Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 704

Search results for: duct combustion

704 Influence of Flame-Holder on Existence Important Parameters in a Duct Combustion Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Doustdar, Mohammad Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

The effects of flame-holder position, the ratio of flame holder diameter to combustion chamber diameter and injection angle on fuel propulsive droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied by a cold flow. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the effective mass fraction. An empty cylinder as well as a flame-holder which are as a simulator for duct combustion has been considered. The airflow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done by four nozzles which are located on the entrance of cylinder. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multi phase, multi component code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

Keywords: KIVA-3V, flame-holder, duct combustion, effective mass fraction, mean diameter of droplets

Procedia PDF Downloads 524
703 CFD Modeling of Air Stream Pressure Drop inside Combustion Air Duct of Coal-Fired Power Plant with and without Airfoil

Authors: Pakawhat Khumkhreung, Yottana Khunatorn

Abstract:

The flow pattern inside rectangular intake air duct of 300 MW lignite coal-fired power plant is investigated in order to analyze and reduce overall inlet system pressure drop. The system consists of the 45-degree inlet elbow, the flow instrument, the 90-degree mitered elbow and fans, respectively. The energy loss in each section can be determined by Bernoulli’s equation and ASHRAE standard table. Hence, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used in this study based on Navier-Stroke equation and the standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Input boundary condition is 175 kg/s mass flow rate inside the 11-m2 cross sectional duct. According to the inlet air flow rate, the Reynolds number of airstream is 2.7x106 (based on the hydraulic duct diameter), thus the flow behavior is turbulence. The numerical results are validated with the real operation data. It is found that the numerical result agrees well with the operating data, and dominant loss occurs at the flow rate measurement device. Normally, the air flow rate is measured by the airfoil and it gets high pressure drop inside the duct. To overcome this problem, the airfoil is planned to be replaced with the other type measuring instrument, such as the average pitot tube which generates low pressure drop of airstream. The numerical result in case of average pitot tube shows that the pressure drop inside the inlet airstream duct is decreased significantly. It should be noted that the energy consumption of inlet air system is reduced too.

Keywords: airfoil, average pitot tube, combustion air, CFD, pressure drop, rectangular duct

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
702 Effect of Copper Particle on the PD Characteristics in a Coaxial Duct with Mixture of SF6 (10%) and N2 (90%) Gases

Authors: B. Rajesh Kamath, J. Sundara Rajan, M. K. Veeraiah, M. Z. Kurian

Abstract:

Insulation performance of a gas insulated system is severely affected by particle contaminants. These metallic particles adversely affect the characteristics of insulating system. These particles can produce surface charges due to partial discharge activities. These particles which are free to move enhance the local electric fields. This paper deals with the influence of conducting particle placed in a co-axial duct on the discharge characteristics of gas mixtures. Co-axial duct placed in a high pressure chamber is used for the purpose. A gas pressure of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa have been considered with a 10:90 SF6 and N2 gas mixtures. The 2D and 3D histograms of clean duct and duct with copper particle are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: coaxial duct, gas insulated system, gas mixtures, metallic particle, partial discharges, histograms

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
701 Investigation of the NO2 Formation in the Exhaust Duct of a Dual Fuel Test Engine

Authors: Ehsan Arabian, Thomas Sattelmayer

Abstract:

The formation of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the exhaust duct of a MAN dual fuel test engine has been investigated numerically. The dual fuel engine concept with premixed lean methane combustion ignited through diesel pilot flames reveals high potential for the abatement of the NOx formation. The drawback of this combustion method, however, is the high NO2 formation due to the increasing concentration of unburned hydrocarbons. This promotes the conversion of NO to NO2, which is toxic and characterized through its yellow color. The results presented in this paper cover a wide range of engine operation points from full load to part load for different air to fuel ratios. The effects of temperature, pressure and concentrations of unburned methane and nitric oxide on NO2 formation in the exhaust duct has been investigated on the basis of a zero-dimensional well stirred reactor model implemented in Cantera, which calculates the steady state of a uniform composition for a certain residence time. It can be shown that the simulated conversion of NO to NO2 match the experimental results fairly well. The partial oxidation of methane followed by CO production can be predicted as well. It can also be concluded that the lower temperature limit for which no conversion takes place, depends mainly on the concentration of the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust.

Keywords: cantera, dual fuel engines, exhaust tract, numerical modeling of NO2 formation, well stirred reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
700 Numerical Investigation of Divergence and Rib Orientation Effects on Thermal Performance in a Divergent Duct, as an Application of Inner Cooling of Turbine Blades

Authors: Heidar Jafarizadeh, Hossein Keshtkar, Ahmad Sohankar

Abstract:

Heat transfer and turbulent flow structure have been studied in a divergent ribbed duct with a varying duct geometry with Reynolds numbers of 7000 to 90000 using numerical methods. In this study, we confirmed our numerical results of a ribbed duct with an Initial slope of zero to 3 degree by comparing them to experimental data we had and investigated the impact of the ducts divergence on heat transfer and flow pattern in the 2-dimensional flow. Then we investigated the effect of tilting the ribs, on heat transfer and flow behavior. We achieved this by changing the ribs angles from a range of 40 to 75 degrees in a divergent duct and simulated the flow in 3-dimensions. Our results show that with an increase in duct divergence, heat transfer increases linearly and the coefficient of friction increases exponentially. As the results show, a duct with a divergence angle of 1.5 degree presents better thermal performance in comparison with all the angle range’s we studied. Besides, a ribbed duct with 40 degree rib orientation had the best thermal performance considering the simultaneous effects of pressure drop and heat transfer which were imposed on it.

Keywords: divergent ribbed duct, heat transfer, thermal performance, turbulent flow structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
699 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in Square Duct with Turbulators

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Hamad M. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of heat transfer in U-duct with turbulators is presented in this paper. The duct passages used to cool internally the blades in gas turbine. The study is focused in the flow behavior and the Nusselt number (Nu) distributions. The model of the u-duct contains two square legs that are connected by 180* turn. Four turbulators are located in each surface of the leg and distributed in a staggered arrangement. The turbulator height and width are equal to 0.1 of the duct width, and the turbulator height is 0.1 of the distance between the turbulators. The Reynolds number (Re) used in this study is 95000 and the inlet velocity is 10 m/s. It was noticed that, after the flow resettles from the interruptions generated by the first turbulator or the turn, the flow construct two eddies, one large and the other is small after and before the turbulator, respectively. The maximum values of the Nu are found at a distance of approximately one turbulator width w before of the flow reattachment point.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, rib, heat transfer, blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
698 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee

Abstract:

A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology is successfully applied to industrial furnace, and showed extremely low NOx emission levels.

Keywords: low NOx, combustion, burner, fuel rich

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
697 Experimental Study of Semitransparent and Opaque Photovoltaic Modules with and without Air Duct

Authors: Sanjay Agrawal, Trapti Varshney, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In this paper, thermal modeling has been developed for photovoltaic PV modules, namely; Case A: semitransparent PV module without duct, Case B: semitransparent PV module with duct, Case C: opaque PV module without duct, Case D: opaque PV module with duct for Delhi, India climatic condition. MATLAB 7.0 software has been used to solve mathematical models of the proposed system. For validation of proposed system, the experimental study has also been carried out for all above four cases, and then comparative analysis of all different type of PV module has been presented. The hybrid PVT module air collectors presented in this study are self sustaining the system and can be used for the electricity generation in remote areas where access of electricity is not economical due to high transmission and distribution losses. It has been found that overall annual thermal energy and exergy gain of semitransparent PV module is higher by 11.6% and7.32% in summer condition and 16.39% and 18% in winter condition respectively as compared to opaque PV module considering same area (0.61 m2) of PV module.

Keywords: semitransparent PV module, overall exergy, overall thermal energy, opaque

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
696 Characterization of Fe Doped ZnO Synthesised by Sol-Gel and Combustion Routes

Authors: M. Ravindiran, P. Shankar

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison of two synthesis methods, namely, sol-gel, and combustion to prepare Fe doped ZnO nano material. Characterization results for structural, optical and magnetic properties were analyzed for the sol gel and combustion synthesis derived materials. Magnetic studies of the prepared compounds reveal that the combustion synthesis derived material has good magnetization of 50 emu/gm with a better hysteresis loop curve.

Keywords: DMS, combustion, ferromagnetic, synthesis methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
695 Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in a Misaligned Duct under a Uniform Magnetic Field

Authors: Mengqi Zhu, Chang Nyung Kim

Abstract:

This study numerically investigates three-dimensional liquid-metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a misaligned duct under a uniform magnetic field. The duct consists of two misaligned horizontal channels (one is inflow channel, the other is outflow channel) and one central vertical channel. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to predict the behavior of the MHD flows, using commercial code CFX. In the current study, a case with Hartmann number 1000 is considered. The electromagnetic features of LM MHD flows are elucidated to examine the interdependency of the flow velocity, current density, electric potential, pressure drop and Lorentz force. The results show that pressure decreases linearly along the main flow direction.

Keywords: CFX, liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows, misaligned duct, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
694 MHD Flow in a Curved Duct with FCI under a Uniform Magnetic Field

Authors: Yue Yan, Chang Nyung Kim

Abstract:

The numerical investigation of the three-dimensional liquid-metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a curved duct with flow channel insert (FCI) is presented in this paper, based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. A uniform magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the duct. The interdependency of the flow variables is examined in terms of the flow velocity, current density, electric potential and pressure. The electromagnetic characteristics of the LM MHD flows are reviewed with an introduction of the electric-field component and electro-motive component of the current. The influence of the existence of the FCI on the fluid flow is investigated in detail. The case with FCI slit located near the side layer yields smaller pressure gradient with stable flow field.

Keywords: curved duct, flow channel insert, liquid-metal, magnetohydrodynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
693 Duplicated Common Bile Duct: A Recipe for Injury

Authors: David Armany, Matthew Allaway, Preet Gosal, Senarath Edirimanne

Abstract:

A potentially devastating complication of routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy includes iatrogenic bile duct injuries, which represent a stable incidence rate of 0.3% over the past three decades. Whilst related to several relative risks such as surgeon experience and patient factors (older age, male sex), misinterpretation of biliary tree anatomy remains the most common cause, accounting for 80% of iatrogenic Common Bile Duct injuries. Whilst extremely rare, a duplicate common bile duct anomaly remains a potential variation to encounter during biliary surgery, with 30 recognised cases in the worldwide literature, of which type Vb accounts for 4. We report the case of a rare type Vb variation encountered during intra-operative laparoscopic cholecystectomy and confirmed on cholangiogram. To our knowledge, this is the first documented Type Vb case encountered in an Australian population. Given these anomalies are asymptomatic and can perpetuate iatrogenic common bile duct injuries, awareness of all subtypes is crucial. Irrevocably, preoperative Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography can help recognise these anomalies before the operating theatre; however, their widespread adoption is limited by expensive and availability.

Keywords: duplicated common bile duct, type Vb, cholecystitis, MRCP, cholangiogram, iatrogenic CBD

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
692 PIV Measurements of the Instantaneous Velocities for Single and Two-Phase Flows in an Annular Duct

Authors: Marlon M. Hernández Cely, Victor E. C. Baptistella, Oscar M. H. Rodríguez

Abstract:

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique in the field of fluid flow measurement and provides instantaneous velocity fields over global domains. It has been applied to external and internal flows and in single and two-phase flows. Regarding internal flow, works about the application of PIV in annular ducts are scanty. An experimental work is presented, where flow of water is studied in an annular duct of inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 155 mm and 10.5-m length, with the goal of obtaining detailed velocity measurements. Depending on the flow rates of water, it can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. In this study, the water flow rate was kept at three different values for the annular duct, allowing the analysis of one laminar and two turbulent flows. Velocity fields and statistic quantities of the turbulent flow were calculated.

Keywords: PIV, annular duct, laminar, turbulence, velocity profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
691 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-Type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: combustion, emission, can-type combustion chamber, CFD, motility of holes, swirl flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
690 Mooring Analysis of Duct-Type Tidal Current Power System in Shallow Water

Authors: Chul H. Jo, Do Y. Kim, Bong K. Cho, Myeong J. Kim

Abstract:

The exhaustion of oil and the environmental pollution from the use of fossil fuel are increasing. Tidal current power (TCP) has been proposed as an alternative energy source because of its predictability and reliability. By applying a duct and single point mooring (SPM) system, a TCP device can amplify the generating power and keep its position properly. Because the generating power is proportional to cube of the current stream velocity, amplifying the current speed by applying a duct to a TCP system is an effective way to improve the efficiency of the power device. An SPM system can be applied at any water depth and is highly cost effective. Simple installation and maintenance procedures are also merits of an SPM system. In this study, we designed an SPM system for a duct-type TCP device for use in shallow water. Motions of the duct are investigated to obtain the response amplitude operator (RAO) as the magnitude of the transfer function. Parameters affecting the stability of the SPM system such as the fairlead departure angle, current velocity, and the number of clamp weights are analyzed and/or optimized. Wadam and OrcaFlex commercial software is used to design the mooring line.

Keywords: mooring design, parametric analysis, RAO (Response Amplitude Operator), SPM (Single Point Mooring)

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
689 A Novel Combustion Engine, Design and Modeling

Authors: M. A. Effati, M. R. Hojjati, M. Razmdideh

Abstract:

Nowadays, engine developments have focused on internal combustion engine design call for increased engine power, reduced engine size and improved fuel economy, simultaneously. In this paper, a novel design for combustion engine is proposed. Two combustion chambers were designed in two sides of cylinder. Piston was designed in a way that two sides of piston would transfer heat energy due to combustion to linear motion. This motion would convert to rotary motion through the designed mechanism connected to connecting rod. Connecting rod operation was analyzed to evaluate applied stress in 3000, 4500 and 6000 rpm. Boundary conditions including generated pressure in each side of cylinder in these 3 situations was calculated.

Keywords: combustion engine, design, finite element method, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
688 Reaction Rate of Olive Stone during Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, M. Rubio-Rubio, J. Arrieta, N. García-Hernando

Abstract:

Combustion of biomass is a promising alternative to reduce the high pollutant emission levels associated to the combustion of fossil flues due to the net null emission of CO2 attributed to biomass. However, the biomass selected should also have low contents of nitrogen and sulfur to limit the NOx and SOx emissions derived from its combustion. In this sense, olive stone is an excellent fuel to power combustion reactors with reduced levels of pollutant emissions. In this work, the combustion of olive stone particles is analyzed experimentally in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (BFB). The bubbling fluidized bed reactor was installed over a scale, conforming a macro-TGA. In both equipment, the evolution of the mass of the samples was registered as the combustion process progressed. The results show a much faster combustion process in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor compared to the thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, due to the higher heat transfer coefficient and the abrasion of the fuel particles by the bed material in the BFB reactor.

Keywords: olive stone, combustion, reaction rate, fluidized bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
687 The Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD) on Homogeneous Change Compression Ignition (HCCI)

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablus, Osama Ab. M. Shafah

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to understand how the thermal influence of combustion chamber deposits can be utilized to expand the operating range of HCCI combustion. In order to do this, two main objectives must first be met; tracking deposit formation trends in an HCCI engine and determining the sensitivity of HCCI combustion to CCD. This requires testing that demonstrates the differences in combustion between a clean engine and one with deposits coating the chamber. This will involve a long-term test that tracks the effects of CCD on combustion. The test will start with a clean engine. One baseline HCCI operating point is maintained for the duration of the test during which gradual combustion chamber deposit formation will occur. Combustion parameters, including heat release rates and emissions will be tracked for the duration and compared to the case of a clean engine. This work will begin by detailing the specifics of the test procedure and measurements taken throughout the test. Then a review of the effects of the gradual formation of deposits in the engine will be given.

Keywords: fuels, fuel atomization, pattern factor, alternate fuels combustion, efficiency gas turbine combustion, lean blow out, exhaust and liner wall temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
686 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct

Authors: Nur Irmawati, H. A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics were studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2×106≤Ra≤2×107 and Reynolds number in the range of 100≤Re≤1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It was also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.

Keywords: numerical simulation, mixed convection, horizontal rectangular duct, nanofluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
685 Economical Analysis of Optimum Insulation Thickness for HVAC Duct

Authors: D. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. G. Memon, R. A. Memon, K. Harijan

Abstract:

A considerable amount of energy is usually lost due to compression of insulation in Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) duct. In this paper, the economic impact of compression of insulation is estimated. Relevant mathematical models were used to estimate the optimal thickness at the points of compression. Furthermore, the payback period is calculated for the optimal thickness at the critical parts of supply air duct (SAD) and return air duct (RAD) considering natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuels for chillier operation. The mathematical model is developed using preliminary data obtained for an HVAC system of a pharmaceutical company. The higher heat gain and cooling loss, due to compression of thermal insulation, is estimated using relevant heat transfer equations. The results reveal that maximum energy savings (ES) in SAD is 34.5 and 40%, while in RAD is 22.9% and 29% for NG and LPG, respectively. Moreover, the minimum payback period (PP) for SAD is 2 and 1.6years, while in RAD is 4.3 and 2.7years for NG and LPG, respectively. The optimum insulation thickness (OIT) corresponding to maximum ES and minimum PP is estimated to be 35 and 42mm for SAD, while 30 and 38mm for RAD in case of NG and LPG, respectively.

Keywords: optimum insulation thickness, life cycle cost analysis, payback period, HVAC system

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
684 Effect of Nicorandil in Bile Duct Ligation-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats: Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Y. S. Mohamed, L. A. Ahmed, H. A. Salem, A. M. Agha

Abstract:

Liver Fibrosis is one of the most serious conditions that affect the Egyptian society. In the present study, the effect of nicorandil was investigated in experimentally-induced liver fibrosis by bile duct ligation in rats. Nicorandil (3mg/kg/day) was given orally 24 h after bile duct ligation for 14 days till the end of the experiment. Nicorandil group showed a significant improvement in liver function tests (ALT and ALP) as well as a significant decrease in oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS and GSH), area of fibrosis and activity of hepatic stellate cells as indicated by decreased expression of alpha smooth muscle actin.Moreover, nicorandil treatment decreased HSCs proliferation due to its inhibitory effects on protein kinase C(PKC) and Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) . Oral administration of either glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day)(a KATP channel blocker) or L-NAME (30 mg/kg/day) (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. However, nicorandil and L-NAME treated group showed more or less results similar to that of untreated bile duct ligated group. In conclusion, nicorandil was effective against the development of bile duct ligated-induced liver fibrosis in rats where activation of the NO pathway plays an important role in the protective effect nicorandil.

Keywords: hepatic stellate cells, nicorandil, nitric oxide donor, liver fibrosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 550
683 Combustion Analysis of Suspended Sodium Droplet

Authors: T. Watanabe

Abstract:

Combustion analysis of suspended sodium droplet is performed by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equations. The combustion model consists of the pre-ignition and post-ignition models. The reaction rate for the pre-ignition model is based on the chemical kinetics, while that for the post-ignition model is based on the mass transfer rate of oxygen. The calculated droplet temperature is shown to be in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The temperature field in and around the droplet is obtained as well as the droplet shape variation, and the present numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the combustion analysis.

Keywords: analysis, combustion, droplet, sodium

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
682 On the Catalytic Combustion Behaviors of CH4 in a MCFC Power Generation System

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion is generally accepted as an environmentally preferred alternative for the generation of heat and power from fossil fuels mainly due to its advantages related to the stable combustion under very lean conditions with low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC at temperatures lower than those occurred in conventional flame combustion. Despite these advantages, the commercial application of catalytic combustion has been delayed because of complicated reaction processes and the difficulty in developing appropriate catalysts with the required stability and durability. To develop the catalytic combustors, detailed studies on the combustion characteristics of catalytic combustion should be conducted. To the end, in current research, quantitative studies on the combustion characteristics of the catalytic combustors, with a Pd-based catalyst for MCFC power generation systems, relying on numerical simulations have been conducted. In addition, data from experimental studies of variations in outlet temperatures and fuel conversion, taken after operating conditions have been used to validate the present numerical approach. After introducing the governing equations for mass, momentum, and energy equations as well as a description of catalytic combustion kinetics, the effects of the excess air ratio, space velocity, and inlet gas temperature on the catalytic combustion characteristics are extensively investigated. Quantitative comparisons are also conducted with previous experimental data. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, methane, BOP, MCFC power generation system, inlet temperature, excess air ratio, space velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
681 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López

Abstract:

In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
680 Simulation and Experimentation of Solar Thermal Collector for Air Heating System Using Dynamic Ribs

Authors: Nishitha Chowdary, Prabhav Dwivedi

Abstract:

Solar radiation (or insolation) is responsible for 174 petawatts (PW) of energy reaching the Earth's atmosphere. About one-third of this is reflected in space. Solar energy is by far the most abundant source of energy on Earth. In this study to use solar energy to the fullest in a solar air heater, An analysis of a solar air heater duct roughened with fixed cylindrical ribs in 3-D has been done using CFD. These fixed cylindrical ribs have a uniform circular cross-section and are placed in transverse in-line and staggered arrangements. The orientation of ribs has been fixed and is perpendicular to the in-flow direction. Cylindrical ribs are arranged periodically with fixed pitch; therefore, one pitch length is only considered in the present study. Validation has been done with smooth as well as with roughened duct and is matched perfectly with the developed correlations. Geometric parameters, namely rib height (e), ranges from 1 to 2 mm and pitch ranges from 10 to 40 mm are used in the present investigation. Thermo-hydraulic performance parameters in terms of average Nusselt number and friction factor have been extracted for Reynolds number ranging 5000—18000 to optimize the performance of roughened duct.

Keywords: cylindrical ribs, solar air heater, thermo-hydraulic performance factor, roughened duct

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
679 A Hybrid Combustion Chamber Design for Diesel Engines

Authors: R. Gopakumar, G. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Both DI and IDI systems possess inherent advantages as well as disadvantages. The objective of the present work is to obtain maximum advantages of both systems by implementing a hybrid design. A hybrid combustion chamber design consists of two combustion chambers viz., the main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber. A fuel injector supplies major quantity of fuel to the auxiliary chamber. Due to the increased swirl motion in auxiliary chamber, mixing becomes more efficient which contributes to reduction in soot/particulate emissions. Also, by increasing the fuel injection pressure, NOx emissions can be reduced. The main objective of the hybrid combustion chamber design is to merge the positive features of both DI and IDI combustion chamber designs, which provides increased swirl motion and improved thermal efficiency. Due to the efficient utilization of fuel, low specific fuel consumption can be ensured. This system also aids in increasing the power output for same compression ratio and injection timing as compared with the conventional combustion chamber designs. The present system also reduces heat transfer and fluid dynamic losses which are encountered in IDI diesel engines. Since the losses are reduced, overall efficiency of the engine increases. It also minimizes the combustion noise and NOx emissions in conventional DI diesel engines.

Keywords: DI, IDI, hybrid combustion, diesel engines

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
678 Analysis of Syngas Combustion Characteristics in Can-Type Combustor using CFD

Authors: Norhaslina Mat Zian, Hasril Hasini, Nur Irmawati Om

Abstract:

This study focuses on the flow and combustion behavior inside gas turbine combustor used in thermal power plant. The combustion process takes place using synthetic gas and the baseline solution was made on gas turbine combustor firing natural gas (100% Methane) as the main source of fuel. Attention is given to the effect of the H2/CO ratio on the variation of the flame profile, temperature distribution, and emissions. The H2/CO ratio varies in the range of 10-80 % and the CH4 values are fixed 10% for each case. While keeping constant the mass flow rate and operating pressure, the preliminary result shows that the flow inside the can-combustor is highly swirling which indicates good mixing of fuel and air prior to the entrance of the mixture to the main combustion zone.

Keywords: cfd, combustion, flame, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
677 Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Study for Triangular Duct Solar Air Heater Having Discrete V-Shaped Ribs

Authors: Varun Goel

Abstract:

Solar energy is a good option among renewable energy resources due to its easy availability and abundance. The simplest and most efficient way to utilize solar energy is to convert it into thermal energy and this can be done with the help of solar collectors. The thermal performance of such collectors is poor due to less heat transfer from the collector surface to air. In this work, experimental investigations of single pass solar air heater having triangular duct and provided with roughness element on the underside of the absorber plate. V-shaped ribs are used for investigation having three different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) ranges from 4-16 for a fixed value of angle of attack (α), relative roughness height (e/Dh) and a relative gap distance (d/x) values are 60°, 0.044 and 0.60 respectively. Result shows that considerable augmentation in heat transfer has been obtained by providing roughness.

Keywords: artificial roughness, solar air heater, triangular duct, V-shaped ribs

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
676 The Effect of Micro-Arc Oxidation Coated Piston Crown on Engine Characteristics in a Spark Ignited Engine

Authors: A.Velavan, C. G. Saravanan, M. Vikneswaran, E. James Gunasekaran

Abstract:

In present investigation, experiments were carried out to compare the effect of the ceramic coated piston crown and uncoated piston on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port injected Spark Ignited engine. The piston crown was coated with aluminium alloy in the form ceramic oxide layer of thickness 500 µm using micro-arc oxidation technique. This ceramic coating will act as a thermal barrier which reduces in-cylinder heat rejection and increases the durability of the piston by withstanding high temperature and pressure produced during combustion. Flame visualization inside the combustion chamber was carried out using AVL Visioscope combustion analyzer to predict the type of combustion occurs at different load condition. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the coated piston shows an improved thermal efficiency when compared to uncoated piston. This is because more heat presents in the combustion chamber which helps efficient combustion of the fuel. The CO and HC emissions were found to be reduced due to better combustion of the fuel whereas NOx emission was increased due to increase in combustion temperature for ceramic coated piston.

Keywords: coated piston, micro-arc oxidation, thermal barrier, thermal efficiency, visioscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
675 Oxygen Enriched Co-Combustion of Sub-Bituminous Coal/Biomass Waste Fuel Blends

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai

Abstract:

Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of co-combustion of coal/biomass waste fuel blends is presented in this study. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biomass portions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%: weight percent) blended with coal and oxygen concentrations (21% for air, 35%, 50%, 75% and 100 % for pure oxygen) on the combustion performance and emissions. The goal is to reduce the air emissions from power plants coal combustion. Sub-bituminous Nigerian coal with calorific value of 32.51 MJ/kg and sawdust (biomass) with calorific value of 16.68 MJ/kg is used in this study. Coal/Biomass fuel blends co-combustion is modeled using mixture fraction/pdf approach for non-premixed combustion and Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) to predict the trajectories and the heat/mass transfer of the fuel blend particles. The results show the effects of oxygen concentrations and biomass portions in the coal/biomass fuel blends on the gas and particles temperatures, the flow field, the devolitization and burnout rates inside the combustor and the CO2 and NOX emissions at the exit from the combustor. The results obtained in the course of this study show the benefits of enriching combustion air with oxygen and blending biomass waste with coal for reducing the harmful emissions from coal power plants.

Keywords: co-combustion, coal, biomass, fuel blends, CFD, air emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 298