Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 250

Search results for: digitalization and robotics

250 Unravelling the Knot: Towards a Definition of ‘Digital Labor’

Authors: Marta D'Onofrio

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The debate on the digitalization of the economy has raised questions about how both labor and the regulation of work processes are changing due to the introduction of digital technologies in the productive system. Within the literature, the term ‘digital labor’ is commonly used to identify the impact of digitalization on labor. Despite the wide use of this term, it is still not available an unambiguous definition of it, and this could create confusion in the use of terminology and in the attempts of classification. As a consequence, the purpose of this paper is to provide for a definition and to propose a classification of ‘digital labor’, resorting to the theoretical approach of organizational studies.

Keywords: digital labor, digitalization, data-driven algorithms, big data, organizational studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
249 Robotics Education Continuity from Diaper Age to Doctorate

Authors: Vesa Salminen, Esa Santakallio, Heikki Ruohomaa

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Introduction: The city of Riihimäki has decided robotics on well-being, service and industry as the main focus area on their ecosystem strategy. Robotics is going to be an important part of the everyday life of citizens and present in the working day of the average citizen and employee in the future. For that reason, also education system and education programs on all levels of education from diaper age to doctorate have been directed to fulfill this ecosystem strategy. Goal: The objective of this activity has been to develop education continuity from diaper age to doctorate. The main target of the development activity is to create a unique robotics study entity that enables ongoing robotics studies from preprimary education to university. The aim is also to attract students internationally and supply a skilled workforce to the private sector, capable of the challenges of the future. Methodology: Education instances (high school, second grade, Universities on all levels) in a large area of Tavastia Province have gradually directed their education programs to support this goal. On the other hand, applied research projects have been created to make proof of concept- phases on areal real environment field labs to test technology opportunities and digitalization to change business processes by applying robotic solutions. Customer-oriented applied research projects offer for students in robotics education learning environments to learn new knowledge and content. That is also a learning environment for education programs to adapt and co-evolution. New content and problem-based learning are used in future education modules. Major findings: Joint robotics education entity is being developed in cooperation with the city of Riihimäki (primary education), Syria Education (secondary education) and HAMK (bachelor and master education). The education modules have been developed to enable smooth transitioning from one institute to another. This article is introduced a case study of the change of education of wellbeing education because of digitalization and robotics. Riihimäki's Elderly citizen's service house, Riihikoti, has been working as a field lab for proof-of-concept phases on testing technology opportunities. According to successful case studies also education programs on various levels of education have been changing. Riihikoti has been developed as a physical learning environment for home care and robotics, investigating and developing a variety of digital devices and service opportunities and experimenting and learn the use of equipment. The environment enables the co-development of digital service capabilities in the authentic environment for all interested groups in transdisciplinary cooperation.

Keywords: ecosystem strategy, digitalization and robotics, education continuity, learning environment, transdisciplinary co-operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
248 Heritage 3D Digitalization Combining High Definition Photogrammetry with Metrologic Grade Laser Scans

Authors: Sebastian Oportus, Fabrizio Alvarez

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3D digitalization of heritage objects is widely used nowadays. However, the most advanced 3D scanners in the market that capture topology and texture at the same time, and are specifically made for this purpose, don’t deliver the accuracy that is needed for scientific research. In the last three years, we have developed a method that combines the use of Metrologic grade laser scans, that allows us to work with a high accuracy topology up to 15 times more precise and combine this mesh with a texture obtained from high definition photogrammetry with up to 100 times more pixel concentrations. The result is an accurate digitalization that promotes heritage preservation, scientific study, high detail reproduction, and digital restoration, among others. In Chile, we have already performed 478 digitalizations of high-value heritage pieces and compared the results with up to five different digitalization methods; the results obtained show a considerable better dimensional accuracy and texture resolution. We know the importance of high precision and resolution for academics and museology; that’s why our proposal is to set a worldwide standard using this open source methodology.

Keywords: 3D digitalization, digital heritage, heritage preservation, digital restauration, heritage reproduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
247 Digitalization and High Audit Fees: An Empirical Study Applied to US Firms

Authors: Arpine Maghakyan

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The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the level of industry digitalization and audit fees, especially, the relationship between Big 4 auditor fees and industry digitalization level. On the one hand, automation of business processes decreases internal control weakness and manual mistakes; increases work effectiveness and integrations. On the other hand, it may cause serious misstatements, high business risks or even bankruptcy, typically in early stages of automation. Incomplete automation can bring high audit risk especially if the auditor does not fully understand client’s business automation model. Higher audit risk consequently will cause higher audit fees. Higher audit fees for clients with high automation level are more highlighted in Big 4 auditor’s behavior. Using data of US firms from 2005-2015, we found that industry level digitalization is an interaction for the auditor quality on audit fees. Moreover, the choice of Big4 or non-Big4 is correlated with client’s industry digitalization level. Big4 client, which has higher digitalization level, pays more than one with low digitalization level. In addition, a high-digitalized firm that has Big 4 auditor pays higher audit fee than non-Big 4 client. We use audit fees and firm-specific variables from Audit Analytics and Compustat databases. We analyze collected data by using fixed effects regression methods and Wald tests for sensitivity check. We use fixed effects regression models for firms for determination of the connections between technology use in business and audit fees. We control for firm size, complexity, inherent risk, profitability and auditor quality. We chose fixed effects model as it makes possible to control for variables that have not or cannot be measured.

Keywords: audit fees, auditor quality, digitalization, Big4

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
246 Educational Turn towards Digitalization by Changing Leadership, Networks and Qualification Concepts

Authors: Patricia Girrbach

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Currently, our society is facing a new and incremental upheaval technological revolution named digitalization. In order to face the relating challenges organizations have to be prepared. They need appropriate circumstances in order to cope with current issues concerning digital transformation processes. Nowadays digitalization emerged as top issues for companies and business leaders. In this context, it is a pressure on companies to have a positive, productive digital culture. And indeed, Organizations realize that they need to address this important issue. In this context 87 percent of organizations quote culture and engagement as one of their top challenges in terms of any change process, but especially in terms of the digital turn. Executives can give their company a competitive advantage and attract top talent by having a strong workplace culture that supports digitalization. Many current studies attest that fact. Digital-oriented companies can hire more easily, they have the lowest voluntary turnover rates, deliver better customer service, and are more profitable over the long run. Based on this background it is important to provide companies starting points and practical measurements how to reach this goal. The major findings are that firms need to make sense out of digitalization. In this context, they should focus on internal but also on external stakeholders. Furthermore, they should create certain working conditions and they should support the qualification of employees, e.g. by Virtual Reality. These measurements can create positive experiences in terms of digitalization in order to ensure the support of stuff in terms of the digital turn. Based on several current studies and literature research this paper provides concrete measurements for companies in order to enable the digital turn. Therefore, the aim of this paper is providing possible practical starting points which support both the education of employees by digitalization as well as the digital turn itself within the organization.

Keywords: digitalization, industry 4.0, education 4.0, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
245 Scenarios of Digitalization and Energy Efficiency in the Building Sector in Brazil: 2050 Horizon

Authors: Maria Fatima Almeida, Rodrigo Calili, George Soares, João Krause, Myrthes Marcele Dos Santos, Anna Carolina Suzano E. Silva, Marcos Alexandre Da

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In Brazil, the building sector accounts for 1/6 of energy consumption and 50% of electricity consumption. A complex sector with several driving actors plays an essential role in the country's economy. Currently, the digitalization readiness in this sector is still low, mainly due to the high investment costs and the difficulty of estimating the benefits of digital technologies in buildings. Nevertheless, the potential contribution of digitalization for increasing energy efficiency in the building sector in Brazil has been pointed out as relevant in the political and sectoral contexts, both in the medium and long-term horizons. To contribute to the debate on the possible evolving trajectories of digitalization in the building sector in Brazil and to subsidize the formulation or revision of current public policies and managerial decisions, three future scenarios were created to anticipate the potential energy efficiency in the building sector in Brazil due to digitalization by 2050. This work aims to present these scenarios as a basis to foresight the potential energy efficiency in this sector, according to different digitalization paces - slow, moderate, or fast in the 2050 horizon. A methodological approach was proposed to create alternative prospective scenarios, combining the Global Business Network (GBN) and the Laboratory for Investigation in Prospective Strategy and Organisation (LIPSOR) methods. This approach consists of seven steps: (i) definition of the question to be foresighted and time horizon to be considered (2050); (ii) definition and classification of a set of key variables, using the prospective structural analysis; (iii) identification of the main actors with an active role in the digital and energy spheres; (iv) characterization of the current situation (2021) and identification of main uncertainties that were considered critical in the development of alternative future scenarios; (v) scanning possible futures using morphological analysis; (vi) selection and description of the most likely scenarios; (vii) foresighting the potential energy efficiency in each of the three scenarios, namely slow digitalization; moderate digitalization, and fast digitalization. Each scenario begins with a core logic and then encompasses potentially related elements, including potential energy efficiency. Then, the first scenario refers to digitalization at a slow pace, with induction by the government limited to public buildings. In the second scenario, digitalization is implemented at a moderate pace, induced by the government in public, commercial, and service buildings, through regulation integrating digitalization and energy efficiency mechanisms. Finally, in the third scenario, digitalization in the building sector is implemented at a fast pace in the country and is strongly induced by the government, but with broad participation of private investments and accelerated adoption of digital technologies. As a result of the slow pace of digitalization in the sector, the potential for energy efficiency stands at levels below 10% of the total of 161TWh by 2050. In the moderate digitalization scenario, the potential reaches 20 to 30% of the total 161TWh by 2050. Furthermore, in the rapid digitalization scenario, it will reach 30 to 40% of the total 161TWh by 2050.

Keywords: building digitalization, energy efficiency, scenario building, prospective structural analysis, morphological analysis

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244 Research Action Fields at the Nexus of Digital Transformation and Supply Chain Management: Findings from Practitioner Focus Group Workshops

Authors: Brandtner Patrick, Staberhofer Franz

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Logistics and Supply Chain Management are of crucial importance for organisational success. In the era of Digitalization, several implications and improvement potentials for these domains arise, which at the same time could lead to decreased competitiveness and could endanger long-term company success if ignored or neglected. However, empirical research on the issue of Digitalization and benefits purported to it by practitioners is scarce and mainly focused on single technologies or separate, isolated Supply Chain blocks as e.g. distribution logistics or procurement only. The current paper applies a holistic focus group approach to elaborate practitioner use cases at the nexus of the concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Digitalization. In the course of three focus group workshops with over 45 participants from more than 20 organisations, a comprehensive set of benefit entitlements and areas for improvement in terms of applying digitalization to SCM is developed. The main results of the paper indicate the relevance of Digitalization being realized in practice. In the form of seventeen concrete research action fields, the benefit entitlements are aggregated and transformed into potential starting points for future research projects in this area. The main contribution of this paper is an empirically grounded basis for future research projects and an overview of actual research action fields from practitioners’ point of view.

Keywords: digital supply chain, digital transformation, supply chain management, value networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
243 Theorizing Digital Transformation, Digitization and Digitalization in Africa Emerging Research in Digital Business: A Critical Review of the Current Scholarship

Authors: Ayanda Magida

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The paper aims to provide a critical review of the current state-of-the-art literature on emerging digital business theories. They are specifically focusing on the emergent theories on digital transformation, digitization, and digitalization and their importance in the global south. Digital business is an emergent field that cuts across the different existing disciplines. The paper is threefold- to provide the conceptual and theoretical definition of the DT, digitization and digitization. There is a growing need to provide some of the differences between digitalization, digitization and digital transformation from a theoretical and conceptual basis. These tend to be confused and often use interchangeably the second aim is to focus on the emerging theories on digital transformation and digital business. Finally, the paper provides some critical review of the importance of scholarship in the field from the global south. The systematic review of the literature was conducted through the different research databases to provide some of the major theories in the field of digital business and critically argue for the global south stance. Much of the research on the development and adoption of digital technologies, specifically digital transformation, has been done in the west and developed countries. There is thus a dearth of research conducted in developing countries and the global south.

Keywords: digital transformation, digitization, digital business, digitalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
242 Arts and Cultural Heritage Digitalization in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

Authors: Okechukwu Uzoma Nkwocha, Edward Uche Omeire

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Information and communication technologies (ICT) undeniably, have expanded the sphere of arts and creativity. It proves to be an important tool for production, preservation, sharing and utilization of arts and cultural heritage. While art and heritage institutions around the globe are increasingly utilizing ICT for the promotion and sharing of their collections, the story seems different in most part of Africa. In this paper, we will examine the prospects and problems of utilizing ICT in promotion, preservation and sharing of arts and cultural heritage.

Keywords: arts, cultural heritage, digitalization, ICT

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
241 Drivers of Digital Product Innovation in Firms: An Empirical Study of Technological, Organizational, and Environmental Factors

Authors: Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Sarah E. Stief, Markus Voeth, Sarah Gundlach

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With digitalization increasingly changing the rules of competition, firms face the need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies in order to remain competitive. Firms can choose from various possibilities to integrate digital technologies including the option to embed digital technologies aiming to innovate products or to develop digital products. However, the question of which specific factors influence a firm’s decision to pursue digital product innovation remains unanswered in research. By adopting the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE)-framework we have designed a qualitative exploratory study including eleven German practitioners to investigate relevant contingency factors. Our results indicate that the most critical factors for a company’s decision to pursue digital product innovation can be found in the technological and environmental dimensions, namely customers, competitive pressure, technological change, as well as digitalization fit. 

Keywords: digital innovation, digitalization, product innovation, TOE-framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
240 Digital Design and Practice of The Problem Based Learning in College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmed Elzainy, Abir El Sadik, Waleed Al Abdulmonem, Ahmad Alamro, Homaidan Al-Homaidan

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Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational modality which stimulates critical and creative thinking. PBL has been practiced in the college of medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, since the 2002s with offline face to face activities. Therefore, crucial technological changes in paperless work were needed. The aim of the present study was to design and implement the digitalization of the PBL activities and to evaluate its impact on students' and tutors’ performance. This approach promoted the involvement of all stakeholders after their awareness of the techniques of using online tools. IT support, learning resources facilities, and required multimedia were prepared. Students’ and staff perception surveys reflected their satisfaction with these remarkable changes. The students were interested in the new digitalized materials and educational design, which facilitated the conduction of PBL sessions and provided sufficient time for discussion and peer sharing of knowledge. It enhanced the tutors for supervision and tracking students’ activities on the Learning Management System. It could be concluded that introducing of digitalization of the PBL activities promoted the students’ performance, engagement and enabled a better evaluation of PBL materials and getting prompt students as well as staff feedback. These positive findings encouraged the college to implement the digitalization approach in other educational activities, such as Team-Based Learning, as an additional opportunity for further development.

Keywords: multimedia in PBL, online PBL, problem-based learning, PBL digitalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
239 The Digitalization of Occupational Health and Safety Training: A Fourth Industrial Revolution Perspective

Authors: Deonie Botha

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Digital transformation and the digitization of occupational health and safety training have grown exponentially due to a variety of contributing factors. The literature suggests that digitalization has numerous benefits but also has associated challenges. The aim of the paper is to develop an understanding of both the perceived benefits and challenges of digitalization in an occupational health and safety context in an effort to design and develop e-learning interventions that will optimize the benefits of digitalization and address the associated challenges. The paper proposes, deliberate and tests the design principles of an e-learning intervention to ensure alignment with the requirements of a digitally transformed environment. The results of the research are based on a literature review regarding the requirements and effect of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on learning and e-learning in particular. The findings of the literature review are enhanced with empirical research in the form of a case study conducted in an organization that designs and develops e-learning content in the occupational health and safety industry. The primary findings of the research indicated that: (i) The requirements of learners and organizations in respect of e-learning are different than previously (i.e., a pre-Fourth Industrial Revolution related work setting). (ii) The design principles of an e-learning intervention need to be aligned with the entire value chain of the organization. (iii) Digital twins support and enhance the design and development of e-learning. (iv)Learning should incorporate a multitude of sensory experiences and should not only be based on visual stimulation. (v) Data that are generated as a result of e-learning interventions should be incorporated into big data streams to be analyzed and to become actionable. It is therefore concluded that there is general consensus on the requirements that e-learning interventions need to adhere to in a digitally transformed occupational health and safety work environment. The challenge remains for organizations to incorporate data generated as a result of e-learning interventions into the digital ecosystem of the organization.

Keywords: digitalization, training, fourth industrial revolution, big data

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
238 Understanding Tourism Innovation through Fuzzy Measures

Authors: Marcella De Filippo, Delio Colangelo, Luca Farnia

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In recent decades, the hyper-competition of tourism scenario has implicated the maturity of many businesses, attributing a central role to innovative processes and their dissemination in the economy of company management. At the same time, it has defined the need for monitoring the application of innovations, in order to govern and improve the performance of companies and destinations. The study aims to analyze and define the innovation in the tourism sector. The research actions have concerned, on the one hand, some in-depth interviews with experts, identifying innovation in terms of process and product, digitalization, sustainability policies and, on the other hand, to evaluate the interaction between these factors, in terms of substitutability and complementarity in management scenarios, in order to identify which one is essential to be competitive in the global scenario. Fuzzy measures and Choquet integral were used to elicit Experts’ preferences. This method allows not only to evaluate the relative importance of each pillar, but also and more interestingly, the level of interaction, ranging from complementarity to substitutability, between pairs of factors. The results of the survey are the following: in terms of Shapley values, Experts assert that Innovation is the most important factor (32.32), followed by digitalization (31.86), Network (20.57) and Sustainability (15.25). In terms of Interaction indices, given the low degree of consensus among experts, the interaction between couples of criteria on average could be ignored; however, it is worth to note that the factors innovations and digitalization are those in which experts express the highest degree of interaction. However for some of them, these factors have a moderate level of complementarity (with a pick of 57.14), and others consider them moderately substitutes (with a pick of -39.58). Another example, although outlier is the interaction between network and digitalization, in which an expert consider them markedly substitutes (-77.08).

Keywords: innovation, business model, tourism, fuzzy

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
237 Digitalization of Functional Safety - Increasing Productivity while Reducing Risks

Authors: Michael Scott, Phil Jarrell

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Digitalization seems to be everywhere these days. So if one was to digitalize Functional Safety, what would that require: • Ability to directly use data from intelligent P&IDs / process design in a PHA / LOPA • Ability to directly use data from intelligent P&IDs in the SIS Design to support SIL Verification Calculations, SRS, C&Es, Functional Test Plans • Ability to create Unit Operation / SIF Libraries to radically reduce engineering manhours while ensuring consistency and improving quality of SIS designs • Ability to link data directly from a PHA / LOPA to SIS Designs • Ability to leverage reliability models and SRS details from SIS Designs to automatically program the Safety PLC • Ability to leverage SIS Test Plans to automatically create Safety PLC application logic Test Plans for a virtual FAT • Ability to tie real-time data from Process Historians / CMMS to assumptions in the PHA / LOPA and SIS Designs to generate leading indicators on protection layer health • Ability to flag SIS bad actors for proactive corrective actions prior to a near miss or loss of containment event What if I told you all of this was available today? This paper will highlight how the digital revolution has revolutionized the way Safety Instrumented Systems are designed, configured, operated and maintained.

Keywords: IEC 61511, safety instrumented systems, functional safety, digitalization, IIoT

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
236 STEM Curriculum Development Using Robotics with K-12 Students in Brazil

Authors: Flavio Campos

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This paper describes an implementation of a STEM curriculum program using robotics as a technological resource at a private school in Brazil. Emphasized the pedagogic and didactic aspects and brings a discussion about STEM curriculum and the perspective of using robotics and the relation between curriculum, science and technologies into the learning process. The results indicate that STEM curriculum integration with robotics as a technological resource in K-12 students learning process has complex aspects, such as relation between time/space, the development of educators and the relation between robotics and other subjects. Therefore, the comprehension of these aspects could indicate some steps that we should consider when integrating STEM basis and robotics into curriculum, which can improve education for science and technology significantly.

Keywords: STEM curriculum, educational robotics, constructionist approach, education and technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
235 Implication of E-Robot Kit in Kuwait’s Robotics Technology Learning and Innovation

Authors: Murtaza Hassan Sheikh, Ahmed A. A. AlSaleh, Naser H. N. Jasem

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Kuwait has not yet made its mark in the world of technology and research. Therefore, advancements have been made to fill in this gap. Since Robotics covers a wide variety of fields and helps innovation, efforts have been made to promote its education. Despite of the efforts made in Kuwait, robotics education is still on hold. The paper discusses the issues and obstacles in the implementation of robotics education in Kuwait and how a robotics kit “E-Robot” is making an impact in the Kuwait’s future education and innovation. Problems such as robotics competitions rather than education, complexity of robot programming and lack of organized open source platform are being addressed by the introduction of the E-Robot Kit in Kuwait. Due to its success since 2012 a total of 15 schools have accepted the Kit as a core subject, with 200 teaching it as an extracurricular activity.

Keywords: robotics education, Kuwait's education, e-robot kit, research and development, innovation and creativity

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
234 Digitization and Economic Growth in Africa: The Role of Financial Sector Development

Authors: Abdul Ganiyu Iddrisu, Bei Chen

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Digitization is the process of transforming analog material into digital form, especially for storage and use in a computer. Significant development of information and communication technology (ICT) over the past years has encouraged many researchers to investigate its contribution to promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. Yet the compelling empirical evidence on the effects of digitization on economic growth remains weak, particularly in Africa. This is because extant studies that explicitly evaluate digitization and economic growth nexus are mostly reports and desk reviews. This points out an empirical knowledge gap in the literature. Hypothetically, digitization influences financial sector development which in turn influences economic growth. Digitization has changed the financial sector and its operating environment. Obstacles to access to financing, for instance, physical distance, minimum balance requirements, and low-income flows, among others can be circumvented. Savings have increased, micro-savers have opened bank accounts, and banks are now able to price short-term loans. This has the potential to develop the financial sector. However, empirical evidence on the digitization-financial development nexus is dearth. On the other hand, a number of studies maintained that financial sector development greatly influences growth of economies. We, therefore, argue that financial sector development is one of the transmission mechanisms through which digitization affects economic growth. Employing macro-country-level data from African countries and using fixed effects, random effects and Hausman-Taylor estimation approaches, this paper contributes to the literature by analysing economic growth in Africa, focusing on the role of digitization and financial sector development. First, we assess how digitization influences financial sector development in Africa. From an economic policy perspective, it is important to identify digitization determinants of financial sector development so that action can be taken to reduce the economic shocks associated with financial sector distortions. This nexus is rarely examined empirically in the literature. Secondly, we examine the effect of domestic credit to the private sector and stock market capitalization as a percentage of GDP as used to proxy for financial sector development on economic growth. Digitization is represented by the volume of digital/ICT equipment imported and GDP growth is used to proxy economic growth. Finally, we examine the effect of digitization on economic growth in the light of financial sector development. The following key results were found; first, digitalization propels financial sector development in Africa. Second, financial sector development enhances economic growth. Finally, contrary to our expectation, the results also indicate that digitalization conditioned on financial sector development tends to reduce economic growth in Africa. However, results of the net effects suggest that digitalization, overall, improve economic growth in Africa. We, therefore, conclude that, digitalization in Africa does not only develop the financial sector but unconditionally contributes the growth of the continent’s economies.

Keywords: digitalization, financial sector development, Africa, economic growth

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233 Educational Robotics with Easy Implementation and Low Cost

Authors: Maria R. A. R. Moreira, Francisco R. O. Da Silva, André O. A. Fontenele, Érick A. Ribeiro

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This article deals with the influence of technology in education showing educational robotics as pedagogical method of solution for knowledge building. We are proposing the development and implementation of four robot models that can be used for teaching purposes involving the areas of mechatronics, mechanics, electronics and computing, making it efficient for learning other sciences and theories. One of the main reasons for application of the developed educational kits is its low cost, allowing its applicability to a greater number of educational institutions. The technology will add to education dissemination of knowledge by means of experiments in such a way that the pedagogical robotics promotes understanding, practice, solution and criticism about classroom challenges. We also present the relationship between education, science, technology and society through educational robotics, treated as an incentive to technological careers.

Keywords: education, mecatronics, robotics, technology

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232 Future Student Service Organization - Road Map

Authors: Michael Postert

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The Studierendenwerke are legally independent public foundations with a one-century-old history in the German university community. Like the French CROUS, the Italian ANDISU or the Japanese University COOPs, they are set-up to serve the university and student needs. They are legally independent of their client institutions and student stakeholders. Initially set up as a support organization by students for students they have evolved to public business institutions with an annual turnover of EUR 100 Million or more. They are usually engaged in business areas such as student housing, restaurants, student grants, governmental scholarships and counselling services. These institutions are facing major changes over the next few years. The COVID19 pandemic and its impact on the educational system will unavoidably have an immense impact on the German student service organizations (Studierendenwerke). Issues such as digitalization and sustainability will have a huge impact on how the future business model of the Studierendenwerke will look like. The paper will discuss the aims and challenges of this development that started already before the COVID19 pandemic. In light of the way the educational system of the future will look like, the Studierendenwerke have to develop as well.

Keywords: business model, digitalization, education, student services

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
231 The Transformation of the Workplace through Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Automation

Authors: Javed Mohammed

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Robotics is the fastest growing industry in the world, poised to become the largest in the next decade. The use of robots requires design, application and implementation of the appropriate safety controls in order to avoid creating hazards to production personnel, programmers, maintenance specialists and systems engineers. The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) and related technologies in the workplace are dramatically changing the employment landscape. The impact of robotics technology on workplace policy is dramatic and complex. The robotics revolution calls for a comprehensive approach to job training, and retraining, to mitigate worker displacement and enable workers to benefit from the new jobs that the technology will generate. It calls for a thoughtful, forward-thinking approach by lawmakers, regulators and employers to prepare for the oncoming transformation of the workplace and workforce.

Keywords: design, artificial intelligence, programmers, system engineers, robotics, transformation

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230 Past, Present, and Future of Robotics Technology in Construction Industry (Literature Review)

Authors: Samira Haghbin, Behnam Daryayelaal, Zeinab Amiri

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As a result of rapid progress of technology in various industries, the only way to survive in a competitive market of business is to update one's situation along with the said developments. During recent decades, Robotics and automation of the construction operation has emerged as one of the important technologies grabbing the attention of various industries and specially the construction industry. Because of the coming labor shortage of the aging society in the near future, robots will be used in construction fields more than ever. By predicting the condition of Robotics in world's future construction industry, we can make necessary preparations to face with needs imposed by the time and stay ahead. This article takes a library study approach and presents a literature review of existing studies with an aim to investigate the use of robotics in past, present and future of construction industry and make predictions on its' growth and change process. Therefore, to make familiar with this kind of technology and its' requirements in the construction industry, the status of Robotics in construction industry of different countries of the world has been studied and necessary context for its' future progress is expressed. It is hoped that identifying needs and required contexts will facilitate further development of advanced technologies such as robotics industry and lead to more preparation for future.

Keywords: future of robotics, construction industry, construction automation, trends of automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
229 Interactive Systems in B2B Marketing: Perceptions of Sales Configurator Use

Authors: Tommi Mahlamaki, Mika Ojala

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Digitalization is changing our lives in many ways. As consumers, we are accustomed using different online interactive sales systems. However, while many online selling sites offer systems that have evolved from simple selling functions, the change has not been as rapid in business-to-business (B2B) markets. This is because many B2B companies rely on personal sales and personal communication. The main objective of this research is to clarify perceptions towards digital interactive sales systems and, more specifically, sales configurators. It also aims to identify trends towards the use of sales configurators. To reach these objectives, an online questionnaire was created that targets Finnish B2B distributors who are, by definition, part of B2B markets. The questionnaire was sent to 340 distributors, and it was returned by 150 respondents. The results showed that 82% of respondents had heard about sales configurators, and 64% had used them. The results also showed that 48% of respondents felt that the use of sales configurators would increase in the future, while only 2% felt they would be used less. The future use of sales configurators was not seen as affecting the level of personal sales. In light of the results, we recommend that B2B companies create marketing strategies that integrate and complement traditional sales processes with digital interactive systems.

Keywords: digitalization, interactive systems, marketing, sales process

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228 A Systematic Review on Assistive Technology Robotics in Lower and Middle-Income Settings

Authors: Sumudu Sameera Perera Kimmantudawage, Chapal Khasnabis

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Technology is changing at a rapid rate, with innovations in robotics being hailed and tested in countries such as Japan, the United States and Australia, however the conversation in a public health context is stagnant. While obvious barriers to robotics use in low and middle-income countries and regions exist, the avoidance of attempting to address these regions of the world may potentially lead to an ever-increasing divide between those of high income countries and those of less. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the number of projects involving research, development and testing of robotics considered low and middle-income regions. Major findings indicate that an overwhelmingly significant number of projects failed to consider low and middle-income countries or regions. These results are unsurprising however alarming, as bridging the divide is an important step forward in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. It is hoped that this research would spawn future robotics research that focusses on lower and middle-income regions.

Keywords: assistive technology, health equality, robotics, socioeconomic

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
227 Robotics Technology Supported Pedagogic Models in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics Education

Authors: Sereen Itani

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As the world aspires for technological innovation, Innovative Robotics Technology-Supported Pedagogic Models in STEAM Education (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics) are critical in our global education system to build and enhance the next generation 21st century skills. Thus, diverse international schools endeavor in attempts to construct an integrated robotics and technology enhanced curriculum based on interdisciplinary subjects. Accordingly, it is vital that the globe remains resilient in STEAM fields by equipping the future learners and educators with Innovative Technology Experiences through robotics to support such fields. A variety of advanced teaching methods is employed to learn about Robotics Technology-integrated pedagogic models. Therefore, it is only when STEAM and innovations in Robotic Technology becomes integrated with real-world applications that transformational learning can occur. Robotics STEAM education implementation faces major challenges globally. Moreover, STEAM skills and concepts are communicated in separation from the real world. Instilling the passion for robotics and STEAM subjects and educators’ preparation could lead to the students’ majoring in such fields by acquiring enough knowledge to make vital contributions to the global STEAM industries. Thus, this necessitates the establishment of Pedagogic models such as Innovative Robotics Technologies to enhance STEAM education and develop students’ 21st-century skills. Moreover, an ICT innovative supported robotics classroom will help educators empower and assess students academically. Globally, the Robotics Design System and platforms are developing in schools and university labs creating a suitable environment for the robotics cross-discipline STEAM learning. Accordingly, the research aims at raising awareness about the importance of robotics design systems and methodologies of effective employment of robotics innovative technology-supported pedagogic models to enhance and develop (STEAM) education globally and enhance the next generation 21st century skills.

Keywords: education, robotics, STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics Education), challenges

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226 Educational Experiences in Engineering in the COVID Era and Their Comparative Analysis, Spain, March to June 2020

Authors: Borja Bordel, Ramón Alcarria, Marina Pérez

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In March 2020, in Spain, a sanitary and unexpected crisis caused by COVID-19 was declared. All of a sudden, all degrees, classes and evaluation tests and projects had to be transformed into online activities. However, the chaotic situation generated by a complex operation like that, executed without any well-established procedure, led to very different experiences and, finally, results. In this paper, we are describing three experiences in two different Universities in Madrid. On the one hand, the Technical University of Madrid, a public university with little experience in online education. On the other hand, Alfonso X el Sabio University, a private university with more than five years of experience in online teaching. All analyzed subjects were related to computer engineering. Professors and students answered a survey and personal interviews were also carried out. Besides, the professors’ workload and the students’ academic results were also compared. From the comparative analysis of all these experiences, we are extracting the most successful strategies, methodologies, and activities. The recommendations in this paper will be useful for courses during the next months when the sanitary situation is still affecting an educational organization. While, at the same time, they will be considered as input for the upcoming digitalization process of higher education.

Keywords: educational experience, online education, higher education digitalization, COVID, Spain

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225 Digital Transformation of Lean Production: Systematic Approach for the Determination of Digitally Pervasive Value Chains

Authors: Peter Burggräf, Matthias Dannapfel, Hanno Voet, Patrick-Benjamin Bök, Jérôme Uelpenich, Julian Hoppe

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The increasing digitalization of value chains can help companies to handle rising complexity in their processes and thereby reduce the steadily increasing planning and control effort in order to raise performance limits. Due to technological advances, companies face the challenge of smart value chains for the purpose of improvements in productivity, handling the increasing time and cost pressure and the need of individualized production. Therefore, companies need to ensure quick and flexible decisions to create self-optimizing processes and, consequently, to make their production more efficient. Lean production, as the most commonly used paradigm for complexity reduction, reaches its limits when it comes to variant flexible production and constantly changing market and environmental conditions. To lift performance limits, which are inbuilt in current value chains, new methods and tools must be applied. Digitalization provides the potential to derive these new methods and tools. However, companies lack the experience to harmonize different digital technologies. There is no practicable framework, which instructs the transformation of current value chains into digital pervasive value chains. Current research shows that a connection between lean production and digitalization exists. This link is based on factors such as people, technology and organization. In this paper, the introduced method for the determination of digitally pervasive value chains takes the factors people, technology and organization into account and extends existing approaches by a new dimension. It is the first systematic approach for the digital transformation of lean production and consists of four steps: The first step of ‘target definition’ describes the target situation and defines the depth of the analysis with regards to the inspection area and the level of detail. The second step of ‘analysis of the value chain’ verifies the lean-ability of processes and lies in a special focus on the integration capacity of digital technologies in order to raise the limits of lean production. Furthermore, the ‘digital evaluation process’ ensures the usefulness of digital adaptions regarding their practicability and their integrability into the existing production system. Finally, the method defines actions to be performed based on the evaluation process and in accordance with the target situation. As a result, the validation and optimization of the proposed method in a German company from the electronics industry shows that the digital transformation of current value chains based on lean production achieves a raise of their inbuilt performance limits.

Keywords: digitalization, digital transformation, Industrie 4.0, lean production, value chain

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224 A NoSQL Based Approach for Real-Time Managing of Robotics's Data

Authors: Gueidi Afef, Gharsellaoui Hamza, Ben Ahmed Samir

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This paper deals with the secret of the continual progression data that new data management solutions have been emerged: The NoSQL databases. They crossed several areas like personalization, profile management, big data in real-time, content management, catalog, view of customers, mobile applications, internet of things, digital communication and fraud detection. Nowadays, these database management systems are increasing. These systems store data very well and with the trend of big data, a new challenge’s store demands new structures and methods for managing enterprise data. The new intelligent machine in the e-learning sector, thrives on more data, so smart machines can learn more and faster. The robotics are our use case to focus on our test. The implementation of NoSQL for Robotics wrestle all the data they acquire into usable form because with the ordinary type of robotics; we are facing very big limits to manage and find the exact information in real-time. Our original proposed approach was demonstrated by experimental studies and running example used as a use case.

Keywords: NoSQL databases, database management systems, robotics, big data

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223 Managing Business Processes in the Age of Digital Transformation: A Literature Review

Authors: Ana-Marija Stjepić, Dalia Suša Vugec

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Today, digital transformation is one of the leading topics that occupy the attention of scientific circles and business experts. Organizational success is most often reflected through the successful managing of business processes. Given the growing market for digital innovations and its ever-increasing impact on business, organizations need to be prepared for organizational changes that come with the digital era. In order to maintain their competitive advantage in the global market, organizations must adapt their processes to new digitalization conditions. The main goal of this study is to point out the link between the digital transformation and the business process management concept. Therefore, in order to contribute to the scientific field that explores the potential relation between business process management concept and digital transformation, a literature review has been conducted. Papers have been searched within the Business Process Management Journal by keywords related to the term digital transformation. Selected papers have been analyzed according to the topic, type of publication, year of publication, keywords, etc. The results reveal a growing number of papers published on the topic of digital transformation to the Business Process Management Journal, but the lack of case studies. This paper contributes to the extension of academic literature in this important, yet insufficiently researched, scientific field that creates the bond between two strong concepts of digital transformation and business process management.

Keywords: business process management, digital transformation, digitalization, process change

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222 Digital Transformation and Digitalization of Public Administration

Authors: Govind Kumar

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The concept of ‘e-governance’ that was brought about by the new wave of reforms, namely ‘LPG’ in the early 1990s, has been enabling governments across the globe to digitally transform themselves. Digital transformation is leading the governments with qualitative decisions, optimization in rational use of resources, facilitation of cost-benefit analyses, and elimination of redundancy and corruption with the help of ICT-based applications interface. ICT-based applications/technologies have enormous potential for impacting positive change in the social lives of the global citizenry. Supercomputers test and analyze millions of drug molecules for developing candidate vaccines to combat the global pandemic. Further, e-commerce portals help distribute and supply household items and medicines, while videoconferencing tools provide a visual interface between the clients and hosts. Besides, crop yields are being maximized with the help of drones and machine learning, whereas satellite data, artificial intelligence, and cloud computing help governments with the detection of illegal mining, tackling deforestation, and managing freshwater resources. Such e-applications have the potential to take governance an extra mile by achieving 5 Es (effective, efficient, easy, empower, and equity) of e-governance and six Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle, recover, redesign and remanufacture) of sustainable development. If such digital transformation gains traction within the government framework, it will replace the traditional administration with the digitalization of public administration. On the other hand, it has brought in a new set of challenges, like the digital divide, e-illiteracy, technological divide, etc., and problems like handling e-waste, technological obsolescence, cyber terrorism, e-fraud, hacking, phishing, etc. before the governments. Therefore, it would be essential to bring in a rightful mixture of technological and humanistic interventions for addressing the above issues. This is on account of the reason that technology lacks an emotional quotient, and the administration does not work like technology. Both are self-effacing unless a blend of technology and a humane face are brought in into the administration. The paper will empirically analyze the significance of the technological framework of digital transformation within the government set up for the digitalization of public administration on the basis of the synthesis of two case studies undertaken from two diverse fields of administration and present a future framework of the study.

Keywords: digital transformation, electronic governance, public administration, knowledge framework

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221 Change of Education Business in the Age of 5G

Authors: Heikki Ruohomaa, Vesa Salminen

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Regions are facing huge competition to attract companies, businesses, inhabitants, students, etc. This way to improve living and business environment, which is rapidly changing due to digitalization. On the other hand, from the industry's point of view, the availability of a skilled labor force and an innovative environment are crucial factors. In this context, qualified staff has been seen to utilize the opportunities of digitalization and respond to the needs of future skills. World Manufacturing Forum has stated in the year 2019- report that in next five years, 40% of workers have to change their core competencies. Through digital transformation, new technologies like cloud, mobile, big data, 5G- infrastructure, platform- technology, data- analysis, and social networks with increasing intelligence and automation, enterprises can capitalize on new opportunities and optimize existing operations to achieve significant business improvement. Digitalization will be an important part of the everyday life of citizens and present in the working day of the average citizen and employee in the future. For that reason, the education system and education programs on all levels of education from diaper age to doctorate have been directed to fulfill this ecosystem strategy. Goal: The Fourth Industrial Revolution will bring unprecedented change to societies, education organizations and business environments. This article aims to identify how education, education content, the way education has proceeded, and overall whole the education business is changing. Most important is how we should respond to this inevitable co- evolution. Methodology: The study aims to verify how the learning process is boosted by new digital content, new learning software and tools, and customer-oriented learning environments. The change of education programs and individual education modules can be supported by applied research projects. You can use them in making proof- of- the concept of new technology, new ways to teach and train, and through the experiences gathered change education content, way to educate and finally education business as a whole. Major findings: Applied research projects can prove the concept- phases on real environment field labs to test technology opportunities and new tools for training purposes. Customer-oriented applied research projects are also excellent for students to make assignments and use new knowledge and content and teachers to test new tools and create new ways to educate. New content and problem-based learning are used in future education modules. This article introduces some case study experiences on customer-oriented digital transformation projects and how gathered knowledge on new digital content and a new way to educate has influenced education. The case study is related to experiences of research projects, customer-oriented field labs/learning environments and education programs of Häme University of Applied Sciences.

Keywords: education process, digitalization content, digital tools for education, learning environments, transdisciplinary co-operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 104