization for composite noodle production, trough fermentation of sweet potato slices before its flouring process. Fermentation were prepared with five different starters: pickle brine, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides , and mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Samples were withdrawn every 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The fermented flours were characterized for swelling power, solubility, paste transmittance, pH, sensory properties (acidic aroma and whiteness), and the amount of broken composite noodle strips. The results indicated that there was no significant effect of different starters on fermented SPF characteristic and on the amount of broken noodle strip, while length of fermentation significantly affected. Longer fermentation, reaching 48-72 h, increased swelling power, pH, acidic aroma and whiteness of flour and reduced solubility, paste transmittance, and the amount of broken noodle strip. The results suggested that fermentation within 48-72 h period of time could provide great composite SPF for noodle.

Keywords: starters, fermented flour, sweet potato, composite noodle

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312 The Effect of Fermentation and Germination on the Nutrient and Antinutrient Composition of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Flour

Authors: P. N. Okeke

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Fermentation and germination of legumes have been an ancient practice. In this study, the influence of fermentation and germination on the chemical properties of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) flour were evaluated. The flours were analyzed for their proximate and mineral composition, using the standard assay methods. The result showed that fermentation and germination increased the moisture, protein and ash content of the flours while fiber, fat and carbohydrate were decreased. The protein level of fermented and germinated lima bean increased from 21.06–26.60%. The minerals: iron, copper, zinc, and phosphorous increased due to germination and fermentation. The phytate and tannin levels were drastically reduced in both the fermented and germinated flours. The result of this study revealed that fermentation and germination makes the nutrient in lima beans more accessible as it reduces the anti-nutrients. It is therefore recommended that lima bean be process accordingly for richer and more bio-availability of the nutrients.

Keywords: nutrient, anti-nutrient, fermented, germinated, lima bean flour

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311 Effects of Varying Fermentation Periods on the Chemical Composition of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and Acha (Digitaria exilis) Flour Blends and Sensory Properties of Their Products

Authors: P. N. Okeke, J. N. Chikwendu

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The study evaluated the effects of varying fermentation periods on the nutrients and anti-nutrients composition of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and acha (Digitaria exilis) flour blends and sensory properties of their products. The African yam bean seeds and acha grains were fermented for 24 hrs, 48 and 72 hrs, dried (sun drying) and milled into fine flour. The fermented flours were used in a ratio of 70:30 (Protein basis) to formulate composite flour for meat pie and biscuits production. Both the fermented and unfermented flours and products were analyzed for chemical composition using the standard method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 15 to determine the mean and standard deviation. The 24, 48, and 72 hrs fermentation periods increased protein (22.81, 26.15 and 24.00% respectively). The carbohydrate, ash and moisture contents of the flours were also increased as a result of fermentation (68.01-76.83, 2.26-4.88, and 8.36-13.00% respectively). The 48 hrs fermented flour blends had the highest increase in ash relative to the control (4.88%). Fermentation increased zinc, iron, magnesium and phosphorus content of the flours. Treatment drastically reduced the anti-nutrient (oxalate, saponin, tannin, phytate, and hemagglutinin) levels of the flours. Both meat pie and biscuits had increased protein relative to the control (27.36-34.28% and 23.66-25.09%). However, the protein content of the meat pie increased more than that of the biscuits. Zinc, Iron, Magnesium and phosphorus levels increased in both meat pie and biscuits. Organoleptic attributes of the products (meat pie and biscuits) were slightly lower than the control except those of the 72 hrs fermented flours.

Keywords: fermentation, African yam bean, acha, biscuits, meat-pie

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310 Study on the Quality of Biscuits Prepared from Wheat Flour and Cassava Flour

Authors: Ramim Tanver Rahman, Muhammad Mahbub Sobhan, M. A. Alim

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This study reports on processing of biscuits using skinned, treated and dried cassava flour. Five samples of biscuits S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6 containing 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40% cassava flour with wheat flour and a control sample (S1) containing no cassava flour were processed. The weights of all the biscuit samples were higher than that of control biscuit. The biscuit containing cassava flour was lower width than the control biscuit. The spread ratio of biscuits with 16% cassava flour was higher than other combinations of cassava flour. No remarkable changes in moisture content, peroxide value, fatty acid value, texture, and flavor were observed up to 4 months of storage in ambient conditions (27° to 35°C). A decreasing trend in color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability was observed with the increased incorporation of cassava flour. The sample S1 (no cassava flour) secured the highest overall acceptability and sample S6 (40% cassava flour) obtained the lowest overall acceptability. It is recommended that good quality cassava flour fortified biscuits may be processed in industrial-scale substituting the wheat flour by cassava flour up to 24% levels.

Keywords: cassava flour, wheat flour, shelf life, spread ratio, storage, biscuit

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309 Using Composite Flour in Bread Making: Cassava and Wheat Flour

Authors: Aishatu Ibrahim, Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

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The study set out to produce bread using composite cassava flour. The main objective of the work is to determine the possibility of using composite cassava flour in bread production and to find out whether it is acceptable in the hospitality industry and by the general public. The research questions were formed and analyzed. A sample size of 10 professional catering judges was used in the department of hospitality management/food science and technology. Relevant literature was received. Data collected was analyzed using mean deviation. Product A which is 20% cassava flour and 80% wheat flour product, and D which is 100% wheat flour product were competing with high acceptability. It was observed that the composite cassava dough needed to be allowed to proof for a longer period. Lastly, the researcher recommends that the caterers should be encouraged to use composite cassava flour in the production of bread in order to reduce cost.

Keywords: bread, cassava, flour, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
308 Performance of Riped and Unriped Plantain-Wheat Flour Blend in Biscuit Production

Authors: J. O. Idoko, I. Nwajiaku

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Unripe and ripe plantain were dried and milled into flour and used with wheat flour in biscuit production to determine the best plantain-wheat composite flour for biscuit production. The blends as follows: 100% wheat flour, 100% ripe plantain flour, 100% unripe plantain flour, 50% wheat flour and 50% ripe plantain flour and 50% wheat flour and 50% unripe plantain flour. The Biscuit samples were stored at ambient temperature for 8 weeks after which the equilibrium moisture content and water activity were determined. The sensory evaluation of the biscuit samples was also determined. The results of these analyses showed 100% unripe plantain flour as the most stable of the biscuit samples judging from its equilibrium moisture content level of 0.32% and water activity of 0.62. The sensory evaluation results showed Biscuit made from 150:50 ripe plantain and wheat flour as most generally accepted at 5% level of significance.

Keywords: biscuit, equilibrium moisture content, performance, plantain, water activity

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307 Bread-Making Properties of Rice Flour Dough Using Fatty Acid Salt

Authors: T. Hamaishi, Y. Morinaga, H. Morita

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Introduction: Rice consumption in Japan has decreased, and Japanese government has recommended use of rice flour in order to expand the consumption of rice. There are two major protein components present in flour, called gliadin and glutenin. Gluten forms when water is added to flour and is mixed. As mixing continues, glutenin interacts with gliadin to form viscoelastic matrix of gluten. Rice flour bread does not expand as much as wheat flour bread. Because rice flour is not included gluten, it cannot construct gluten network in the dough. In recent years, some food additives have been used for dough-improving agent in bread making, especially surfactants has effect in order to improve dough extensibility. Therefore, we focused to fatty acid salt which is one of anionic surfactants. Fatty acid salt is a salt consist of fatty acid and alkali, it is main components of soap. According to JECFA(FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives), salts of Myristic(C14), Palmitic(C16) and Stearic(C18) could be used as food additive. They have been evaluated ADI was not specified. In this study, we investigated to improving bread-making properties of rice flour dough adding fatty acid salt. Materials and methods: The sample of fatty acid salt is myristic (C14) dissolved in KOH solution to a concentration of 350 mM and pH 10.5. Rice dough was consisted of 100 g of flour using rice flour and wheat gluten, 5 g of sugar, 1.7 g of salt, 1.7g of dry yeast, 80 mL of water and fatty acid salt. Mixing was performed for 500 times by using hand. The concentration of C14K in the dough was 10 % relative to flour weight. Amount of gluten in the dough was 20 %, 30 % relative to flour weight. Dough expansion ability test was performed to measure physical property of bread dough according to the methods of Baker’s Yeast by Japan Yeast Industry Association. In this test, 150 g of dough was filled from bottom of the cylinder and fermented at 30 °C,85 % humidity for 120 min on an incubator. The height of the expansion in the dough was measured and determined its expansion ability. Results and Conclusion: Expansion ability of rice dough with gluten content of 20 %, 30% showed 316 mL, 341 mL for 120 min. When C14K adding to the rice dough, dough expansion abilities were 314 mL, 368 mL for 120 min, there was no significant difference. Conventionally it has been known that the rice flour dough contain gluten of 20 %. The considerable improvement of dough expansion ability was achieved when added C14K to wheat flour. The experimental result shows that c14k adding to the rice dough with gluten content more than 20 % was not improving bread-making properties. In conclusion, rice bread made with gluten content more than 20 % without C14K has been suggested to contribute to the formation of the sufficient gluten network.

Keywords: expansion ability, fatty acid salt, gluten, rice flour dough

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306 Evaluation of Visco-Elastic Properties and Microbial Quality of Oat-Based Dietetic Food

Authors: Uchegbu Nneka Nkechi, Okoye Ogochukwu Peace

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The evaluation of the visco-elastic properties and microbial quality of a formulated oat-based dietetic food were investigated. Oat flour, pumpkin seed flour, carrot flour and skimmed milk powder were blended in varying proportions to formulate a product with codes OCF, which contains 70% oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 10% skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 65 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 15 % skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 60 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 20 % skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 55 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 25 % skimmed milk powder and OF with 95 % oat as the commercial control. All the samples were assessed for their proximate composition, microbial quality and visco-elastic properties. The moisture content was highest at sample OF (10.73%) and lowest at OCF (7.10%) (P<0.05). Crude protein ranged from 13.38%-22.86%, with OCF having the highest (P<0.05) protein content and OF having the lowest. Crude fat was 3.74% for OCF and 6.31% for OF. Crude fiber ranged from 3.58% - 17.39% with OF having the lowest (P<0.05) fiber content and OCF having the highest. Ash content was 1.30% for OCF and 2.75% for OCF. There was no mold growth in the samples. The total viable ml/wl count ranged from 1.5×10³ cfu/g - 2.6×10³ cfu/g, with OCF having the lowest and OF having the highest (P<0.05) total viable count. The peak viscosity of the sample ranged from 75.00 cP-2895.00 cP, with OCF having the lowest and OF having the highest value. The final viscosity was 130.50 cP in OCF and 3572.50 cP in OF. The setback viscosity was 58.00 cP in OCF and 1680.50 cP in OF. The peak time was 6.93 mins in OCF to 5.57 mins in OF. There was no pasting temperature for all samples except the OF, which had 86.43. Sample OF was the highest in terms of overall acceptability. This study showed that the oat-based composite flour produced had a nutritional profile that would be acceptable for the aged population.

Keywords: dietetic, pumpkin, visco-elastic, microbial

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305 Preparation of Tempeh Spores Powder

Authors: Jaruwan Chutrtong, Tanakwan Bussabun

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Study production of tempeh inoculums powder by freeze-drying comparison with dry at 50°C and the sun bask for developing efficient tempeh inoculums for tempeh producing. Rhizopus oligosporus in PDA slant cultures was incubated at 30°C for 3-5 days until spores and mycelium. Preparation spores suspension with sterilized water and then count the number of started spores. Fill spores suspension in Rice flour and soy flour, mixed with water (in the ratio 10: 7), which is steamed and sterilized at 121°C 15min. Incubated at room temperature for 4 days, count number of spores. Then take the progressive infection and full spore dough to dry at 50°C, sun bask, and lyophilize. Grind to powder. Then pack in plastic bags, stored at 5°C. To investigate quality of inoculums which use different methods, tempeh was fermented every 4 weeks for 24 weeks of the experiment. The result found that rice flour is not suitable to use as raw material in the production of powdered spores. Fungi can growth rarely. Less number of spores and requires more time than soy flour. For drying method, lyophilization is the least possible time. Samples from this method are very hard and very dark and harder to grind than other methods. Drying at 50°C takes longer time than lyophilization but can also set time use for drying. Character of the dry samples is hard solid and brown color, but can be grinded easier. The sun drying takes the longest time, can’t determine the exact time. When the spore powder was used to fermented tempeh immediately, product has similar characters as which use spores that was fresh prepared. The tempeh has normal quality. When spore powder stored at low temperature, tempeh from storage spore in weeks 4, 8 and 12 is still normal. Time spending in production was close to the production of fresh spores. After storage spores for 16 and 20 weeks, tempeh is still normal but growth and sporulation were take longer time than usual (about 6 hours). At 24 week storage, fungal growth is not good, made tempeh looks inferior to normal color, also smell and texture.

Keywords: freez drying, preparation, spores powder, tempeh

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304 The Effect of Rosella Flower Flour (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Utilization in Ration on Performance of Broiler Chicken

Authors: Nurlisa Uke Dessy, Dwi Septian Erwinsyah, Zuprizal

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This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of rosella flower flour in diet on broiler chicken Performace. The materials used in this experiment were 72 broiler chickens and were divided into six treatments, those were R0 = without rosella flower flour addition, R1 = 0.5% rosella flower flour addition, R2 = 1.0% rosella flower flour addition, R3 = 1.5% rosella flower flour addition, R4 = 2.0% rosella flower flour addition, and R5 = 2.5% rosella flower flour addition. Each treatment consisted of three replications and each replication consisted of four broiler chickens. This research took 35 days to collect the data. Parameters measured were feed intake, rosella flower flour consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and mortality. The collected data were analyzed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the differences of mean were tested by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result showed the average of feed consumption were 2154; 2154; 2034; 2154; 2034 and 2154 g/bird on broiler chicken that were feed respectively by 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5% rosella flower flour level. The average consumptions of rosella flower flour respectively were 0; 10.77; 20.34; 32.31; 40.68; and 53.85 g/bird. The body weight gains were 1263.33±70.40; 1422.42±36.33; 1443.75±30.00; 1387.42± 35.30; 1411.17±29.58 and 1457.08±40.75 g/bird. Feed conversion results were 1.71±0.94; 1.51±0.37; 1.47±0.62; 1.55±0.40; 1.53±0.30 and 1.48±0.40. The conclusion of the experiment was known that using rosella flower flour until 2.5% level in diet was able to increase broiler chicken performance, and also to decrease broiler chicken feed conversion.

Keywords: feed intake, consumptions rosella flower flour, broiler chickens, body weight gain, feed conversion

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303 Tofu Flour as a Protein Sources

Authors: Dicky Eka Putra, S. P. Nadia Chairunissa, Lidia Paramita, Roza Hartati, Ice Yolanda Puri

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Background: Soy bean and the products such as tofu, tempeh and soy milk are famous in the community. Moreover, another product is tofu flour which is not familiar in Indonesia yet and it is well known as Okara. There are massive differences of energy, protein and carbohydrate between them which is know as good for protein sources as well. Unfortunately, it is seldom used as food variety. Basically, it can be benefit in order to create many products for example cakes, snacks and some desserts. Aim: the study was in order to promote the benefit of tofu flour as school feeding of elementary school and baby porridge and also to compare the nutrient. Method: Soy pulp was filtered and steamed approximately 30 minutes. Then, it was put at a plate under sunrise or barked on the oven for 10 hours at 800C. When it have dried and milling and tofu flour is ready to be used. Result: Tofu flour could be used as substitute of flour and rice flour when people want to cook some foods. In addition, some references said that soy bean is good for a specific remedy for the proper functioning of the heart, liver, kidneys, stomach, and bowels, constipation, as a stimulant for the lungs, for eradication of poison from the system, improving the complexion by cleaning the skin of impurities, and stimulating the growth and appearance of the hair. Discussion: Comparing between soy bean, tofu and tofu flour which has difference amount of nutrients. For example energy 382 kcal, 79 kcal and 393 kcal respectively and also protein 30.2 kcal, 7.8 kcal, and 17.4 kcal. In addition, carbohydrate of soy pulp was high than soy bean and tofu (30.1 kcal). Finally, local should replace flour, rice and gelatin rice flour with tofu flour.

Keywords: tofu flour, protein, soy bean, school feeding

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302 Logistics Information Systems in the Distribution of Flour in Nigeria

Authors: Cornelius Femi Popoola

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This study investigated logistics information systems in the distribution of flour in Nigeria. A case study design was used and 50 staff of Honeywell Flour Mill was sampled for the study. Data generated through a questionnaire were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that logistic information systems such as e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange positively correlated with the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill. Finding also deduced that e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange jointly and positively contribute to the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill in Nigeria (R = .935; Adj. R2 = .642; F (3,47) = 14.739; p < .05). The study therefore recommended that Honeywell Flour Mill should upgrade their logistic information systems to computer-to-computer communication of business transactions and documents, as well adopt new technology such as, tracking-and-tracing systems (barcode scanning for packages and palettes), tracking vehicles with Global Positioning System (GPS), measuring vehicle performance with ‘black boxes’ (containing logistic data), and Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) into their systems.

Keywords: e-commerce, electronic data interchange, flour distribution, information system, interactive telephone systems

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301 Quality of Donut Supplemented with Hom Nin Rice Flour

Authors: Supatchalee Sirichokworrakit, Pannin Intasen, Chansuda Angkawut

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Hom Nin rice (Oryza Sativa L.) was processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour in donuts. The donuts were prepared with 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% Hom Nin rice flour (HNF). The donuts were subjected to proximate, texture, color and sensory evaluations. The results of the study revealed that the ash, moisture, crude fiber contents increased while crude fat and protein contents decreased as the level of HNF increased. The hardness and chewiness of donut increased as the HNF increased but the cohesiveness, springiness, and specific volume decreased. Color of donut (L*, a*, and b* values) decreased with the addition of HNF. Overall acceptability for the 20-40% HNF additions did not differ significantly from the score of the 100% wheat flour.

Keywords: Hom Nin rice, donut, texture evaluation, sensory evaluation

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300 Development and Characterization of Wheat Bread with Lupin Flour

Authors: Paula M. R. Correia, Marta Gonzaga, Luis M. Batista, Luísa Beirão-Costa, Raquel F. P. Guiné

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The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with good textural and sensorial characteristics. The product, a new type of bread, was prepared with wheat (90%) and lupin (10%) flours, without the addition of any conservatives. Several experiences were also done to find the most appropriate proportion of lupin flour. The optimized product was characterized considering the rheological, physical-chemical and sensorial properties. The water absorption of wheat flour with 10% of lupin was higher than that of the normal wheat flours, and Wheat Ceres flour presented the lower value, with lower dough development time and high stability time. The breads presented low moisture but a considerable water activity. The density of bread decreased with the introduction of lupin flour. The breads were quite white, and during storage the colour parameters decreased. The lupin flour clearly increased the number of alveolus, but the total area increased significantly just for the Wheat Cerealis bread. The addition of lupin flour increased the hardness and chewiness of breads, but the elasticity did not vary significantly. Lupin bread was sensorially similar to wheat bread produced with WCerealis flour, and the main differences are the crust rugosity, colour and alveolus characteristics.

Keywords: Lupin flour, physical-chemical properties, sensorial analysis, wheat flour

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299 Proximate Composition, Colour and Sensory Properties of Akara egbe Prepared from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: Samson A. Oyeyinka, Taiwo Tijani, Adewumi T. Oyeyinka, Mutiat A. Balogun, Fausat L. Kolawole, John K. Joseph

Abstract:

Bambara groundnut is an underutilised leguminous crop that has a similar composition to cowpea. Hence, it could be used in making traditional snack usually produced from cowpea paste. In this study, akara egbe, a traditional snack was prepared from Bambara groundnut flour or paste. Cowpea was included as the reference sample. The proximate composition and functional properties of the flours were studies as well as the proximate composition and sensory properties of the resulting akara egbe. Protein and carbohydrate were the main components of Bambara groundnut and cowpea grains. Ash, fat and fiber contents were low. Bambara groundnut flour had higher protein content (23.71%) than cowpea (19.47%). In terms of functional properties, the oil absorption capacity (0.75 g oil/g flour) of Bambara groundnut flour was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than that of the cowpea (0.92 g oil/g flour), whereas, Cowpea flour absorbed more water (1.59 g water/g flour) than Bambara groundnut flour (1.12 g/g). The packed bulk density (0.92 g/mL) of Bambara groundnut was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than cowpea flour (0.82 g/mL). Akara egbe prepared from Bambara groundnut flour showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher protein content (23.41%) than the sample made from Bambara groundnut paste (19.35%). Akara egbe prepared from cowpea paste had higher ratings in aroma, colour, taste, crunchiness and overall acceptability than those made from cowpea flour or Bambara groundnut paste or flour. Bambara groundnut can produce akara egbe with comparable nutritional and sensory properties to that made from cowpea.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, Cowpea, Snack, Sensory properties

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298 Effects of Different Processing Methods on Composition, Physicochemical and Morphological Properties of MR263 Rice Flour

Authors: R. Asmeda, A. Noorlaila, M. H. Norziah

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This research work was conducted to investigate the effects of different grinding techniques during the milling process of rice grains on physicochemical characteristics of rice flour produced. Dry grinding, semi-wet grinding, and wet grinding were employed to produce the rice flour. The results indicated that different grinding methods significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected physicochemical and functional properties of starch except for the carbohydrate content, x-ray diffraction pattern and breakdown viscosity. Dry grinding technique caused highest percentage of starch damage compared to semi-wet and wet grinding. Protein, fat and ash content were highest in rice flour obtained by dry grinding. It was found that wet grinding produce flour with smallest average particle size (8.52 µm), resulting in highest process yield (73.14%). Pasting profiles revealed that dry grinding produce rice flour with significantly lowest pasting temperature and highest setback viscosity.

Keywords: average particle size, grinding techniques, physicochemical characteristics, rice flour

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297 Comparative Study of Bread Prepared with and without Germinated Soyabean (Glycine Max) Flour

Authors: Muhammad Arsalan Mahmoo, Allah Rakha, Muhammad Sohail

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The supplementation of wheat flour with high lysine legume flours has positive effects on the nutritional value of bread. In present study, germinated and terminated soya flour blends were prepared and supplemented in bread in variable proportions (10 % and 20 % of each) to check its impact on quality and sensory attributes of bread. The results showed that there was a significant increase in protein, ash and crude fat contents due to increase in the level of germinated and ungerminated soya flour. However, the moisture and crude fiber contents of composite flours containing germinated and ungerminated soya flour decreased with increased level of supplementation. Mean values for physical analysis (loaf volume, specific volume, weight loss and force for texture) were significantly higher in breads prepared with germinated soya bean flour.The scores assigned to sensory parameters of breads like volume, color of crust, symmetry, color of crumb, texture, taste and aroma decreased significantly by increasing the level of germinated and ungerminated soya flour in wheat flour while color of crust and taste slightly improved. The scores given to overall acceptability of bread prepared from composite flour supplemented with 10 % germinated soya flour.

Keywords: composite bread, protein energy malnutrition, supplementation, amino acid profile, grain legumes

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296 Utilization of “Adlai” (Coix lacryma-jobi L) Flour as Wheat Flour Extender in Selected Baked Products in the Philippines

Authors: Rolando B. Llave Jr.

Abstract:

In many countries, wheat flour is used an essential component in production/preparation of bread and other baked products considered to have a significant role in man’s diet. Partial replacement of wheat flour with other flours (composite flour) in preparation of the said products is seen as a solution to the scarcity of wheat flour (in non-wheat producing countries), and improved nourishment. In composite flour, other flours may come from cereals, legumes, root crops, and those that are rich in starch. Many countries utilize whatever is locally available. “Adlai” or Job’s tears is a tall cereal plant that belongs to the same family of grass as wheat, rice, and corn. In some countries, it is used as an ingredient in producing many dishes and alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. As part of the Food Staple Self-Sufficiency Program (FSSP) of the Department of Agriculture (DA) in the Philippines, “adlai” is being promoted as alternative food source for the Filipinos. In this study, the grits coming from the seeds of “adlai” were turned into flour. The resulting flour was then used as partial replacement for wheat flour in selected baked products namely “pan de sal” (salt bread), cupcakes and cookies. The supplementation of “adlai” flour ranged 20%-45% with 20%-35% for “pan de sal”; 30%-45% for cupcakes; and 25% - 40% for cookies. The study was composed of four (4) phases. Phase I was product formulation studies. Phase II included the acceptability test/sensory evaluation of the baked products where the statistical analysis of the data gathered followed. Phase III was the computation of the theoretical protein content of the most acceptable “pan de sal”, cupcake and cookie, and lastly, in Phase IV, cost benefit was analyzed, specifically in terms of the direct material cost.

Keywords: “adlai”, composite flour, supplementation, sensory evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
295 Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice

Authors: Supat Chaiyakul, Direk Sukkasem, Patnachapa Natthapanpaisith

Abstract:

Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the effects of rice flour concentration and retrogradation treatment on the physical properties of instant Sinlek brown rice. The native rice flour, gelatinized rice flour, and flour gels retrograded under 4 °C for 3 and 7 days were investigated. From the statistical results, significant differences between native and retrograded flour were observed. The concentration of rice flour was the main factor influencing the swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties. With the increase in rice flour content from 10 to 15%, swelling power, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased; but, solubility, pasting temperature, peak time, breakdown, and setback increased. The peak time, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased as the storage period increased from 3 to 7 days. The retrograded rice flour powders had lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and final viscosity than the gelatinized and native flour powders. Reduction of starch viscosity by gelatinization and controlling starch retrogradation could allow for increased quantities of rice flour in instant rice beverages. Also, the treatment could increase the energy and nutrient densities of rice beverages without affecting the viscosity of this product.

Keywords: instant rice, pasting properties, pregelatinization, retrogradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
294 Development of Low Glycemic Gluten Free Bread from Barnyard Millet and Lentil Flour

Authors: Hemalatha Ganapathyswamy, Thirukkumar Subramani

Abstract:

Celiac disease is an autoimmune response to dietary wheat gluten. Gluten is the main structure forming protein in bread and hence developing gluten-free bread is a technological challenge. The study aims at using nonwheat flours like barnyard millet and lentil flour to replace wheat in bread formulations. Other characteristics of these grains, such as high protein, soluble fiber, mineral content and bioactive components make them attractive alternatives to traditional gluten-free ingredients in the production of high protein, gluten-free bread. The composite flour formulations for the development of gluten-free bread were optimized using lentil flour (50 to 70 g), barnyard millet flour (0 to 30 g) and corn flour (0 to 30 g) by means of response surface methodology with various independent variables for physical, sensorial and nutritional characteristics. The optimized composite flour which had a desirability value of 0.517, included lentil flour –62.94 g, barnyard millet flour– 24.34 g and corn flour– 12.72 g with overall acceptability score 8.00/9.00. The optimized gluten-free bread formulation had high protein (14.99g/100g) and fiber (1.95g/100g) content. The glycemic index of the gluten-free bread was 54.58 rendering it as low glycemic which enhances the functional benefit of the gluten-free bread. Since the standardised gluten-free bread from barnyard millet and lentil flour are high protein, and gluten-free with low glycemic index, the product would serve as an ideal therapeutic food in the management of both celiac disease and diabetes mellitus with better nutritional value.

Keywords: gluten free bread, lentil, low glycemic index, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
293 Use of Cassava Flour in Cakes Processing

Authors: S. S. Silva, S. M. A. Souza, C. F. P. Oliveira

Abstract:

Brazil's agriculture is a major economic base in the country; in addition, family farming is directly responsible for the production of most agricultural products in Brazil, such as cassava. The number of studies on the use of cassava and its derivatives in the food industry has been increased, which is the basis of this study. Sought to develop a food that take advantage the products from farmers, adding value to these products and to study its effects as a replacement for wheat flour. For such elaborated a gluten-free cake – aiming to meet the needs of the celiac public – containing cassava flour, cane sugar, honey, egg, soya oil, coconut desiccated, baking powder and water. For evaluation of their characteristics technological, physicochemical and texture characterizations were done. Cake showed similar characteristics of cake made with wheat flour and growth and aeration of the dough. In sum up, marketing the product is viable, in that it has a typical overall appearance of cake made of wheat flour, meet the needs of celiac people and value the family farming.

Keywords: baking, cake, cassava flour, celiac disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
292 Quinoa Choux Cream Gluten Free

Authors: Autumporn Buranapongphan, Ketsirin Meethong, Phukan Pahaphom

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The objectives of this research is aim to study the standard formula of choux cream recipe. Formulation of choux cream were used gluten free as a replacer with flour in choux dough, quinoa milk in cream and shelf life on product. The results showed the acceptance test using 30 target consumers revealed that liking of choux dough with water 34%, egg 30% flour 19% butter 16% baking powder 1% and cream with milk 68% sugar 13% butter 6.8% egg 4.5% and vanilla 0.9%. The gluten free exhibited the formulation of dough is rice flour 12% potato starch 26% tapioca 7.7% and quinoa flour 4.3%. The ratio of corn flour at 40% had significant effects on liking of viscosity for quinoa cream. During storage by Total viable count (TVA) were kept in room temperature for 8 hours and chilled for 18 hours.

Keywords: choux cream, gluten free, quinoa, dough

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
291 Determination of Some Chemical Properties of Uncommon Flours

Authors: Sónia C. Andrade, Solange F. Oliveira, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia

Abstract:

Flours of wheat, chestnut, acorn and lupin were evaluated in relation to phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and oxalate content. At the chemical level the results show some variability between samples by type of flour, and the sample of chestnut flour presented the higher value of oxalate (0.00348 mg/100g) when compared to the other samples in the study. Considering the content of phenolic compounds, the sample that stood out was the acorn flour, having a high value of 0.812 g AGE/100 g. All the samples presented intermediate content of antioxidant activity and the sample that showed a slightly higher value was the wheat flour with a value of 0.746 mM TRE/g sample.

Keywords: Wheat, Acorn, Lupin, Chestnut, Flour, Antioxidant properties, Oxalate

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
290 Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Flour Residues Hydrolyzed by α-Amylase

Authors: Waranya Pongpaiboon, Warangkana Srichamnong, Supat Chaiyakul

Abstract:

Enzymatic modification of rice flour can produce highly functional derivatives use in food industries. This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and resistant starch content of rice flour residues hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Rice flour hydrolyzed by α-amylase (60 and 300 u/g) for 1, 24 and 48 hours were investigated. Increasing enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time resulted in decreased rice flour residue’s lightness (L*) but increased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of rice flour residues. The resistant starch content and peak viscosity increased when hydrolysis time increased. Pasting temperature, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, setback and peak time of the hydrolyzed flours were not significantly different (p>0.05). The morphology of native flour was smooth without observable pores and polygonal with sharp angles and edges. However, after hydrolysis, granules with a slightly rough and porous surface were observed and a rough and porous surface was increased with increasing hydrolyzed time. The X-ray diffraction patterns of native flour showed A-type configuration, which hydrolyzed flour showed almost 0% crystallinity indicated that both amorphous and crystalline structures of starch were simultaneously hydrolyzed by α-amylase.

Keywords: α-Amylase, enzymatic hydrolysis, pasting properties, resistant starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
289 Effect of Sprouting Period of Proximate Composition, Functional Properties and Mineral Content on Malted Sorghum Flour

Authors: Adebola Ajayi, Olakunle M. Makanjuola

Abstract:

Effect of sprouting period on proximate, functional and mineral properties of malted sorghum flour was evaluated. The study was carried out to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of sprouting period on malted sorghum flour produced. The malted sorghum flour was obtained by sorting, weighing, washing, steeping, draining, germination, drying, dry milling, sieving. Malted sorghum flour was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties and mineral contents. Moisture, protein, fat content, crude fiber, ash contents and carbohydrate of 24 and 48 hours, were in the range of 10.50-11.0, 11.17-11.17, 1.50-4.00, 2.50-1.50, 1.50-1.54 and 73.15-70.79% respectively. Bulk density ranged between 0.64 and 0.59g/ml, water and oil absorption capacities ranged between 139.3 and 150.0 and 217.3 and 222.7g/g respectively. Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Manganese were also range of 12.5, 59.3-60.0, 3.22-3.25, 3.80-3.90 and 3.22-3.25 mg/100g respectively. The results indicate that the germination of red sorghum resulted in the enhancement of the nutritional quality and its functional properties.

Keywords: sprouting, sorghum, malted sorghum flour, cabinet dryer

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
288 Effect of Different Flours on the Physical and Sensorial Characteristics of Meatballs

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Ozlem Kilic, Busra F. Bilgic, Mustafa Erbas

Abstract:

Stale breads and rusk flour are used traditionally in meatballs produced in Turkey as a structure enhancer. This study researches the possibilities of using retrograded wheat flour in the meatball production and compares the physical and sensorial characteristics of these meatballs with stale bread (traditional) and rusk (commercial) used meatballs. The cooking loss of meatballs produced with using retrograded flour was similar to that of commercial meatballs. These meatballs have an advantage with respect to cooking loss compared to traditional meatballs. Doses of retrograded flour from 5% to 20% led to a significant decrease in cooking loss, from 21.95% to 6.19%, and in the diameter of meatballs, from 18.60% to 12.74%, but to an increase in the thickness of meatballs, from 28.82% to 41.39%, respectively, compared to the control (0%). The springiness of the traditional meatballs was significantly higher than that of the other meatballs. This might have been due to the bread crumbs having a naturally springy structure. Moreover, the addition of retrograded flour in the meatballs significantly (P<0.05) affected the hardness, springiness and cohesiveness of the meatballs with respect to textural properties. In conclusion, it is considered that the use of 10% retrograded flour is ideal to improve the sensorial values of meatballs and the properties of their structure.

Keywords: cooking loss, flour, hardness, meatball, sensorial characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
287 Evaluation of Storage Stability and Quality Parameters in Biscuit Made from Blends of Wheat, Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Carrot (Daucus carota) Flour

Authors: Aminat. O Adelekan, Olawale T. Gbadebo

Abstract:

Biscuit is one of the most consumed cereal foods in Nigeria and research has shown that locally available tropical crops like cassava, sweet potato can be made into flour and used in the production of biscuits and other pastries. This study investigates some quality parameters in biscuits made from blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour. The values of result of samples increased with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour in some quality parameter like fiber, ash, gluten content, and carbohydrate. The protein content reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour which ranged from 14.80% to 11.80% compared with the control sample which had 15.60%. There was a recorded significant increase (P < 0.05) in some mineral composition such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamin A and C composition as the percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour increased. During storage stability test, samples stored in the fridge and freezer were found to be the best storage location to preserve the sensory attributes and inhibit microbial growth when compared with storage under the sun and on the shelf. Biscuit made with blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour can therefore serve as an alternative to biscuits made from 100% wheat flour, as they are richer in vitamin A, vitamin C, carbohydrate, dietary fiber and some essential minerals.

Keywords: biscuit, carrot, flour blends, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
286 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand

Authors: Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Rawichar Chaipojjana, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

Abstract:

The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

Keywords: fermented milk, volatile compounds, preference, PCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 261