Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: starters

14 Property of Fermented Sweet Potato Flour and Its Suitability for Composite Noodle

Authors: Neti Yuliana, Srisetyani, Siti Nurdjanah, Dewi Sartika, Yoan Martiansari, Putri Nabila

Abstract:

Naturally sweet potato flour usually requires a modification process to improve its inherent property for expanding its application in food system. The study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour (SPF), to increase its utilization for composite noodle production, trough fermentation of sweet potato slices before its flouring process. Fermentation were prepared with five different starters: pickle brine, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides , and mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Samples were withdrawn every 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The fermented flours were characterized for swelling power, solubility, paste transmittance, pH, sensory properties (acidic aroma and whiteness), and the amount of broken composite noodle strips. The results indicated that there was no significant effect of different starters on fermented SPF characteristic and on the amount of broken noodle strip, while length of fermentation significantly affected. Longer fermentation, reaching 48-72 h, increased swelling power, pH, acidic aroma and whiteness of flour and reduced solubility, paste transmittance, and the amount of broken noodle strip. The results suggested that fermentation within 48-72 h period of time could provide great composite SPF for noodle.

Keywords: starters, fermented flour, sweet potato, composite noodle

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13 Use of Anti-Stick to Reduce Bitterness in Ultra Filtrated Chees-es(Single Packaged)

Authors: B. Khorram, M. Taslikh, R. Sattarzadeh, M. Ghazanfari

Abstract:

Bitterness is one of the most important problems in cheese processing industry all over the world. There are several reasons that bitterness may develop in cheese. With a few exceptions bitterness is generally associated with proteolysis. In this investigation, anti-stick as a neutral substance in proteolysis were considered and studied for reducing the problem. This vast survey was conducted in a big cheese production factory (in Neyshabur) and in the same procedure anti-stick as interested factor in cheeses packaging compared to standard cheeses production, one line productions (65200 packs with anti-stick were tested by 2953 persons for bitterness and another line was included the same procedure with standard cheese. In this investigate: 83% of standard packaging cheeses, compared with only28% of consumers cheese with anti-stick which confirmed bitterness. Although bitterness is generally associated with proteolysis and Microbial factors, Somatic cell, Starters play important role in generating bitterness in ultra filtrated cheeses, but based on the results the other factors such as anti-stick in packaging can be effective methods for reducing and removing unfavorable bitterness in cheese production.

Keywords: bitterness, uf cheese, anti-stick, single packaged

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12 Development of the Manufacturing Process of Low Salt-Fermented Soy Sauce

Authors: Young-Ran Song, Byeong-Uk Lim, Sang-Ho Baik

Abstract:

This study was initiated in order to develop a method for soy sauce fermentation at low salt concentrations without decreasing quality. Soy sauce was fermented with the fermentation starter (meju) and different salt contents (8-14%, w/v) by inoculating two strains or not, in which Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii strains having different abilities to induce sterilizing effects or enhance flavor production were used. As the results, there were microbial and biochemical differences among prepared soy sauce. First, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. in addition to Bacillus genus that is the most important bacteria in Korean fermented soy product were detected by salt reduction. However, application of yeast starters can inhibit the undesirable bacterial growth. Moreover, PCA bi-plots of major principal components on various biochemical parameters (final pH, total acidity, soluble sugar, reducing sugar, ethanol and 32 volatile flavor compounds) were drawn to demonstrate the physicochemical differences and similarities among the samples. It was confirmed that the soy sauce samples produced with different salt concentrations were clearly different since salt reduction induced low contents of acids, alcohols and esters with higher acidity. However despite low salt concentration, combining two different yeasts appeared to have similar characteristics to the high salt-fermented soy sauce with elevated concentrations of ethanol, some alcohols, and most ketones, hence resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with a flavor profile pattern identical to that of high-salt.

Keywords: Soy sauce, low salt, fermentation, yeast.

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11 Screening of High-Alcohol Producing Yeasts for Manufacturing Process of Whisky

Authors: Byeong-Uk Lim, Young-Ran Song, Sang-Ho Baik

Abstract:

This study aimed to develop yeast starters for scientific alcohol production and systematic quality control of whisky. A total of 389 yeast strains were isolated from traditional Korean fermentation starter (nuruk) and rice wine (makgeolli), and ten strains were finally selected for their high alcohol productivities, in which their alcohol productions were above 17.3% (v/v) during 10 days under two steps of glucose feeding condition (30% and then 15%, w/v). By 18s rDNA sequence analysis, all strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), and they can grow well under 50% (w/v) glucose and 10% (v/v) ethanol conditions. Furthermore, the capability of ten different SC strains to ferment rice wine for whisky was studied. Rice wine was fermented with only steamed rice, water, and two types of enzymes (glucoamylase and α-amylase) during 14 days at 25 °C, and then their oenological properties have been determined. As the results, the fermented rice wines indicated the final pH range of 4.24-4.38 and acidity range of 0.12-0.18. The highest ethanol production of 20.2% (v/v) was found in the fermentation with a SC-156 strain, whereas SC-92 (16.8%) and SC-119 (16.4%) showed significantly lowest ethanol productions. In addition, the residual sugar contents showed negative correlation with alcohol contents. Moreover, this study focused on nucleotide polymorphisms in the MSN2 and MSN4 genes to investigate the cause of the defective stress responses in yeast. Consequently, it was also confirmed that the deletion of the N termini of Msn4p from identified point mutations in SC-63, SC-95, SC-156, SC-158, and SC-160 strains.

Keywords: yeast, high-alcohol, whisky, rice wine

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10 Isolation and Characterization of Ant-Salmonella Lactic Acid Bacteria from Dairy Products

Authors: Najie Hassanzade, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani

Abstract:

Dairy products have been regarded as the natural source of lactic acid bacteria with potential characteristics of probiotics; therefore, a lot of research and practical works have been carried out about the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from dairy products, especially traditional yogurt and related products. Interest in traditional dairy products continues in the area of isolation of new LAB that can complement or replace currently used starters and/or that can be candidates as beneficial microorganisms for prevention or treatment purposes. In this perspective, such products are potentially good candidates for isolating new strains of probiotics. On the other hand, some infectious diseases such as salmonellosis have expressed resistance against many antibiotics; therefore, many attempts have been performed to use an alternative approach to overcome antibiotic resistance. The current research focuses on the isolation of LAB from dairy products, especially traditional dairy products and screening of them for anti-Salmonella activities. Twenty-five samples, including 15 sheep milk samples, one camel milk sample and seven cow milk samples from different areas of Iran and 2 yogurt samples from Herat, Afghanistan are collected. 20 bacteria are isolated by culturing the samples on MRS agar specific medium; among them 4 Lactobacillus strains, including 3L. plantarum strains and one L.gasseri strain, are identified by analyzing the biochemical tests and PCR tests in which 27F and 1492R primers are used. Then, their effects against Salmonella typhimurium using the well-diffusion method are evaluated.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, dairy products Salmonella

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9 Selection of Potential Starter Using Their Transcription Level

Authors: Elif Coskun Daggecen, Seyma Dokucu, Yekta Gezginc, Ismail Akyol

Abstract:

Fermented dairy food quality is mainly determined by the sensory perception and influenced by many factors. Today, starter cultures for fermented foods are being developed to have a constant quality in these foods. Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the main species of most a starter cultures of yogurt fermentation. This species produces lactate by lactose fermentation from pyruvate. On the other hand, a small amount of pyruvate can alternatively be converted to various typical yoghurt flavor compounds such as diacetyl, acetoin, acetaldehyde, or acetic acid, for which the activity of three genes are shown to be especially important; ldh, nox and als. Up to date, commercially produced yoghurts have not yet met the desired aromatic properties that Turkish consumers find in traditional homemade yoghurts. Therefore, it is important to select starters carrying favorable metabolic characteristics from natural isolates. In this study, 30 strains of Str. Thermophilus were isolated from traditional Turkish yoghurts obtained from different regions of the country. In these strains, transcriptional levels of ldh, nox and als genes were determined via a newly developed qPCR protocol, which is a more reliable and precision method for analyzing the quantitative and qualitative expression of specific genes in different experimental conditions or in different organisms compared to conventional analytical methods. Additionally, the metabolite production potentials of the isolates were measured. Of all the strains examined, 60% were found to carry the metabolite production potential and the gene activity which appeared to be suitable to be used as a starter culture. Probable starter cultures were determined according to real-time PCR results.

Keywords: gene expression, RT-PCR, starter culture, Streptococcus thermophilus

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8 Evaluation of the Capabilities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in Improvement of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Carob Kibble

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

Carob kibble has recently received attention due to the presence of high level of polyphenol antioxidants. The capacity of microorganisms to improve antioxidant activities and total phenolics in carob kibble was investigated in the study. Two types of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used in single and in their combination as starters. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities were assessed scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study found that S. cerevisiae alone considerably improved 55% total phenolics content at 15 h, while L. plantarum caused in a loss of 20% through the process. Antioxidant capacity of the yeast-fermented samples significantly increased by 43 % and 10 % in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. However, reduction of 13 % and 32 % inhibition were recorded in the carob treated with L. plantarum. In the combination of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum (1:1), both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob kibble were a similar trend as these of S. cerevisiae single, but a lower improvement. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their total phenolic contents (R=0.75). The results suggested that S. cerevisiae alone was the better for enhancement of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in carob kibble using submerged fermentation. The efficiency of fermentation reached the highest at 15h. Thus submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae offers a tool with simple and cost effective to further increase the bioactive potential of carob kibble, which is in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, lactobacillus plantarum, saccharomyces cerevisiae, total phenolics

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7 Entrepreneurship Education: The Impact in Today’s World

Authors: Oghenerume V. Edah, Damilola T. Aladejana

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship Education is the process of developing and acquiring entrepreneur skills on how to identify a new business and launching the business with the realization of yielding profit optimally. It’s the process of knowing how to take risk and handle challenges that accompanies a new business without the mindset of closing it when it fails. It includes steps to take when a business is recognized, combined with acquiring resources (e.g. finances, labor, land) in the face of risk and launching the new business. Additionally, Entrepreneurship is defined as the ability and willingness to set a business in the event of making profit. It is the act of starting up a business to solve big problems or present a new life-changing solution in the society to generate profit. It’s a process where a business opportunity is identified; planned, acquired and needful steps are taken to launch a business. This involves taking up financial risk, acquiring natural resources, combined with land, capital and building up a team of people who would individually contribute or add value in order to make the new business a success. Moreover, Education is the learning of new skills or value. It’s the acquiring of knowledge and capability of doing new things. It is been able to differentiate what you know and what you don’t know yet. In this modern world, the emergence of entrepreneurship education has been magnificent. An average of 60 percent humans wants to start a business or become an entrepreneur without knowing the steps on how to startup. Moreover, many of them are good starters and they end up failing when the business is not managed well. The introduction of Entrepreneur Education in our world today would change the face of business phenomenally. It would involve the acquisition of entrepreneur skills, knowledge and attitude towards initiating a business venture. The impact of Entrepreneurship Education in our world today would increase the chances of business success because it would generate better entrepreneurs. The skills, values, concept and processes acquired through learning have changed the face of business to a positive direction globally and the impact can be felt. Entrepreneurship can be taught and also can be learnt. Like any skills it can be known.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, education, business, entrepreneur, skills

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6 Construction of Genetic Recombinant Yeasts with High Environmental Tolerance by Accumulation of Trehalose and Detoxication of Aldehyde

Authors: Yun-Chin Chung, Nileema Divate, Gen-Hung Chen, Pei-Ru Huang, Rupesh Divate

Abstract:

Many environmental factors, such as glucose concentration, ethanol, temperature, osmotic pressure and pH, decrease the production rate of ethanol using yeast as a starter. Fermentation starters with high tolerance to various stresses are always demanded for brewing industry. Trehalose, a storage carbohydrate in cell wall of yeast, plays an important role in tolerance of environmental stress by preserving integrity of plasma membrane and stabilizing proteins. Furan aldehydes are toxic to yeast and the growth rate of yeast is significantly reduced if furan aldehydes were present in the fermentation medium. In yeast, aldehyde reductase is involved in the detoxification of reactive aldehydes and consequently the growth of yeast is improved. The aims of this study were to construct a genetic recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Pichia pastoris with furfural and HMF degrading and high ethanol tolerance capacities. Yeast strains were engineered by genetic recombination for overexpression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (tps1) and aldehyde reductase gene (ari1). TPS1 gene was cloned from S. cerevisiae by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then ligated with pGAPZαC vector. The constructed vector, pGAPZC-tps1, was transformed to recombinant yeasts strain with overexpression of ari1. The transformants with pGAPZC-tps1-ari1 were generated called STA (S. cerevisiae) and PTA (P. pastoris) with overexpression of tps1, ari1. PCR with tps1-specific primers and western blot with his-tag confirmed the gene insertion and protein expression of tps1 in the transformants, respectively. The neutral trehalase gene (nth1) of STA was successfully deleted and the novel strain STAΔN will be used for further study, including the measurement of trehalose concentration and ethanol, furfural tolerance assay.

Keywords: genetic recombinant, yeast, ethanol tolerance, trehalase, aldehyde reductase

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5 Comparative Effects of Dietary Ocimum Gratissimum and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Body Weight and Gut Morphometry of Broiler Starters

Authors: Victor U. Odoemelam, Ihemdirim C. Unamba-Opara, Martins C. Anyanwuocha

Abstract:

Antibiotics used as growth promoters in animal feeds have been criticized and banned in many nations due to possible development of both drug resistance, cross resistance and multiple resistances by consumers. Numerous additives are now being used or proposed as alternatives. A study to compare the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent leaf) and antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) on growth performance and intestinal morphology of starter broiler birds was conducted using ninety six (96) days old broiler birds. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatments with each treatment comprising 24 birds replicated three times with 8 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. Four diets (T1 control diet without Oxytetracycline HCl and Ocimum gratissimum; T2 had Oxytetracycline HCl; T3 had 1% Ocimum gratissimum; T4 had 1.5% Ocimum gratissimum) were formulated and offered ad libitum to the respective birds. Data was collected on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) also Jejenal sections of the intestine were collected for examination of Villi length and Crypt depth at the end of starter phase. Results show that there were no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in feed intake and final body weight. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and daily weight gain significantly differed (P<0.05). T1, T2, and T4 were similar, however T2 differed (P<0.05) from T3. FCR followed the same pattern. Dietary treatment significantly (P<0.05) affected Villi length, Crypt depth and Villi length/crypt depth ratio. Birds fed OG containing diets, had significantly higher (P<0.05) villi length/crypt depth ratio. However, this did not translate to a significantly higher body weight gain or feed conversion ratio. It can be concluded that O. gratissimum can replace antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) since their effect on performance were similar.

Keywords: antibiotics, body weight, feed additives, intestinal morphology, phytogenics

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4 The Use of Food Industry Bio-Products for Sustainable Lactic Acid Bacteria Encapsulation

Authors: Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Vita Krungleviciute, Elena Bartkiene

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microbial supplements that increase the nutritional, therapeutic, and safety value of food and feed. Often LAB strains are incubated in an expensive commercially available de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium; the cultures are centrifuged, and the cells are washing with sterile water. Potato juice and apple juice industry bio-products are industrial wastes which may constitute a source of digestible nutrients for microorganisms. Due to their low cost and good chemical composition, potato juice and apple juice production bio- products could have a potential application in LAB encapsulation. In this study, pure LAB (P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus) were multiplied in a crushed potato juice and apple juice industry bio-products medium. Before using, bio-products were sterilized and filtered. No additives were added to mass, except apple juice industry bioproducts were diluted with sterile water (1/5; v/v). The tap of sterilised mass, and LAB cell suspension (5 mL), containing of 8.9 log10 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL of the P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus was used to multiply the LAB for 72 h. The final colony number in the potato juice and apple juice bio- products substrate was on average 9.60 log10 cfu/g. In order to stabilize the LAB, several methods of dehydration have been tested: lyophilisation (MilrockKieffer Lane, Kingston, USA) and dehydration in spray drying system (SD-06, Keison, Great Britain). Into the spray drying system multiplied LAB in a crushed potato juice and apple juice bio-products medium was injected in peristaltic way (inlet temperature +60 °C, inlet air temperature +150° C, outgoing air temperature +80 °C, air flow 200 m3/h). After lyophilisation (-48 °C) and spray drying (+150 °C) the viable cell concentration in the fermented potato juice powder was 9.18 ± 0.09 log10 cfu/g and 9.04 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and in apple mass powder 8.03 ± 0.04 log10 cfu/g and 7.03 ± 0.03 log10 cfu/g, respectively. Results indicated that during the storage (after 12 months) at room temperature (22 +/- 2 ºC) LAB count in dehydrated products was 5.18 log10 cfu/g and 7.00 log10 cfu/g (in spray dried and lyophilized potato juice powder, respectively), and 3.05 log10 cfu/g and 4.10 log10 cfu/g (in spray dried and lyophilized apple juice industry bio-products powder, respectively). According to obtained results, potato juice could be used as alternative substrate for P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus cultivation, and by drying received powders can be used in food/feed industry as the LAB starters. Therefore, apple juice industry by- products before spray drying and lyophilisation should be modified (i. e. by using different starches) in order to improve its encapsulation.

Keywords: bio-products, encapsulation, lactic acid bacteria, sustainability

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3 Adaptative Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Brewers' Spent Grain Fermentation

Authors: M. Acin-Albiac, P. Filannino, R. Coda, Carlo G. Rizzello, M. Gobbetti, R. Di Cagno

Abstract:

Demand for smart management of large amounts of agro-food by-products has become an area of major environmental and economic importance worldwide. Brewers' spent grain (BSG), the most abundant by-product generated in the beer-brewing process, represents an example of valuable raw material and source of health-promoting compounds. To the date, the valorization of BSG as a food ingredient has been limited due to poor technological and sensory properties. Tailored bioprocessing through lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is a versatile and sustainable means for the exploitation of food industry by-products. Indigestible carbohydrates (e.g., hemicelluloses and celluloses), high phenolic content, and mostly lignin make of BSG a hostile environment for microbial survival. Hence, the selection of tailored starters is required for successful fermentation. Our study investigated the metabolic strategies of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum strains to exploit BSG as a food ingredient. Two distinctive BSG samples from different breweries (Italian IT- and Finish FL-BSG) were microbially and chemically characterized. Growth kinetics, organic acid profiles, and the evolution of phenolic profiles during the fermentation in two BSG model media were determined. The results were further complemented with gene expression targeting genes involved in the degradation cellulose, hemicelluloses building blocks, and the metabolism of anti-nutritional factors. Overall, the results were LAB genus dependent showing distinctive metabolic capabilities. Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 may degrade BSG xylans while sucrose metabolism could be furtherly exploited for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production to enhance BSG pro-technological properties. Although L. plantarum strains may follow the same metabolic strategies during BSG fermentation, the mode of action to pursue such strategies was strain-dependent. L. plantarum PU1 showed a great preference for β-galactans compared to strain WCFS1, while the preference for arabinose occurred at different metabolic phases. Phenolic compounds profiling highlighted a novel metabolic route for lignin metabolism. These findings will allow an improvement of understanding of how lactic acid bacteria transform BSG into economically valuable food ingredients.

Keywords: brewery by-product valorization, metabolism of plant phenolics, metabolism of lactic acid bacteria, gene expression

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2 Cereal Bioproducts Conversion to Higher Value Feed by Using Pediococcus Strains Isolated from Spontaneous Fermented Cereal, and Its Influence on Milk Production of Dairy Cattle

Authors: Vita Krungleviciute, Rasa Zelvyte, Ingrida Monkeviciene, Jone Kantautaite, Rolandas Stankevicius, Modestas Ruzauskas, Elena Bartkiene

Abstract:

The environmental impact of agricultural bioproducts from the processing of food crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Currently, cereal bran has been used as a low-value ingredient for both human consumption and animal feed. The most popular bioprocessing technologies for cereal bran nutritional and technological functionality increasing are enzymatic processing and fermentation, and the most popular starters in fermented feed production are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including pediococci. However, the ruminant digestive system is unique, there are billions of microorganisms which help the cow to digest and utilize nutrients in the feed. To achieve efficient feed utilization and high milk yield, the microorganisms must have optimal conditions, and the disbalance of this system is highly undesirable. Pediococcus strains Pediococcus acidilactici BaltBio01 and Pediococcus pentosaceus BaltBio02 from spontaneous fermented rye were isolated (by rep – PCR method), identified, and characterized by their growth (by Thermo Bioscreen C automatic turbidometer), acidification rate (2 hours in 2.5 pH), gas production (Durham method), and carbohydrate metabolism (by API 50 CH test ). Antimicrobial activities of isolated pediococcus against variety of pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial strains previously isolated from diseased cattle, and their resistance to antibiotics were evaluated (EFSA-FEEDAP method). The isolated pediococcus strains were cultivated in barley/wheat bran (90 / 10, m / m) substrate, and developed supplements, with high content of valuable pediococcus, were used for Lithuanian black and white dairy cows feeding. In addition, the influence of supplements on milk production and composition was determined. Milk composition was evaluated by the LactoScope FTIR” FT1.0. 2001 (Delta Instruments, Holland). P. acidilactici BaltBio01 and P. pentosaceus BaltBio02 demonstrated versatile carbohydrate metabolism, grown at 30°C and 37°C temperatures, and acidic tolerance. Isolated pediococcus strains showed to be non resistant to antibiotics, and having antimicrobial activity against undesirable microorganisms. By barley/wheat bran utilisation using fermentation with selected pediococcus strains, it is possible to produce safer (reduced Enterobacteriaceae, total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold count) feed stock with high content of pediococcus. Significantly higher milk yield (after 33 days) by using pediococcus supplements mix for dairy cows feeding could be obtained, while similar effect by using separate strains after 66 days of feeding could be achieved. It can be stated that barley/wheat bran could be used for higher value feed production in order to increase milk production. Therefore, further research is needed to identify what is the main mechanism of the positive action.

Keywords: barley/wheat bran, dairy cattle, fermented feed, milk, pediococcus

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1 Microbiological and Physicochemical Evaluation of Traditional Greek Kopanisti Cheese Produced by Different Starter Cultures

Authors: M. Kazou, A. Gavriil, O. Kalagkatsi, T. Paschos, E. Tsakalidou

Abstract:

Kopanisti cheese is a Greek soft Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese made of raw cow, sheep or goat milk, or mixtures of them, with similar organoleptic characteristics to that of Roquefort cheese. Traditional manufacturing of Kopanisti cheese is limited in small-scale dairies, without the addition of starter cultures. Instead, an amount of over-mature Kopanisti cheese, called Mana Kopanisti, is used to initiate ripening. Therefore, the selection of proper starter cultures and the understanding of the contribution of various microbial groups to its overall quality is crucial for the production of a high-quality final product with standardized organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics. Taking the above into account, the aim of the present study was the investigation of Kopanisti cheese microbiota and its role in cheese quality. For this purpose, four different types of Kopanisti were produced in triplicates, all with pasteurized cow milk, with the addition of (A) the typical mesophilic species Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei used as starters in the production of soft spread cheeses, (B) strains of Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Lactobacillus rennini previously isolated from Kopanisti and Mana Kopanisti, (C) all the species from (A) and (B) as inoculum, and finally (D) the species from (A) and Mana Kopanisti. Physicochemical and microbiological analysis was performed for milk and cheese samples during ripening. Enumeration was performed for major groups of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts as well as hygiene indicator microorganisms. Bacterial isolates from all the different LAB groups, apart from enterococci, alongside yeasts isolates, were initially grouped using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and then identified at the species level using 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA region sequencing, respectively. Sensory evaluation was also performed for final cheese samples at the end of the ripening period (35 days). Based on the results of the classical microbiological analysis, the average counts of the total mesophilic bacteria and LAB, apart from enterococci, ranged between 7 and 10 log colony forming unit (CFU) g⁻¹, phychrotrophic bacteria, and yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol (YGC) isolates between 4 and 8 log CFU g⁻¹, while coliforms and enterococci up to 2 log CFU g⁻¹ throughout ripening in cheese samples A, C and D. In contrast, in cheese sample B, the average counts of the total mesophilic bacteria and LAB, apart from enterococci, phychrotrophic bacteria, and YGC isolates ranged between 0 and 10 log CFU g⁻¹ and coliforms and enterococci up to 2 log CFU g⁻¹. Although the microbial counts were not that different among samples, identification of the bacterial and yeasts isolates revealed the complex microbial community structure present in each cheese sample. Differences in the physicochemical characteristics among the cheese samples were also observed, with pH ranging from 4.3 to 5.3 and moisture from 49.6 to 58.0 % in the final cheese products. Interestingly, the sensory evaluation also revealed differences among samples, with cheese sample B ranking first based on the total score. Overall, the combination of these analyses highlighted the impact of different starter cultures on the Kopanisti microbiota as well as on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final product.

Keywords: Kopanisti cheese, microbiota, classical microbiological analysis, physicochemical analysis

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