Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Vesa Salminen

12 Robotics Education Continuity from Diaper Age to Doctorate

Authors: Vesa Salminen, Esa Santakallio, Heikki Ruohomaa


Introduction: The city of Riihimäki has decided robotics on well-being, service and industry as the main focus area on their ecosystem strategy. Robotics is going to be an important part of the everyday life of citizens and present in the working day of the average citizen and employee in the future. For that reason, also education system and education programs on all levels of education from diaper age to doctorate have been directed to fulfill this ecosystem strategy. Goal: The objective of this activity has been to develop education continuity from diaper age to doctorate. The main target of the development activity is to create a unique robotics study entity that enables ongoing robotics studies from preprimary education to university. The aim is also to attract students internationally and supply a skilled workforce to the private sector, capable of the challenges of the future. Methodology: Education instances (high school, second grade, Universities on all levels) in a large area of Tavastia Province have gradually directed their education programs to support this goal. On the other hand, applied research projects have been created to make proof of concept- phases on areal real environment field labs to test technology opportunities and digitalization to change business processes by applying robotic solutions. Customer-oriented applied research projects offer for students in robotics education learning environments to learn new knowledge and content. That is also a learning environment for education programs to adapt and co-evolution. New content and problem-based learning are used in future education modules. Major findings: Joint robotics education entity is being developed in cooperation with the city of Riihimäki (primary education), Syria Education (secondary education) and HAMK (bachelor and master education). The education modules have been developed to enable smooth transitioning from one institute to another. This article is introduced a case study of the change of education of wellbeing education because of digitalization and robotics. Riihimäki's Elderly citizen's service house, Riihikoti, has been working as a field lab for proof-of-concept phases on testing technology opportunities. According to successful case studies also education programs on various levels of education have been changing. Riihikoti has been developed as a physical learning environment for home care and robotics, investigating and developing a variety of digital devices and service opportunities and experimenting and learn the use of equipment. The environment enables the co-development of digital service capabilities in the authentic environment for all interested groups in transdisciplinary cooperation.

Keywords: ecosystem strategy, digitalization and robotics, education continuity, learning environment, transdisciplinary co-operation

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11 Change of Education Business in the Age of 5G

Authors: Heikki Ruohomaa, Vesa Salminen


Regions are facing huge competition to attract companies, businesses, inhabitants, students, etc. This way to improve living and business environment, which is rapidly changing due to digitalization. On the other hand, from the industry's point of view, the availability of a skilled labor force and an innovative environment are crucial factors. In this context, qualified staff has been seen to utilize the opportunities of digitalization and respond to the needs of future skills. World Manufacturing Forum has stated in the year 2019- report that in next five years, 40% of workers have to change their core competencies. Through digital transformation, new technologies like cloud, mobile, big data, 5G- infrastructure, platform- technology, data- analysis, and social networks with increasing intelligence and automation, enterprises can capitalize on new opportunities and optimize existing operations to achieve significant business improvement. Digitalization will be an important part of the everyday life of citizens and present in the working day of the average citizen and employee in the future. For that reason, the education system and education programs on all levels of education from diaper age to doctorate have been directed to fulfill this ecosystem strategy. Goal: The Fourth Industrial Revolution will bring unprecedented change to societies, education organizations and business environments. This article aims to identify how education, education content, the way education has proceeded, and overall whole the education business is changing. Most important is how we should respond to this inevitable co- evolution. Methodology: The study aims to verify how the learning process is boosted by new digital content, new learning software and tools, and customer-oriented learning environments. The change of education programs and individual education modules can be supported by applied research projects. You can use them in making proof- of- the concept of new technology, new ways to teach and train, and through the experiences gathered change education content, way to educate and finally education business as a whole. Major findings: Applied research projects can prove the concept- phases on real environment field labs to test technology opportunities and new tools for training purposes. Customer-oriented applied research projects are also excellent for students to make assignments and use new knowledge and content and teachers to test new tools and create new ways to educate. New content and problem-based learning are used in future education modules. This article introduces some case study experiences on customer-oriented digital transformation projects and how gathered knowledge on new digital content and a new way to educate has influenced education. The case study is related to experiences of research projects, customer-oriented field labs/learning environments and education programs of Häme University of Applied Sciences.

Keywords: education process, digitalization content, digital tools for education, learning environments, transdisciplinary co-operation

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10 In Search of Bauman’s Moral Impulse in Shadow Factories of China

Authors: Akram Hatami, Naser Firoozi, Vesa Puhakka


Ethics and responsibility are rapidly becoming a distinguishing feature of organizations. In this paper, we analyze ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. We engage ourselves with Bauman’s moral impulse perspective because his idea can contextualize ethics and responsibility. Moral impulse is a feeling of a selfless, infinite and unconditional responsibility towards, and care for, Others. We analyze a case study from a secondary data source because, for such a critical phenomenon as business ethics in shadow factories, collecting primary data is difficult, since they are unregistered factories. We argue that there has not been enough attention given to the ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. Our main goal is to demonstrate that, considering the Other, more importantly the employees, in ethical decision-making is a simple instruction beyond the narrow version of ethics by ethical codes and rules.

Keywords: moral impulse, responsibility, shadow factories, Bauman’s moral impulse

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9 Possible Exposure of Persons with Cardiac Pacemakers to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields

Authors: Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba, Vesa Virtanen


The number of persons with implanted cardiac pacemakers (PM) has increased in Western countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possible situations where persons with a PM may be exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric (EF) and magnetic fields (MF) that may disturb their PM. Based on our earlier studies, it is possible to find such high public exposure to EFs only in some places near 400 kV power lines, where an EF may disturb a PM in unipolar mode. Such EFs cannot be found near 110 kV power lines. Disturbing MFs can be found near welding machines. However, we do not have measurement data from welding. Based on literature and earlier studies at Tampere University of Technology, it is difficult to find public EF or MF exposure that is high enough to interfere with PMs.

Keywords: cardiac pacemaker, electric field, magnetic field, electrical engineering

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8 Hereditary Angioedema: Case Presentation and Review of Anaesthetic Implications

Authors: Joshua Chew, Vesa Cheng, David Thomson


Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) or C1 esterase deficiency is a relatively rare entity that has a potential for significant anesthetic complications. Methods: A literature review was performed of published cases of surgery in patients with HAE. Results were limited to English language only and cases were examined for management strategies and successful prevention of acute attacks. Results: The literature revealed the successful use of C1 esterase inhibitors as the most common agent in surgical prophylaxis therapy. Other therapeutic targets described included kallikrein inhibitors and bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists. Conclusions: Therapeutic targets that exist for the management of acute attacks in HAE have been successfully employed in the setting of surgery. The data is currently limited and could not be used as a firm evidence base, but the limited outcomes seen are positive and reassuring for the prospective anesthetic management of this potentially fatal condition.

Keywords: anesthesia, C1 esterase deficiency, hereditary angioedema, surgical prophylaxis

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7 Practices of Waterwise Circular Economy in Water Protection: A Case Study on Pyhäjärvi, SW Finland

Authors: Jari Koskiaho, Teija Kirkkala, Jani Salminen, Sarianne Tikkanen, Sirkka Tattari


Here, phosphorus (P) loading to the lake Pyhäjärvi (SW Finland) was reviewed, load reduction targets were determined, and different measures of waterwise circular economy to reach the targets were evaluated. In addition to the P loading from the lake’s catchment, there is a significant amount of internal P loading occurring in the lake. There are no point source emissions into the lake. Thus, the most important source of external nutrient loading is agriculture. According to the simulations made with LLR-model, the chemical state of the lake is at the border of the classes ‘Satisfactory’ and ‘Good’. The LLR simulations suggest that a reduction of some hundreds of kilograms in annual P loading would be needed to reach an unquestionably ‘Good’ state. Evaluation of the measures of the waterwise circular economy suggested that they possess great potential in reaching the target P load reduction. If they were applied extensively and in a versatile, targeted manner in the catchment, their combined effect would reach the target reduction. In terms of cost-effectiveness, the waterwise measures were ranked as follows: The best: Fishing, 2nd best: Recycling of vegetation of reed beds, wetlands and buffer zones, 3rd best: Recycling field drainage waters stored in wetlands and ponds for irrigation, 4th best: Controlled drainage and irrigation, and 5th best: Recycling of the sediments of wetlands and ponds for soil enrichment. We also identified various waterwise nutrient recycling measures to decrease the P content of arable land. The cost-effectiveness of such measures may be very good. Solutions are needed to Finnish water protection in general, and particularly for regions like lake Pyhäjärvi catchment with intensive domestic animal production, of which the ‘P-hotspots’ are a crucial issue.

Keywords: circular economy, lake protection, mitigation measures, phosphorus

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6 Prolonging Late Career Phase - a Sustainable Career Perspective

Authors: Hanna Salminen


Due to the large societal changes in working life, such as retirement reforms, globalization and technological changes, careers are becoming longer, more varied and unpredictable than before. Similar to other new career concepts, such as protean and boundaryless career, a sustainable career concept emphasizes an individual’s active role and agency in managing his/her own career in changing working life. However, the sustainable career concept also underlines the importance of safeguarding and developing human capital over time and thereby fostering continuity. Especially, the theoretical discussion around sustainable careers stresses flexible career choices that meet an individual’s own personal needs, allow work-family balance and promotes continuous learning. Although sustainable careers concern employees at all ages, this study focuses on older employees (aged 50+). So far, the changing nature of careers has been mainly investigated among younger generations, and the changing and prolonging late career phase has received less attention among career scholars. In other words, there is lack of knowledge regarding what constitutes a sustainable career in the late career phase and how the individual, organizational, and societal levels of sustainable career ecosystem are interconnected. The theoretical discussion around sustainable careers is closely linked to the sustainable management of human resources in organizations. In the field of human resource management (HRM), sustainable HRM has received more attention in recent years and it has been seen as a step forward from strategic HRM approach. As a concept, sustainable HRM stresses the long-term focus on organizations’ social, economic, and ecological resources, and the benefits of HRM practices for employees, organizations, and the society at large. However, some HRM scholars argue that the ecological and financial matters have overshadowed the social aspect of sustainability. In this study, the sustainable career and sustainable HRM literature are combined. As a result of an integrative literature review, this study provides new insight, how sustainable late career phase has been understood and conceptualized in sustainable career and sustainable HRM literature.

Keywords: sustainability, career, human resource management, ageing

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5 Extraction of Scandium (Sc) from an Ore with Functionalized Nanoporous Silicon Adsorbent

Authors: Arezoo Rahmani, Rinez Thapa, Juha-Matti Aalto, Petri Turhanen, Jouko Vepsalainen, Vesa-PekkaLehto, Joakim Riikonen


Production of Scandium (Sc) is a complicated process because Sc is found only in low concentrations in ores and the concentration of Sc is very low compared with other metals. Therefore, utilization of typical extraction processes such as solvent extraction is problematic in scandium extraction. The Adsorption/desorption method can be used, but it is challenging to prepare materials, which have good selectivity, high adsorption capacity, and high stability. Therefore, efficient and environmentally friendly methods for Sc extraction are needed. In this study, the nanoporous composite material was developed for extracting Sc from an Sc ore. The nanoporous composite material offers several advantageous properties such as large surface area, high chemical and mechanical stability, fast diffusion of the metals in the material and possibility to construct a filter out of the material with good flow-through properties. The nanoporous silicon material was produced by first stabilizing the surfaces with a silicon carbide layer and then functionalizing the surface with bisphosphonates that act as metal chelators. The surface area and porosity of the material were characterized by N₂ adsorption and the morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The bisphosphonate content of the material was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The concentration of metal ions in the adsorption/desorption experiments was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The maximum capacity of the material was 25 µmol/g Sc at pH=1 and 45 µmol/g Sc at pH=3, obtained from adsorption isotherm. The selectivity of the material towards Sc in artificial solutions containing several metal ions was studied at pH one and pH 3. The result shows good selectivity of the nanoporous composite towards adsorption of Sc. Scandium was less efficiently adsorbed from solution leached from the ore of Sc because of excessive amounts of iron (Fe), aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) which disturbed the adsorption process. For example, the concentration of Fe was more than 4500 ppm, while the concentration of Sc was only three ppm, approximately 1500 times lower. Precipitation methods were developed to lower the concentration of the metals other than Sc. Optimal pH for precipitation was found to be pH 4. The concentration of Fe, Al and Ti were decreased by 99, 70, 99.6%, respectively, while the concentration of Sc decreased only 22%. Despite the large reduction in the concentration of other metals, more work is needed to further increase the relative concentration of Sc compared with other metals to efficiently extract it using the developed nanoporous composite material. Nevertheless, the developed material may provide an affordable, efficient and environmentally friendly method to extract Sc on a large scale.

Keywords: adsorption, nanoporous silicon, ore solution, scandium

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4 The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Physiological Stress of Managers

Authors: Mikko Salminen, Simo Järvelä, Niklas Ravaja


One of the central models of emotional intelligence (EI) is that of Mayer and Salovey’s, which includes ability to monitor own feelings and emotions and those of others, ability to discriminate different emotions, and to use this information to guide thinking and actions. There is vast amount of previous research where positive links between EI and, for example, leadership successfulness, work outcomes, work wellbeing and organizational climate have been reported. EI has also a role in the effectiveness of work teams, and the effects of EI are especially prominent in jobs requiring emotional labor. Thus, also the organizational context must be taken into account when considering the effects of EI on work outcomes. Based on previous research, it is suggested that EI can also protect managers from the negative consequences of stress. Stress may have many detrimental effects on the manager’s performance in essential work tasks. Previous studies have highlighted the effects of stress on, not only health, but also, for example, on cognitive tasks such as decision-making, which is important in managerial work. The motivation for the current study came from the notion that, unfortunately, many stressed individuals may not be aware of the circumstance; periods of stress-induced physiological arousal may be prolonged if there is not enough time for recovery. To tackle this problem, physiological stress levels of managers were collected using recording of heart rate variability (HRV). The goal was to use this data to provide the managers with feedback on their stress levels. The managers could access this feedback using a www-based learning environment. In the learning environment, in addition to the feedback on stress level and other collected data, also developmental tasks were provided. For example, those with high stress levels were sent instructions for mindfulness exercises. The current study focuses on the relation between the measured physiological stress levels and EI of the managers. In a pilot study, 33 managers from various fields wore the Firstbeat Bodyguard HRV measurement devices for three consecutive days and nights. From the collected HRV data periods (minutes) of stress and recovery were detected using dedicated software. The effects of EI on HRV-calculated stress indexes were studied using Linear Mixed Models procedure in SPSS. There was a statistically significant effect of total EI, defined as an average score of Schutte’s emotional intelligence test, on the percentage of stress minutes during the whole measurement period (p=.025). More stress minutes were detected on those managers who had lower emotional intelligence. It is suggested, that high EI provided managers with better tools to cope with stress. Managing of own emotions helps the manager in controlling possible negative emotions evoked by, e.g., critical feedback or increasing workload. High EI managers may also be more competent in detecting emotions of others, which would lead to smoother interactions and less conflicts. Given the recent trend to different quantified-self applications, it is suggested that monitoring of bio-signals would prove to be a fruitful direction to further develop new tools for managerial and leadership coaching.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, leadership, heart rate variability, personality, stress

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3 The Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Manager's Psychophysiological Activity during a Performance-Review Discussion

Authors: Mikko Salminen, Niklas Ravaja


Emotional intelligence (EI) consists of skills for monitoring own emotions and emotions of others, skills for discriminating different emotions, and skills for using this information in thinking and actions. EI enhances, for example, work outcomes and organizational climate. We suggest that the role and manifestations of EI should also be studied in real leadership situations, especially during the emotional, social interaction. Leadership is essentially a process to influence others for reaching a certain goal. This influencing happens by managerial processes and computer-mediated communication (e.g. e-mail) but also by face-to-face, where facial expressions have a significant role in conveying emotional information. Persons with high EI are typically perceived more positively, and they have better social skills. We hypothesize, that during social interaction high EI enhances the ability to detect other’s emotional state and controlling own emotional expressions. We suggest, that emotionally intelligent leader’s experience less stress during social leadership situations, since they have better skills in dealing with the related emotional work. Thus the high-EI leaders would be more able to enjoy these situations, but also be more efficient in choosing appropriate expressions for building constructive dialogue. We suggest, that emotionally intelligent leaders show more positive emotional expressions than low-EI leaders. To study these hypotheses we observed performance review discussions of 40 leaders (24 female) with 78 (45 female) of their followers. Each leader held a discussion with two followers. Psychophysiological methods were chosen because they provide objective and continuous data from the whole duration of the discussions. We recorded sweating of the hands (electrodermal activation) by electrodes placed to the fingers of the non-dominant hand to assess the stress-related physiological arousal of the leaders. In addition, facial electromyography was recorded from cheek (zygomaticus major, activated during e.g. smiling) and periocular (orbicularis oculi, activated during smiling) muscles using electrode pairs placed on the left side of the face. Leader’s trait EI was measured with a 360 questionnaire, filled by each leader’s followers, peers, managers and by themselves. High-EI leaders had less sweating of the hands (p = .007) than the low-EI leaders. It is thus suggested that the high-EI leaders experienced less physiological stress during the discussions. Also, high scores in the factor “Using of emotions” were related to more facial muscle activation indicating positive emotional expressions (cheek muscle: p = .048; periocular muscle: p = .076, almost statistically significant). The results imply that emotionally intelligent managers are positively relaxed during s social leadership situations such as a performance review discussion. The current study also highlights the importance of EI in face-to-face social interaction, given the central role facial expressions have in interaction situations. The study also offers new insight to the biological basis of trait EI. It is suggested that the identification, forming, and intelligently using of facial expressions are skills that could be trained during leadership development courses.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, leadership, performance review discussion, psychophysiology, social interaction

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2 Psychophysiological Synchronization between the Manager and the Subordinate during a Performance Review Discussion

Authors: Mikko Salminen, Niklas Ravaja


Previous studies have shown that emotional intelligence (EI) has an important role in leadership and social interaction. On the other hand, physiological synchronization between two interacting participants has been related to, for example, intensity of the interaction, and interestingly also to empathy. It is suggested that the amount of covariation in physiological signals between the two interacting persons would also be related to how the discussion is perceived subjectively. To study the interrelations between physiological synchronization, emotional intelligence, and subjective perception of the interaction, performance review discussions between real manager – subordinate dyads were studied using psychophysiological measurements and self-reports. The participants consisted of 40 managers, of which 24 were female, and 78 of their subordinates, of which 45 were female. The participants worked in various fields, for example banking, education, and engineering. The managers had a normal performance review discussion with two subordinates, except two managers who, due to scheduling issues, had discussion with only one subordinate. The managers were on average 44.5 years old, and the subordinates on average 45.5 years old. Written consent, in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, was obtained from all the participants. After the discussion, the participants filled a questionnaire assessing their emotions during the discussion. This included a self-assessment manikin (SAM) scale for the emotional valence during the discussion, with a 9-point graphical scale representing a manikin whose facial expressions ranged from smiling and happy to frowning and unhappy. In addition, the managers filled EI360, a 37-item self-report trait emotional intelligence questionnaire. The psychophysiological activity of the participants was recorded using two Varioport-B portable recording devices. Cardiac activity (ECG, electrocardiogram) was measured with two electrodes placed on the torso. Inter-beat interval (IBI, time between two successive heart beats) was calculated from the ECG signals. The facial muscle activation (EMG, electromyography) was recorded on three sites of the left side of the face: zygomaticus major (cheek muscle), orbicularis oculi (periocular muscle), and corrugator supercilii (frowning muscle). The facial-EMG signals were rectified and smoothed, and cross-coherences were calculated between members of each dyad, for all the three EMG signals, for the baseline and discussion periods. The values were natural-log transformed to normalize the distributions. Higher cross-coherence during the discussion between the manager’s and the subordinate’s zygomatic muscles was related to more positive valence self-reported emotions, F(1; 66,137) = 7,051; p=0,01. Thus, synchronized cheek muscle activation, either due to synchronous smiling or talking, was related to more positive perception of the discussion. In addition, higher IBI synchronization between the manager and the subordinate during the discussion was related to the manager’s higher self-reported emotional intelligence, F(1; 27,981)=4,58; p=0,041. That is, the EI was related to synchronous cardiac activity and possibly to similar physiological arousal levels. The results imply that the psychophysiological synchronization could be a potentially useful index in the study of social interaction and a valuable tool in the coaching of leadership skills in organizational contexts.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, leadership, psychophysiology, social interaction, synchronization

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1 Concentration and Stability of Fatty Acids and Ammonium in the Samples from Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: Mari Jaakkola, Jasmiina Haverinen, Tiina Tolonen, Vesa Virtanen


These process monitoring of biogas plant gives valuable information of the function of the process and help to maintain a stable process. The costs of basic monitoring are often much lower than the costs associated with re-establishing a biologically destabilised plant. Reactor acidification through reactor overload is one of the most common reasons for process deterioration in anaerobic digesters. This occurs because of a build-up of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced by acidogenic and acetogenic bacteria. VFAs cause pH values to decrease, and result in toxic conditions in the reactor. Ammonia ensures an adequate supply of nitrogen as a nutrient substance for anaerobic biomass and increases system's buffer capacity, counteracting acidification lead by VFA production. However, elevated ammonia concentration is detrimental to the process due to its toxic effect. VFAs are considered the most reliable analytes for process monitoring. To obtain accurate results, sample storage and transportation need to be carefully controlled. This may be a challenge for off-line laboratory analyses especially when the plant is located far away from the laboratory. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between fatty acids, ammonium, and bacteria in the anaerobic digestion samples obtained from an industrial biogas factory. The stability of the analytes was studied comparing the results of the on-site analyses performed in the factory site to the results of the samples stored at room temperature and -18°C (up to 30 days) after sampling. Samples were collected in the biogas plant consisting of three separate mesofilic AD reactors (4000 m³ each) where the main feedstock was swine slurry together with a complex mixture of agricultural plant and animal wastes. Individual VFAs, ammonium, and nutrients (K, Ca, Mg) were studied by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Longer chain fatty acids (oleic, hexadecanoic, and stearic acids) and bacterial profiles were studied by GC-MSD (Gas Chromatography-Mass Selective Detector) and 16S rDNA, respectively. On-site monitoring of the analytes was performed by CE. The main VFA in all samples was acetic acid. However, in one reactor sample elevated levels of several individual VFAs and long chain fatty acids were detected. Also bacterial profile of this sample differed from the profiles of other samples. Acetic acid decomposed fast when the sample was stored in a room temperature. All analytes were stable when stored in a freezer. Ammonium was stable even at a room temperature for the whole testing period. One reactor sample had higher concentration of VFAs and long chain fatty acids than other samples. CE was utilized successfully in the on-site analysis of separate VFAs and NH₄ in the biogas production site. Samples should be analysed in the sampling day if stored in RT or freezed for longer storage time. Fermentation reject can be stored (and transported) at ambient temperature at least for one month without loss of NH₄. This gives flexibility to the logistic solutions when reject is used as a fertilizer.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, capillary electrophoresis, ammonium, bacteria

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