Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3395

# Search results for: torque dynamic

##### 3395 Online Estimation of Clutch Drag Torque in Wet Dual Clutch Transmission Based on Recursive Least Squares

Authors: Hongkui Li, Tongli Lu , Jianwu Zhang

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing an estimation method of clutch drag torque in wet DCT. The modelling of clutch drag torque is investigated. As the main factor affecting the clutch drag torque, dynamic viscosity of oil is discussed. The paper proposes an estimation method of clutch drag torque based on recursive least squares by utilizing the dynamic equations of gear shifting synchronization process. The results demonstrate that the estimation method has good accuracy and efficiency. Downloads 223
##### 3394 Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Helical Gear with Torque-Limiter

Abstract:

This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic response of a mechanical torque limiter which is used to protect drive parts from overload (helical transmission gears). The system is driven by four excitations: two external excitations (aerodynamics torque and force) and two internal excitations (two mesh stiffness fluctuations). In this work, we develop a dynamic model with lumped components and 28 degrees of freedom. We use the Runge Kutta step-by-step time integration numerical algorithm to solve the equations of motion obtained by Lagrange formalism. The numerical results have allowed us to identify the sources of vibration in the wind turbine. Also, they are useful to help the designer to make the right design and correctly choose the times for maintenance. Downloads 86
##### 3393 Comparison between Classical and New Direct Torque Control Strategies of Induction Machine

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative analysis between conventional direct torque control (C_DTC), Modified direct torque control (M_DTC) and twelve sectors direct torque control (12_DTC).Those different strategies are compared by simulation in term of torque, flux and stator current performances. Finally, a summary of the comparative analysis is presented.

Keywords: C_DTC, M_DTC, 12_DTC, torque dynamic, stator current, flux, performances

##### 3392 Investigation of Dynamic Characteristic of Planetary Gear Set Based On Three-Axes Torque Measurement

Abstract:

A planetary gear set is widely used in hybrid vehicles as the power distribution system or in electric vehicles as the high reduction system, but due to its complexity with planet gears, its dynamic characteristic is not fully understood. There are many reports on two-axes driving or displacement of the planet gears under these conditions, but only few reports deal with three-axes driving. A three-axes driving condition is tested using three-axes torque measurement and focuses on the dynamic characteristic around the planet gears in this report. From experimental result, it was confirmed that the transition forces around the planet gears were balanced and the torques were also balanced around the instantaneous rotation center. The meshing frequency under these conditions was revealed to be the harmonics of two meshing frequencies; meshing frequency of the ring gear and that of the planet gears. The input power of the ring gear is distributed to the carrier and the sun gear in the dynamic sequential change of three fixed conditions; planet, star and solar modes. Downloads 293
##### 3391 Comparative Analysis of DTC Based Switched Reluctance Motor Drive Using Torque Equation and FEA Models

Authors: P. Srinivas, P. V. N. Prasad

Abstract:

Since torque ripple is the main cause of noise and vibrations, the performance of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) can be improved by minimizing its torque ripple using a novel control technique called Direct Torque Control (DTC). In DTC technique, torque is controlled directly through control of magnitude of the flux and change in speed of the stator flux vector. The flux and torque are maintained within set hysteresis bands. The DTC of SRM is analysed by two methods. In one of the methods, the actual torque is computed by conducting Finite Element Analysis (FEA) on the design specifications of the motor. In the other method, the torque is computed by Simplified Torque Equation. The variation of peak current, average current, torque ripple and speed settling time with Simplified Torque Equation model is compared with FEA based model. Downloads 404
##### 3390 Self-Organizing Map Network for Wheeled Robot Movement Optimization

Authors: Boguslaw Schreyer

Abstract:

The paper investigates the application of the Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to the wheeled robot starting and braking dynamic states. In securing wheeled robot stability as well as minimum starting and braking time, it is important to ensure correct torque distribution as well as proper slope of braking and driving moments. In this paper, a correct movement distribution has been formulated, securing optimum adhesion coefficient and good transversal stability of a wheeled robot. A neural tuner has been proposed to secure the above properties, although most of the attention is attached to the SOM network application. If the delay of the torque application or torque release is not negligible, it is important to change the rising and falling slopes of the torque. The road/surface condition is also paramount in robot dynamic states control. As the road conditions may randomly change in time, application of the SOM network has been suggested in order to classify the actual road conditions. Downloads 57
##### 3389 The Effect of AMBs Number of a Dynamics Behavior of a Spur Gear Reducer in Non-Stationary Regime

Authors: Najib Belhadj Messaoud, Slim Souissi

Abstract:

The non-linear dynamic behavior of a single stage spur gear reducer is studied in this paper in transient regime. Driving and driver rotors are, respectively, powered by a motor torque Cm and loaded by a resistive torque Cr. They are supported by two identical Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs). Gear excitation is induced by the motor torque and load variation in addition to the fluctuation of meshing stiff-ness due to the variation of input rotational speed. Three models of AMBs were used with four, six and eight magnets. They are operated by P.D controller and powered by control and bias currents. The dynamic parameters of the AMBs are modeled by stiffness and damping matrices computed by the derivation of the electromagnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved iteratively using Newmark time integration method. In the first part of the study, the model is powered by an electric motor and by a four strokes four cylinders diesel engine in the second part. The numerical results of the dynamic responses of the system come to confirm the significant effect of the transient regime on the dynamic behavior of a gear set, particularly in the case of engine acyclism condition. Results also confirm the influence of the magnet number by AMBs on the dynamic behavior of the system. Indeed, vibrations were more important in the case of gear reducer supported by AMBs with four magnets.

Keywords: motor, stiffness, gear, acyclism, fluctuation, torque

##### 3388 Acute Effects of Active Dynamic, Static Stretching and Passive Static Stretching Exercise on Hamstrings Flexibility and Muscle Strength

Abstract:

Stretching treatments enhanced flexibility. On the other hand, decreases in hamstrings strength have been reported after stretching, especially with static stretching or passive stretching. Stretching has been shown to be more effective than static stretching to improve muscle performance, but a clear consensus for the effect of dynamic stretching on muscle performance has not been achieved. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of a dynamic stretching, static stretching and eccentric exercise protocol on hamstrings stiffness, flexibility and muscle strength. Forty-five healthy active men (height 179.9 cm; weight 71.5 kg; age 22.5 years) were participated in 3 randomly ordered testing sessions: dynamic stretching (DS), active static stretching (ASS), and passive static stretching (PSS). All the stretch were performed 30 seconds and repeated 6 times. There was a 30-second interval between repetitions. The outcome measures were isokinetic concentric contraction (60°/s), eccentric contraction (30°/s) peak torque, muscle flexibility after stretching. The results showed that the muscle flexibility (3.6%, 3.9% and 1.59%, respectively) increased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hamstring isokinetic concentric peak torque (-6.4%, -8.0% and -5.8%, respectively) and eccentric peak torque (-5.8%, -4.5% and -5.4%, respectively) decreased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hence, although the stretching protocols improve hamstrings flexibility immediately, reduced hamstring muscle eccentric and concentric peak torque. Downloads 293
##### 3387 Efficient Control of Some Dynamic States of Wheeled Robots

Authors: Boguslaw Schreyer

Abstract:

In some types of wheeled robots it is important to secure starting acceleration and deceleration maxima while at the same time maintaining transversal stability. In this paper torque distribution between the front and rear wheels as well as the timing of torque application have been calculated. Both secure an optimum traction coefficient. This paper also identifies required input signals to a control unit, which controls the torque values and timing. Using a three dimensional, two mass model of a robot developed by the author a computer simulation was performed confirming the calculations presented in this paper. These calculations were also implemented and confirmed during military robot testing. Downloads 245
##### 3386 Select-Low and Select-High Methods for the Wheeled Robot Dynamic States Control

Authors: Bogusław Schreyer

Abstract:

The paper enquires on the two methods of the wheeled robot braking torque control. Those two methods are applied when the adhesion coefficient under left side wheels is different from the adhesion coefficient under the right side wheels. In case of the select-low (SL) method the braking torque on both wheels is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the lower adhesion. In the select-high (SH) method the torque is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the higher adhesion. The SL method is securing stable and secure robot behaviors during the braking process. However, the efficiency of this method is relatively low. The SH method is more efficient in terms of time and braking distance but in some situations may cause wheels blocking. It is important to monitor the velocity of all wheels and then take a decision about the braking torque distribution accordingly. In case of the SH method the braking torque slope may require significant decrease in order to avoid wheel blocking. Downloads 46
##### 3385 Analysis of Cascade Control Structure in Train Dynamic Braking System

Authors: B. Moaveni, S. Morovati

Abstract:

In recent years, increasing the usage of railway transportations especially in developing countries caused more attention to control systems railway vehicles. Consequently, designing and implementing the modern control systems to improve the operating performance of trains and locomotives become one of the main concerns of researches. Dynamic braking systems is an important safety system which controls the amount of braking torque generated by traction motors, to keep the adhesion coefficient between the wheel-sets and rail road in optimum bound. Adhesion force has an important role to control the braking distance and prevent the wheels from slipping during the braking process. Cascade control structure is one of the best control methods for the wide range of industrial plants in the presence of disturbances and errors. This paper presents cascade control structure based on two forward simple controllers with two feedback loops to control the slip ratio and braking torque. In this structure, the inner loop controls the angular velocity and the outer loop control the longitudinal velocity of the locomotive that its dynamic is slower than the dynamic of angular velocity. This control structure by controlling the torque of DC traction motors, tries to track the desired velocity profile to access the predefined braking distance and to control the slip ratio. Simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the introduced methodology in dynamic braking system. Downloads 296
##### 3384 Design and Performance Evaluation of Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM)

Abstract:

Torque ripple, maximum torque and high efficiency are important issues in synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM). This paper presents a view on design of a high efficiency, low torque ripple and high torque density SynRM. To achieve this goal SynRM parameters is calculated (such as insulation ratios in the d-and q-axes and the rotor slot pitch), while the torque ripple can be minimized by determining the best rotor slot pitch in the d-axis. The presented analytical-finite element method (FEM) approach gives the optimum distribution of air gap and iron portion for the maximizing torque density with minimum torque ripple. Downloads 129
##### 3383 Analysis of the Torque Required for Mixing LDPE with Natural Fibre and DCP

Abstract:

This study evaluated the incidence of concentrated natural fibre, as well as the effects of adding a crosslinking agent on the torque when those components are mixed with low density polyethylene (LDPE). The natural fibre has a particle size of between 0.8-1.2mm and a moisture content of 0.17%. An internal mixer was used to measure the torque required to mix the polymer with the fibre. The effect of the fibre content and crosslinking agent on the torque was also determined. A change was observed in the morphology of the mixes using SEM differential scanning microscopy.

Keywords: WPC, DCP, LDPE, natural fibre, torque

##### 3382 Analysis of Brushless DC Motor with Trapezoidal Back EMF Using Matlab

Authors: Taha Ahmed Husain

Abstract:

The dynamic characteristics such as speed and torque as well as voltages and currents of pwm brushless DC motor inverter are analyzed with a MATLAB model. The contribution of external load torque and friction torque is monitored. The switching function technique is adopted for the current control of the embedded three phase inverter that drives the brushless DC motor.In switching functions the power conversions circuits can be modeled according to their functions rather than circuit topologies. Therefore, it can achieve simplification of the overall power conversion functions. The trapezoidal type (back emf) is used in the model as ithas lower switching loss compared with sinusoidal type (back emf). Results show reliable time analysis for speed, torque, phase and line voltages and currents and the effect of current commutation is clearly observed. Downloads 476
##### 3381 Dynamic Analysis of Offshore 2-HUS/U Parallel Platform

Authors: Xie Kefeng, Zhang He

Abstract:

For the stability and control demand of offshore small floating platform, a 2-HUS/U parallel mechanism was presented as offshore platform. Inverse kinematics was obtained by institutional constraint equation, and the dynamic model of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform was derived based on rigid body’s Lagrangian method. The equivalent moment of inertia, damping and driving force/torque variation of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform were analyzed. A numerical example shows that, for parallel platform of given motion, system’s equivalent inertia changes 1.25 times maximally. During the movement of platform, they change dramatically with the system configuration and have coupling characteristics. The maximum equivalent drive torque is 800 N. At the same time, the curve of platform’s driving force/torque is smooth and has good sine features. The control system needs to be adjusted according to kinetic equation during stability and control and it provides a basis for the optimization of control system. Downloads 276
##### 3380 Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Employing Differential Evolution Algorithm

Authors: T. Vamsee Kiran, A. Gopi

Abstract:

The undesired torque and flux ripple may occur in conventional direct torque control (DTC) induction motor drive. DTC can improve the system performance at low speeds by continuously tuning the regulator by adjusting the Kp, Ki values. In this differential evolution (DE) is proposed to adjust the parameters (Kp, Ki) of the speed controller in order to minimize torque ripple, flux ripple, and stator current distortion.The DE based PI controller has resulted is maintaining a constant speed of the motor irrespective of the load torque fluctuations. Downloads 348
##### 3379 Effect of Sedimentation on Torque Transmission in the Larger Radius Magnetorheological Clutch

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Chiranjit Sarkar

Abstract:

Sedimentation of magnetorheological (MR) fluid affects its working. MR fluid is a smart fluid that has unique qualities such as quick responsiveness and easy controllability. It is used in the MR damper, MR brake, and MR clutch. In this work effect of sedimentation on torque transmission in the shear mode operated MR clutch is investigated. A test rig is developed to test the impact of sedimentation on torque transmission in the MR clutch. Torque transmission capability of MR clutch has been measured under two conditions to confirm the result of sedimentation. The first experiment is done just after filling and the other after one week. It has been observed that transmission torque is decreased after sedimentation. Hence sedimentation affects the working of the MR clutch. Downloads 69
##### 3378 Novel Stator Structure Switching Flux Permanent Magnet Motor

Abstract:

Switching flux permanent magnet (SFPM) motor has doubly salient structure which lead to high torque ripple, and also has cogging torque as a permanent magnet motor. Torque ripple and cogging torque have impact on the motor performance. A novel stator structure SFPM motor is presented in this paper. A triangular shape silicon steel sheet is put in the stator slot to reduce the torque ripple, which will not deteriorate the cogging torque. The simulation of proposed motor is analyzed using 2-D finite element method (FEM) based on Ansoft and Simplorer software, and the result show a good performance of the proposed SFPM motor. Downloads 455
##### 3377 Torque Magnetometry of Low Anisotropic CaCo2As2 Single Crystals

Authors: Kashif Nadeem, W. Zhang, X. G. Qiu

Abstract:

Role of Co spins in CaCo2As2 single crystal is systematically studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque measurements. A spin-flop transition in the antiferromagnetism (AFM) CaCo2As2 single crystal is studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque. Field dependent and angle dependent torque magnetometry confirmed the existence of spin-flop transition in this compound which is in agreement with the dc magnetization studies. A comparison of dc magnetization and torque magnetometry measurements for CaCo2As2 single crystal is done in detail. In conclusion, torque magnetometry can be a useful tool to study the spin flop transition in low anisotropic compounds analogous to dc magnetization studies. Downloads 394
##### 3376 Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Employing Teaching Learning Based Optimization

Authors: Anam Gopi

Abstract:

The undesired torque and flux ripple may occur in conventional direct torque control (DTC) induction motor drive. DTC can improve the system performance at low speeds by continuously tuning the regulator by adjusting the Kp, Ki values. In this Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) is proposed to adjust the parameters (Kp, Ki) of the speed controller in order to minimize torque ripple, flux ripple, and stator current distortion. The TLBO based PI controller has resulted is maintaining a constant speed of the motor irrespective of the load torque fluctuations. Downloads 506
##### 3375 Effect of Measured and Calculated Static Torque on Instantaneous Torque Profile of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

Abstract:

The simulation modeling of switched reluctance (SR) machine often relies and uses the three data tables identified as static torque characteristics that include flux linkage characteristics, co energy characteristics and static torque characteristics separately. It has been noticed from the literature that the data of static torque used in the simulation model is often calculated so far the literature is concerned. This paper presents the simulation model that include the data of measured and calculated static torque separately to see its effect on instantaneous torque profile of the machine. This is probably for the first time so far the literature review is concerned that static torque from co energy information, and measured static torque directly from experiments are separately used in the model. This research is helpful for accurate modeling of switched reluctance drive. Downloads 209
##### 3374 Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Direct Torque Control Based ANFIS Controller for Electric Vehicle

Abstract:

Day by day, the uses of internal combustion engines (ICE) are deteriorating because of pollution and less fuel availability. In the present scenario, the electric vehicle (EV) plays a major role in the place of an ICE vehicle. The performance of EVs can be improved by the proper selection of electric motors. Initially, EV preferred induction motors for traction purposes, but due to complexity in controlling induction motor, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is replacing induction motor in EV due to its advantages. Direct torque control (DTC) is one of the known techniques for PMSM drive in EV to control the torque and speed. However, the presence of torque ripple is the main drawback of this technique. Many control strategies are followed to reduce the torque ripples in PMSM. In this paper, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller technique is proposed to reduce torque ripples and settling time. Here the performance parameters like torque, speed and settling time are compared between conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller with ANFIS controller. Downloads 78
##### 3373 Design of Torque Actuator in Hybrid Multi-DOF System with Taking into Account Magnetic Saturation

Abstract:

In this paper, proposes to replace the three-phase SPM for tilting by a single-phase torque actuator of the hybrid multi-DOF system. If a three-phase motor for tilting SPM as acting as instantaneous, low electricity use efficiency, controllability is bad disadvantages. It uses a single-phase torque actuator has a high electrical efficiency compared, good controllability. Thus this will have a great influence on the development and practical use of the system. This study designed a single phase torque actuator in consideration of the magnetic saturation. And compared the SPM and FEM analysis and validation through testing of the production model.

Keywords: hybrid multi-DOF system, SPM, torque actuator, UAV, drone

##### 3372 An Implementation Direct Torque Control Strategy of Induction Machine Using DSPACE TMS 320F2812

Authors: Hamid Chaikhy, Mouna Essaadi, Aziz El Afia

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental implementation of a new direct torque control strategy of induction machine called twelve sectors direct torque control strategy (12_DTC) using DSPACE TMS 320F2812.The aim of this work is to give an experimental performance analysis of 12_DTC in term of torque, currents distortions and stator flux, to validate simulation results obtained in previous works. Downloads 317
##### 3371 A Calibration Device for Force-Torque Sensors

Authors: Nicolay Zarutskiy, Roman Bulkin

Abstract:

The paper deals with the existing methods of force-torque sensor calibration with a number of components from one to six, analyzed their advantages and disadvantages, the necessity of introduction of a calibration method. Calibration method and its constructive realization are also described here. A calibration method allows performing automated force-torque sensor calibration both with selected components of the main vector of forces and moments and with complex loading. Thus, two main advantages of the proposed calibration method are achieved: the automation of the calibration process and universality. Downloads 317
##### 3370 Hardware Co-Simulation Based Based Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive

Abstract:

This paper presents Proportional-Integral (PI) controller to improve the system performance which gives better torque and flux response. In addition, it reduces the undesirable torque ripple. The conventional DTC controller approach for induction machines, based on an improved torque and stator flux estimator, is implemented using Xilinx System Generator (XSG) for MATLAB/Simulink environment through Xilinx blocksets. The design was achieved in VHDL which is based on a MATLAB/Simulink simulation model. The hardware in the loop results are obtained considering the implementation of the proposed model on the Xilinx NEXYS2 Spartan 3E1200 FG320 Kit. Downloads 505
##### 3369 Comparative Study between Direct Torque Control and Sliding Mode Control of Sensorless Induction Machine

Abstract:

In this paper, the Direct Torque Control (DTC) Control and the Sliding Mode Control for induction motor are presented and compared. The performance of the two control schemes is evaluated in terms of torque and current ripple, and transient response to variations of the torque , speed and robustness, trajectory tracking. In order to identify the more suitable solution for any application, both techniques are analyzed mathematically and simulation results are compared which advantages and drawbacks are discussed. Downloads 472
##### 3368 The Effects of Dynamic Training Shoes Exercises on Isokinetic Strength Performance

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determination of the effects of knee and hip isokinetic performance during the training with the special designed roller-shoes. 30 soccer players participated as subjects and these subjects were divided into 3 groups randomly. Training groups were; with the dynamic training shoes group, without the dynamic training shoes group and control group. Subjects were trained speed strength trainings during 8 weeks (3 days a week and 1 hour a day). 6 exercises were focused on the knee flexors and extensors, also hip adductor and abductor muscles were chosen and performed in 3x30secs at each sets. Control group was not paticipated to the training program. Before and after the training programs knee flexor and extensor muscles and hip abductor and adductor muscles’ peak torques were measured by Biodex III isokinetic dynamometer. Isokinetic strength data were analyzed by using SPSS program. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences among the peak torque values for three groups. The results indicated that soccer players’ peak torque values that the group of using the dynamic training shoes, were found higher. Also, hip adductor and abductor peak torques that the group of using the dynamic training shoes, were obtained better than the other groups. In conclusion, the ground friction forces are an important role of increasing strength. With these shoes, using rollers, soccer players were able to move easily because of the friction forces were reduced and created more range of motion. So, exercises were performed faster than before and strength movements in all angles, it ensured that the active state. This was resulted in a better use of force.

Keywords: isokinetic, soccer, dynamic training shoes, training