Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Adi Kimchi

3 The Inhibitory Effect of Weissella koreensis 521 Isolated from Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation

Authors: Kyungbae Pi, Kibeom Lee, Yongil Kim, Eun-Jung Lee


Abnormal adipocyte growth, in terms of increased cell numbers and increased cell differentiation, is considered to be a major pathological feature of obesity. Thus, the inhibition of preadipocyte mitogenesis and differentiation could help prevent and suppress obesity. The aim of this study was to assess whether extracts from Weissella koreensis 521 cells isolated from kimchi could exert anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells (fat cells). Differentiating 3T3-L1 cells were treated with W. koreensis 521 cell extracts (W. koreensis 521_CE), and cell viability was assessed by MTT assays. At concentrations below 0.2 mg/ml, W. koreensis 521_CE did not exert any cytotoxic effect in 3T3-L1 cells. However, treatment with W. koreensis 521_CE significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation, as assessed by morphological analysis and Oil Red O staining of fat. W. koreensis 521_CE treatment (0.2 mg/ml) also reduced lipid accumulation by 24% in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings collectively indicate that Weissella koreensis 521 may help prevent obesity.

Keywords: Weissella koreensis 521, 3T3-L1 cells, adipocyte differentiation, obesity

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2 Unification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Aloe Vera for Healthy Gut

Authors: Pavitra Sharma, Anuradha Singh, Nupur Mathur


There exist more than 100 trillion bacteria in the digestive system of human-beings. Such bacteria are referred to as gut microbiota. Gut microbiota comprises around 75% of our immune system. The bacteria that comprise the gut microbiota are unique to every individual and their composition keeps changing with time owing to factors such as the host’s age, diet, genes, environment, and external medication. Of these factors, the variable easiest to control is one’s diet. By modulating one’s diet, one can ensure an optimal composition of the gut microbiota yielding several health benefits. Prebiotics and probiotics are two compounds that have been considered as viable options to modulate the host’s diet. Prebiotics are basically plant products that support the growth of good bacteria in the host’s gut. Examples include garden asparagus, aloe vera etc. Probiotics are living microorganisms that exist in our intestines and play an integral role in promoting digestive health and supporting our immune system in general. Examples include yogurt, kimchi, kombucha etc. In the context of modulating the host’s diet, the key attribute of prebiotics is that they support the growth of probiotics. By developing the right combination of prebiotics and probiotics, food products or supplements can be created to enhance the host’s health. An effective combination of prebiotics and probiotics that yields health benefits to the host is referred to as synbiotics. Synbiotics comprise of an optimal proportion of prebiotics and probiotics, their application benefits the host’s health more than the application of prebiotics and probiotics used in isolation. When applied to food supplements, synbiotics preserve the beneficial probiotic bacteria during storage period and during the bacteria’s passage through the intestinal tract. When applied to the gastrointestinal tract, the composition of the synbiotics assumes paramount importance. Reason being that for synbiotics to be effective in the gastrointestinal tract, the chosen probiotic must be able to survive in the stomach’s acidic environment and manifest tolerance towards bile and pancreatic secretions. Further, not every prebiotic stimulates the growth of a particular probiotic. The prebiotic chosen should be one that not only maintains 2 balance in the host’s digestive system, but also provides the required nutrition to probiotics. Hence in each application of synbiotics, the prebiotic-probiotic combination needs to be carefully selected. Once the combination is finalized, the exact proportion of prebiotics and probiotics to be used needs to be considered. When determining this proportion, only that amount of a prebiotic should be used that activates metabolism of the required number of probiotics. It was observed that while probiotics are active is both the small and large intestine, the effect of prebiotics is observed primarily in the large intestine. Hence in the host’s small intestine, synbiotics are likely to have the maximum efficacy. In small intestine, prebiotics not only assist in the growth of probiotics, but they also enable probiotics to exhibit a higher tolerance to pH levels, oxygenation, and intestinal temperature

Keywords: microbiota, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics

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1 Toward Understanding the Glucocorticoid Receptor Network in Cancer

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Mattia Lauriola, Yuval Gilad, Adi Kimchi, Yosef Yarden


The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been proposed to play important, but incompletely understood roles in cancer. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as co-medication of various carcinomas, due to their ability to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. Furthermore, GR antagonism has proven to be a strategy to treat triple negative breast cancer and castration-resistant prostate cancer. These observations suggest differential GR involvement in cancer subtypes. The goal of our study has been to elaborate the current understanding of GR signaling in tumor progression and metastasis. Our study involves two cellular models, non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) and Ewing sarcoma cells (CHLA9). In our breast cell model, the results indicated that the GR agonist dexamethasone inhibits EGF-induced mammary cell migration, and this effect was blocked when cells were stimulated with a GR antagonist, namely RU486. Microarray analysis for gene expression revealed that the mechanism underlying inhibition involves dexamenthasone-mediated repression of well-known activators of EGFR signaling, alongside with enhancement of several EGFR’s negative feedback loops. Because GR mainly acts primarily through composite response elements (GREs), or via a tethering mechanism, our next aim has been to find the transcription factors (TFs) which can interact with GR in MCF10A cells.The TF-binding motif overrepresented at the promoter of dexamethasone-regulated genes was predicted by using bioinformatics. To validate the prediction, we performed high-throughput Protein Complementation Assays (PCA). For this, we utilized the Gaussia Luciferase PCA strategy, which enabled analysis of protein-protein interactions between GR and predicted TFs of mammary cells. A library comprising both nuclear receptors (estrogen receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor, GR) and TFs was fused to fragments of GLuc, namely GLuc(1)-X, X-GLuc(1), and X-GLuc(2), where GLuc(1) and GLuc(2) correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of the luciferase gene.The resulting library was screened, in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells, for all possible interactions between nuclear receptors and TFs. By screening all of the combinations between TFs and nuclear receptors, we identified several positive interactions, which were strengthened in response to dexamethasone and abolished in response to RU486. Furthermore, the interactions between GR and the candidate TFs were validated by co-immunoprecipitation in MCF10A and in CHLA9 cells. Currently, the roles played by the uncovered interactions are being evaluated in various cellular processes, such as cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion. In conclusion, our assay provides an unbiased network analysis between nuclear receptors and other TFs, which can lead to important insights into transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors in various diseases, in this case of cancer.

Keywords: epidermal growth factor, glucocorticoid receptor, protein complementation assay, transcription factor

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