Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1798

Search results for: artificial roughness

1798 Heat and Flow Analysis of Solar Air Heaters with Artificial Roughness on the Absorber

Authors: Amel Boulemtafes-Boukadoum, Ahmed Benzaoui

Abstract:

Solar air heaters (SAH) are widely used in heating and drying applications using solar energy. Their efficiency needs to be improved to be competitive towards solar water heater. In this work, our goal is to study heat transfer enhancement in SAHs by the use of artificial roughness on the absorber. For this purpose, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to analyze the flow and heat transfer in the air duct of a solar air heater provided with transverse ribs. The air flows in forced convection and the absorber is heated with uniform flux. The effect of major parameters (Reynolds number, solar radiation, air inlet temperature, geometry of roughness) is examined and discussed. To highlight the effect of artificial roughness, we plotted the distribution of the important parameters: Nusselt number, friction factor, global thermohydraulic performance parameter etc. The results obtained are concordant to those found in the literature and shows clearly the heat transfer enhancement due to artifical roughness.

Keywords: solar air heater, artificial roughness, heat transfer enhancement, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
1797 Mixed Convection Enhancement in a 3D Lid-Driven Cavity Containing a Rotating Cylinder by Applying an Artificial Roughness

Authors: Ali Khaleel Kareem, Shian Gao, Ahmed Qasim Ahmed

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of unsteady mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D moving top wall enclosure, which has a central rotating cylinder and uses either artificial roughness on the bottom hot plate or smooth bottom hot plate to study the heat transfer enhancement, is completed for fixed circular cylinder, and anticlockwise and clockwise rotational speeds, -1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1, at Reynolds number of 5000. The top lid-driven wall was cooled, while the other remaining walls that completed obstructed cubic were kept insulated and motionless. A standard k-ε model of Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method is involved to deal with turbulent flow. It has been clearly noted that artificial roughness can strongly control the thermal fields and fluid flow patterns. Ultimately, the heat transfer rate has been dramatically increased by involving artificial roughness on the heated bottom wall in the presence of rotating cylinder.

Keywords: artificial roughness, lid-driven cavity, mixed convection heat transfer, rotating cylinder, URANS method

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
1796 Analytical Modelling of Surface Roughness during Compacted Graphite Iron Milling Using Ceramic Inserts

Authors: Ş. Karabulut, A. Güllü, A. Güldaş, R. Gürbüz

Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of the lead angle and chip thickness variation on surface roughness during the machining of compacted graphite iron using ceramic cutting tools under dry cutting conditions. Analytical models were developed for predicting the surface roughness values of the specimens after the face milling process. Experimental data was collected and imported to the artificial neural network model. A multilayer perceptron model was used with the back propagation algorithm employing the input parameters of lead angle, cutting speed and feed rate in connection with chip thickness. Furthermore, analysis of variance was employed to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on surface roughness. Artificial neural network and regression analysis were used to predict surface roughness. The values thus predicted were compared with the collected experimental data, and the corresponding percentage error was computed. Analysis results revealed that the lead angle is the dominant factor affecting surface roughness. Experimental results indicated an improvement in the surface roughness value with decreasing lead angle value from 88° to 45°.

Keywords: CGI, milling, surface roughness, ANN, regression, modeling, analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
1795 Roughness Discrimination Using Bioinspired Tactile Sensors

Authors: Zhengkun Yi

Abstract:

Surface texture discrimination using artificial tactile sensors has attracted increasing attentions in the past decade as it can endow technical and robot systems with a key missing ability. However, as a major component of texture, roughness has rarely been explored. This paper presents an approach for tactile surface roughness discrimination, which includes two parts: (1) design and fabrication of a bioinspired artificial fingertip, and (2) tactile signal processing for tactile surface roughness discrimination. The bioinspired fingertip is comprised of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers, a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bar, and two perpendicular polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) film sensors. This artificial fingertip mimics human fingertips in three aspects: (1) Elastic properties of epidermis and dermis in human skin are replicated by the two PDMS layers with different stiffness, (2) The PMMA bar serves the role analogous to that of a bone, and (3) PVDF film sensors emulate Meissner’s corpuscles in terms of both location and response to the vibratory stimuli. Various extracted features and classification algorithms including support vector machines (SVM) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN) are examined for tactile surface roughness discrimination. Eight standard rough surfaces with roughness values (Ra) of 50 μm, 25 μm, 12.5 μm, 6.3 μm 3.2 μm, 1.6 μm, 0.8 μm, and 0.4 μm are explored. The highest classification accuracy of (82.6 ± 10.8) % can be achieved using solely one PVDF film sensor with kNN (k = 9) classifier and the standard deviation feature.

Keywords: bioinspired fingertip, classifier, feature extraction, roughness discrimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1794 Effect of Riprap Stability on Roughness Bridge Pier in River Bend

Authors: Alireza Masjedi, Amir Taeedi

Abstract:

In this research, by placing the two cylindrical piers without roughness and with roughness with riprap around its, they proceeded to a series of tests. Experiments were done by three relative diameters of riprap with density 2.1 and one rate of discharge 27 lit/s under pure water condition. In each experiment, flow depth measured in terms of failure threshold then stability number calculated by using data obtained. The results of the research showed that the riprap stability in pier with roughness is more pier without roughness because of the pier with roughness is sharp-pointed and reduced horseshoe vortex.

Keywords: riprap stability, roughness, river bend, froude number

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1793 Investigation of Riprap Stability on Roughness Bridge Pier in River Bend

Authors: A. Alireza Masjedi, B. Amir Taeedi

Abstract:

In this research, by placing the two cylindrical piers without roughness and with roughness with riprap around its, they proceeded to a series of tests. Experiments were done by three relative diameters of riprap with density 2.1 and one rate of discharge 27 lit/s under pure water condition. In each experiment, flow depth measured in terms of failure threshold then stability number calculated by using data obtained. The results of the research showed that the riprap stability in pier with roughness is more pier without roughness because of the pier with roughness is sharp-pointed and reduced horseshoe vortex.

Keywords: riprap stability, roughness, river bend, froude number

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1792 Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Study for Triangular Duct Solar Air Heater Having Discrete V-Shaped Ribs

Authors: Varun Goel

Abstract:

Solar energy is a good option among renewable energy resources due to its easy availability and abundance. The simplest and most efficient way to utilize solar energy is to convert it into thermal energy and this can be done with the help of solar collectors. The thermal performance of such collectors is poor due to less heat transfer from the collector surface to air. In this work, experimental investigations of single pass solar air heater having triangular duct and provided with roughness element on the underside of the absorber plate. V-shaped ribs are used for investigation having three different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) ranges from 4-16 for a fixed value of angle of attack (α), relative roughness height (e/Dh) and a relative gap distance (d/x) values are 60°, 0.044 and 0.60 respectively. Result shows that considerable augmentation in heat transfer has been obtained by providing roughness.

Keywords: artificial roughness, solar air heater, triangular duct, V-shaped ribs

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
1791 The Effect of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of SCM440 Steel

Authors: C. Han, H. Kim, S. Park

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study is to analyze the effect of surface roughness on fatigue life of SCM440 steel. Two groups of specimens were made from SCM440 steel with and without surface polished after forging process and resulted in different values of surface roughness. The difference of the surface roughness between two groups was clearly distinguished even to the naked eye. Surface roughness of both groups of the specimens was quantitatively measured by a roughness measuring device, Talysurf series2 (Taylor-Hobson Co., USA). Average roughness (Ra) and maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were obtained by scanning 45 mm with a speed of 0.25 mm/s. Fatigue tests were conducted using a three-point bending method with a cyclic sinusoidal profile of 5 Hz, stress ratio of R = 0.1 and reference life for fatigue limit of 1 × 106 cycles. Ra and Rmax without surface polished were 10.497 ± 1.721 μm and 87.936 ± 16.210 μm, respectively while those values with surface polished were much smaller (ongoing measurements). Fatigue lives of the surface-polished specimens achieved approximately 1 × 106 cycles under the maximum stress of 900 MPa, which was 10 times longer than those of the surface-untreated specimens with an average roughness of 10.082 μm. The results showed that an increase in surface roughness values led to a decrease in fatigue lives.

Keywords: surface roughness, fatigue test, fatigue life, SCM440 steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1790 Artificial Neural Network in Ultra-High Precision Grinding of Borosilicate-Crown Glass

Authors: Goodness Onwuka, Khaled Abou-El-Hossein

Abstract:

Borosilicate-crown (BK7) glass has found broad application in the optic and automotive industries and the growing demands for nanometric surface finishes is becoming a necessity in such applications. Thus, it has become paramount to optimize the parameters influencing the surface roughness of this precision lens. The research was carried out on a 4-axes Nanoform 250 precision lathe machine with an ultra-high precision grinding spindle. The experiment varied the machining parameters of feed rate, wheel speed and depth of cut at three levels for different combinations using Box Behnken design of experiment and the resulting surface roughness values were measured using a Taylor Hobson Dimension XL optical profiler. Acoustic emission monitoring technique was applied at a high sampling rate to monitor the machining process while further signal processing and feature extraction methods were implemented to generate the input to a neural network algorithm. This paper highlights the training and development of a back propagation neural network prediction algorithm through careful selection of parameters and the result show a better classification accuracy when compared to a previously developed response surface model with very similar machining parameters. Hence artificial neural network algorithms provide better surface roughness prediction accuracy in the ultra-high precision grinding of BK7 glass.

Keywords: acoustic emission technique, artificial neural network, surface roughness, ultra-high precision grinding

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
1789 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan

Abstract:

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1788 Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer

Authors: El-Ghalia Filali, Cherif Gadouche, Mohamed Tahar

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor and the Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and 100 μm in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s. The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel diameter.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, heat transfer, minichannel, microchannel, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
1787 Numerical Simulation of Structured Roughness Effect on Fluid Flow Characteristics and Heat Transfer in Minichannels

Authors: R. Chouatah, E. G. Filali, B. Zouzou

Abstract:

It has been well established that there are no differences between microscale and macroscale flows of incompressible liquids. However, surface roughness has been known to impact the transport phenomena. The effect of structured roughness on the dynamics and heat transfer of water flowing through minichannel was numerically investigated in this study. Our study consists in characterizing the dynamic field and heat transfer aspect of a flow in circular minichannel equipped with structured roughness using CFD software, CFX. The study is performed to understand the effect of various roughness elements (rectangular, triangular), roughness height and roughness pitch on the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm in diameter and 10 cm in length. The speed entry into the mini-channel varies from 0.1 m/s to 25 m/s. The wall of the mini-channel is submitted to a constant heat flux; q=100,000 W/m². The simulations results are compared to those obtained with smooth minichannel and the existing experimental and numerical results in the literature.

Keywords: heat transfer, laminar and turbulent flow, minichannel, structured roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1786 Modeling of Surface Roughness in Hard Turning of DIN 1.2210 Cold Work Tool Steel with Ceramic Tools

Authors: Mehmet Erdi Korkmaz, Mustafa Günay

Abstract:

Nowadays, grinding is frequently replaced with hard turning for reducing set up time and higher accuracy. This paper focused on mathematical modeling of average surface roughness (Ra) in hard turning of AISI L2 grade (DIN 1.2210) cold work tool steel with ceramic tools. The steel was hardened to 60±1 HRC after the heat treatment process. Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius was chosen as the cutting conditions. The uncoated ceramic cutting tools were used in the machining experiments. The machining experiments were performed according to Taguchi L27 orthogonal array on CNC lathe. Ra values were calculated by averaging three roughness values obtained from three different points of machined surface. The influences of cutting conditions on surface roughness were evaluated as statistical and experimental. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence level was applied for statistical analysis of experimental results. Finally, mathematical models were developed using the artificial neural networks (ANN). ANOVA results show that feed rate is the dominant factor affecting surface roughness, followed by tool nose radius and cutting speed.

Keywords: ANN, hard turning, DIN 1.2210, surface roughness, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1785 Surface Roughness Effects in Pure Sliding EHL Line Contacts with Carreau-Type Shear-Thinning Lubricants

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of transverse surface roughness on EHL characteristics has been investigated numerically using an extensive set of full EHL line contact simulations for shear-thinning lubricants under pure sliding condition. The shear-thinning behavior of lubricant is modeled using Carreau viscosity equation along with Doolittle-Tait equation for lubricant compressibility. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the stationary surface. It is found that surface roughness causes sharp pressure peaks along with reduction in central and minimum film thickness. With increasing amplitude of surface roughness, the minimum film thickness decreases much more rapidly as compared to the central film thickness.

Keywords: EHL, Carreau, shear-thinning, surface roughness, amplitude, wavelength

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
1784 The Differences on the Surface Roughness of Glass Ionomer Cement as the Results of Brushing with Whitening and Conventional Toothpaste

Authors: Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Annisa Ibifadillah, Ummu H. Amri, Hidayati Gunawan

Abstract:

Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used on the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration`s surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. In the oral cavity, GIC was exposed to various substances, such as toothpaste, an oral care product used during toothbrushing. One of the popular toothpaste is whitening toothpaste. Abrasive and chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide in whitening toothpaste could increase the surface roughness of restorative materials. Objective: To determine the differences on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste. Method: This study was done using experimental laboratory method with pre and post test design. There were 36 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with conventional toothpaste, each for 2 minutes. Surface roughness value of the specimens was measured by using Roughness Tester test. Result: The data was analyzed by using independent t-test and the result of this study showed there was a significant difference between the surface of glass ionomer cement which was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste (p=0,000). Conclusion: Glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening toothpaste produced more roughness than conventional toothpaste.

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, surface roughness, toothpaste, roughness tester

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1783 Variation of Streamwise and Vertical Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Bed Open Channel Flow

Authors: M. Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

An experimental study with four different types of bed conditions was carried out to understand the effect of roughness in open channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers. The bed conditions include a smooth surface and three different roughness conditions which were generated using sand grains with a median diameter of 2.46 mm. The three rough conditions include a surface with distributed roughness, a surface with continuously distributed roughness and a sand bed with a permeable interface. A commercial two-component fibre-optic LDA system was used to conduct the velocity measurements. The variables of interest include the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, the correlation between the streamwise and the wall normal turbulence, Reynolds shear stress and velocity triple products. Quadrant decomposition was used to extract the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress of the turbulent bursting events. The effect of roughness was evident throughout the flow depth. The results show that distributed roughness has the greatest roughness effect followed by the sand bed and the continuous roughness. Compared to the smooth bed, the streamwise turbulence intensity reduces but the vertical turbulence intensity increases at a location very close to the bed due to the introduction of roughness. Although the same sand grain is used to create the three different rough bed conditions, the difference in the turbulence intensity is an indication that the specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence structure.

Keywords: open channel flow, smooth and rough bed, Reynolds number, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1782 On the Role of Cutting Conditions on Surface Roughness in High-Speed Thread Milling of Brass C3600

Authors: Amir Mahyar Khorasani, Ian Gibson, Moshe Goldberg, Mohammad Masoud Movahedi, Guy Littlefair

Abstract:

One of the important factors in manufacturing processes especially machining operations is surface quality. Improving this parameter results in improving fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, creep life and surface friction. The reliability and clearance of removable joints such as thread and nuts are highly related to the surface roughness. In this work, the effect of different cutting parameters such as cutting fluid pressure, feed rate and cutting speed on the surface quality of the crest of thread in the high-speed milling of Brass C3600 have been determined. Two popular neural networks containing MLP and RBF coupling with Taguchi L32 have been used to model surface roughness which was shown to be highly adept for such tasks. The contribution of this work is modelling surface roughness on the crest of the thread by using precise profilometer with nanoscale resolution. Experimental tests have been carried out for validation and approved suitable accuracy of the proposed model. Also analysing the interaction of parameters two by two showed that the most effective cutting parameter on the surface value is feed rate followed by cutting speed and cutting fluid pressure.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, cutting conditions, high-speed machining, surface roughness, thread milling

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1781 Study the Effect of Roughness on the Higher Order Moment to Extract Information about the Turbulent Flow Structure in an Open Channel Flow

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds number for each bed surfaces were adopted in this study. Particular attention was given on mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds shear stress, correlation, higher order moments and quadrant analysis. Further, the extent of influence of roughness and Reynolds number in the depth-wise direction also studied. Increasing Reynolds shear stress near rough beds are noticed due to arrays of discrete roughness elements and flow over these elements generating a series of wakes which contributes to the generation of significantly higher Reynolds shear stress.

Keywords: bed roughness, ejection and sweep, open channel flow, Reynolds shear stress, turbulent boundary layer, velocity triple product

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1780 Nonlinear Flow Behavior and Validity of the Cubic Law in a Rough Fracture

Authors: Kunwar Mrityunjai Sharma, Trilok Nath Singh

Abstract:

The Navier-Stokes equation is used to study nonlinear fluid flow in rough 2D fractures. The major goal is to investigate the influence of inertial flow owing to fracture wall roughness on nonlinear flow behavior. Roughness profiles are developed using Barton's Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) and used as fracture walls to assess wall roughness. Four JRC profiles (5, 11, 15, and 19) are employed in the study, where a higher number indicates higher roughness. A parametric study has been performed using varying pressure gradients, and the corresponding Forchheimer number is calculated to observe the nonlinear behavior. The results indicate that the fracture roughness has a significant effect on the onset of nonlinearity. Additionally, the validity of the cubic law is evaluated and observed that it overestimates the flow in rough fractures and should be used with utmost care.

Keywords: fracture flow, nonlinear flow, cubic law, Navier-stokes equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
1779 Effect of Strontium on Surface Roughness and Chip Morphology When Turning Al-Si Cast Alloy Using Carbide Tool Insert

Authors: Mohsen Marani Barzani, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Saeed Farahany, Ramesh Singh

Abstract:

Surface roughness and chip morphology are important output in manufacturing product. In this paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various cutting speeds and feed rates on surface roughness and chip morphology in turning the Al-Si cast alloy and Sr-containing. Experimental trials carried out using coated carbide inserts. Experiments accomplished under oblique dry cutting when various cutting speeds 70, 130 and 250 m/min and feed rates of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mm/rev were used, whereas depth of cut kept constant at 0.05 mm. The results showed that Sr-containing Al-Si alloy have poor surface roughness in comparison to Al-Si alloy (base alloy). The surface roughness values reduce with cutting speed increment from 70 to 250 m/min. the size of chip changed with changing silicon shape in Al matrix. Also, the surface finish deteriorated with increase in feed rate from 0.5 mm/rev to 0.15 mm/rev.

Keywords: strontium, surface roughness, chip, morphology, turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
1778 Pavement Roughness Prediction Systems: A Bump Integrator Approach

Authors: Manish Pal, Rumi Sutradhar

Abstract:

Pavement surface unevenness plays a pivotal role on roughness index of road which affects on riding comfort ability. Comfort ability refers to the degree of protection offered to vehicle occupants from uneven elements in the road surface. So, it is preferable to have a lower roughness index value for a better riding quality of road users. Roughness is generally defined as an expression of irregularities in the pavement surface which can be measured using different equipment like MERLIN, Bump integrator, Profilometer etc. Among them Bump Integrator is quite simple and less time consuming in case of long road sections. A case study is conducted on low volume roads in West District in Tripura to determine roughness index (RI) using Bump Integrator at the standard speed of 32 km/h. But it becomes too tough to maintain the requisite standard speed throughout the road section. The speed of Bump Integrator (BI) has to lower or higher in some distinctive situations. So, it becomes necessary to convert these roughness index values of other speeds to the standard speed of 32 km/h. This paper highlights on that roughness index conversional model. Using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) software a generalized equation is derived among the RI value at standard speed of 32 km/h and RI value at other speed conditions.

Keywords: bump integrator, pavement distresses, roughness index, SPSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1777 Effects of Upstream Wall Roughness on Separated Turbulent Flow over a Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel

Authors: S. M. Rifat, André L. Marchildon, Mark F. Tachie

Abstract:

The effect of upstream surface roughness over a smooth forward facing step in an open channel was investigated using a particle image velocimetry technique. Three different upstream surface topographies consisting of hydraulically smooth wall, sandpaper 36 grit and sand grains were examined. Besides the wall roughness conditions, all other upstream flow characteristics were kept constant. It was also observed that upstream roughness decreased the approach velocity by 2% and 10% but increased the turbulence intensity by 14% and 35% at the wall-normal distance corresponding to the top plane of the step compared to smooth upstream. The results showed that roughness decreased the reattachment lengths by 14% and 30% compared to smooth upstream. Although the magnitudes of maximum positive and negative Reynolds shear stress in separated and reattached region were 0.02Ue for all the cases, the physical size of both the maximum and minimum contour levels were decreased by increasing upstream roughness.

Keywords: forward facing step, open channel, separated and reattached turbulent flows, wall roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1776 Studying Roughness Effects on Flow Regimes in Offshore Pipelines

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Narges, Zahra Ghadampour

Abstract:

Due to the specific condition, offshore pipelines are given careful consideration and care in both design and operation. Most of the offshore pipeline flows are multi-phase. Multi-phase flows construct different pattern or flow regimes (in simultaneous gas-liquid flow, flow regimes like slug flow, wave and …) under different circumstances. One of the influencing factors on the flow regime is the pipeline roughness value. So far, roughness value influences and the sensitivity of the present models to this parameter have not been taken into consideration. Therefore, roughness value influences on the flow regimes in offshore pipelines are discussed in this paper. Results showed that geometry, absolute pipeline roughness value (materials that the pipeline is made of) and flow phases prevailing the system are of the influential parameters on the flow regimes prevailing multi-phase pipelines in a way that a change in any of these parameters results in a change in flow regimes in all or part of the pipeline system.

Keywords: absolute roughness, flow regime, multi-phase flow, offshore pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1775 Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity

Authors: Muhammad Yousaf, Shoaib Usman

Abstract:

Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm basedon a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 103 to 106 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was16.66 percent at Ra number 105.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann method, natural convection, nusselt number, rayleigh number, roughness

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1774 Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer During Natural Convection

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman

Abstract:

The present study focused on the investigation of the effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural convection in a rectangular cavity using a numerical technique. Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior was studied using a computational method based on Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a laminar natural convection in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106 for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2 with a fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness elements caused a minimum to the maximum decrease in the heat transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to the smooth enclosure. The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms, and streamlines.

Keywords: natural convection, Rayleigh number, surface roughness, Nusselt number, Lattice Boltzmann method

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1773 Optimization of Surface Roughness by Taguchi’s Method for Turning Process

Authors: Ashish Ankus Yerunkar, Ravi Terkar

Abstract:

Study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy requirements of both quality as well as productivity with special emphasis on reduction of cutting tool flank wear, because reduction in flank wear ensures increase in tool life. The predicted optimal setting ensured minimization of surface roughness. Purpose of this paper is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get lowest surface roughness in turning SCM 440 alloy steel by Taguchi method. Design for the experiment was done using Taguchi method and 18 experiments were designed by this process and experiments conducted. The results are analyzed using ANOVA method. Taguchi method has depicted that the depth of cut has significant role to play in producing lower surface roughness followed by feed. The Cutting speed has lesser role on surface roughness from the tests. The vibrations of the machine tool, tool chattering are the other factors which may contribute poor surface roughness to the results and such factors ignored for analyses. The inferences by this method will be useful to other researches for similar type of study and may be vital for further research on tool vibrations, cutting forces etc.

Keywords: surface roughness (ra), machining, dry turning, taguchi method, turning process, anova method, mahr perthometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1772 Optimization of Surface Roughness in Turning Process Utilizing Live Tooling via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Weinian Wang, Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to optimize the process of cutting cylindrical workpieces utilizing live tooling on a HAAS ST-20 lathe. Surface roughness (Ra) has been investigated as the indicator of quality characteristics for machining process. Aluminum alloy was used to conduct experiments due to its wide range usages in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. In this study, Taguchi methodology is utilized to determine the effects that each of the parameters has on surface roughness (Ra). A total of 18 experiments of each process were designed according to Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array (OA) with four control factors at three levels of each and signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) were computed with Smaller the better equation for minimizing the system. The optimal parameters identified for the surface roughness of the turning operation utilizing live tooling were a feed rate of 3 inches/min(A3); a spindle speed of 1300 rpm(B3); a 2-flute titanium nitrite coated 3/8” endmill (C1); and a depth of cut of 0.025 inches (D2). The mean surface roughness of the confirmation runs in turning operation was 8.22 micro inches. The final results demonstrate that Taguchi methodology is a sufficient way of process improvement in turning process on surface roughness.

Keywords: CNC milling operation, CNC turning operation, surface roughness, Taguchi parameter design

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
1771 Surface Roughness of AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Nurul Na'imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Jaharah Ab. Ghani, Mohd Asri Selamat

Abstract:

This paper presents the surface roughness of the Aluminium silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN), with three types of carbide inserts. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to the Taguchi method, using a standard orthogonal array L27 (34). The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance are applied to study the characteristic performance of machining parameters in measuring the surface roughness during the milling operation. The analysis of results, using the Taguchi method concluded that a combination of low feed rate, medium depth of cut, low cutting speed, and insert TiB2 give a better value of surface roughness. From Taguchi method, it was found that cutting speed of 230m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, depth of cut of 0.5mm and type of insert of TiB2 were the optimal machining parameters that gave the optimal value of surface roughness.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), surface roughness, Taguchi method

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1770 Surface Roughness Formed during Hybrid Turning of Inconel Alloy

Authors: Pawel Twardowski, Tadeusz Chwalczuk, Szymon Wojciechowski

Abstract:

Inconel 718 is a material characterized by the unique mechanical properties, high temperature strength, high thermal conductivity and the corrosion resistance. However, these features affect the low machinability of this material, which is usually manifested by the intense tool wear and low surface finish. Therefore, this paper is focused on the evaluation of surface roughness during hybrid machining of Inconel 718. The primary aim of the study was to determine the relations between the vibrations generated during hybrid turning and the formed surface roughness. Moreover, the comparison of tested machining techniques in terms of vibrations, tool wear and surface roughness has been made. The conducted tests included the face turning of Inconel 718 with laser assistance in the range of variable cutting speeds. The surface roughness was inspected with the application of stylus profile meter and accelerations of vibrations were measured with the use of three-component piezoelectric accelerometer. The carried out research shows that application of laser assisted machining can contribute to the reduction of surface roughness and cutting vibrations, in comparison to conventional turning. Moreover, the obtained results enable the selection of effective cutting speed allowing the improvement of surface finish and cutting dynamics.

Keywords: hybrid machining, nickel alloys, surface roughness, turning, vibrations

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1769 Process Modeling of Electric Discharge Machining of Inconel 825 Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Himanshu Payal, Sachin Maheshwari, Pushpendra S. Bharti

Abstract:

Electrical discharge machining (EDM), a non-conventional machining process, finds wide applications for shaping difficult-to-cut alloys. Process modeling of EDM is required to exploit the process to the fullest. Process modeling of EDM is a challenging task owing to involvement of so many electrical and non-electrical parameters. This work is an attempt to model the EDM process using artificial neural network (ANN). Experiments were carried out on die-sinking EDM taking Inconel 825 as work material. ANN modeling has been performed using experimental data. The prediction ability of trained network has been verified experimentally. Results indicate that ANN can predict the values of performance measures of EDM satisfactorily.

Keywords: artificial neural network, EDM, metal removal rate, modeling, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 318