Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: chopper

13 DSPIC30F6010A Control for 12/8 Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Yang Zhou, Chen Hao, Ma Xiaoping


This paper briefly mentions the micro controller unit, and then goes into details about the exact regulations for SRM. Firstly, it proposes the main driving state control for motor and the importance of the motor position sensor. For different speed, the controller will choice various styles such as voltage chopper control, angle position control and current chopper control for which owns its advantages and disadvantages. Combining the strengths of the three discrepant methods, the main control chip will intelligently select the best performing control depending on the load and speed demand. Then the exact flow diagram is showed in paper. At last, an experimental platform is established to verify the correctness of the proposed theory.

Keywords: switched reluctance motor, dspic microcontroller, current chopper

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12 Optimisation of Photovoltaic Array with DC-DC Converter Groups

Authors: Fatma Soltani


In power electronics the DC-DC converters or choppers are now employed in large areas, particularly in the field of electricity generation by wind and solar energy conversion. Photovoltaic generators (GPV) can deliver maximum power for a point on the characteristic P = f (Vpv), called maximum power point (MPP), or climatic variations, entraiment fluctuation PPM. To remedy this problem is interposed between the generator and receiver a DC-DC converter. The converter is usually used a simple MOSFET chopper. However, the MOSFET can be applied in the field of low power when you need a high switching frequency but becomes highly dissipative when should block large voltages For PV generators medium and high power, the use of IGBT chopper is by far the most recommended. To reduce stress on semiconductor components using several choppers series connected in parallel is known as interleaved chopper. These choppers lead to rotas.

Keywords: converter DC-DC entrelaced, photovoltaic generators, IGBT, optimisation

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11 Evaluation of MPPT Algorithms for Photovoltaic Generator by Comparing Incremental Conductance Method, Perturbation and Observation Method and the Method Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Elmahdi Elgharbaoui, Tamou Nasser, Ahmed Essadki


In the era of sustainable development, photovoltaic (PV) technology has shown significant potential as a renewable energy source. Photovoltaic generators (GPV) have a non-linear current-voltage characteristic, with a maximum power point (MPP) characterized by an optimal voltage, and depends on environmental factors such as temperature and irradiation. To extract each time the maximum power available at the terminals of the GPV and transfer it to the load, an adaptation stage is used, consisting of a boost chopper controlled by a maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT) through a stage of pulse width modulation (PWM). Our choice has focused on three techniques which are: the perturbation and observation method (P&O), the incremental conductance method (InCond) and the last is that of control using the fuzzy logic. The implementation and simulation of the system (photovoltaic generator, chopper boost, PWM and MPPT techniques) are then performed in the Matlab/Simulink environment.

Keywords: photovoltaic generator, technique MPPT, boost chopper, PWM, fuzzy logic, P&O, InCond

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10 Neural Nets Based Approach for 2-Cells Power Converter Control

Authors: Kamel Laidi, Khelifa Benmansour, Ouahid Bouchhida


Neural networks-based approach for 2-cells serial converter has been developed and implemented. The approach is based on a behavioural description of the different operating modes of the converter. Each operating mode represents a well-defined configuration, and for which is matched an operating zone satisfying given invariance conditions, depending on the capacitors' voltages and the load current of the converter. For each mode, a control vector whose components are the control signals to be applied to the converter switches has been associated. Therefore, the problem is reduced to a classification task of the different operating modes of the converter. The artificial neural nets-based approach, which constitutes a powerful tool for this kind of task, has been adopted and implemented. The application to a 2-cells chopper has allowed ensuring efficient and robust control of the load current and a high capacitors voltages balancing.

Keywords: neural nets, control, multicellular converters, 2-cells chopper

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9 Study of a Photovoltaic System Using MPPT Buck-Boost Converter

Authors: A. Bouchakour, L. Zaghba, M. Brahami, A. Borni


The work presented in this paper present the design and the simulation of a centrifugal pump coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) generator via a MPPT controller. The PV system operating is just done in sunny period by using water storage instead of electric energy storage. The process concerns the modelling, identification and simulation of a photovoltaic pumping system, the centrifugal pump is driven by an asynchronous three-phase voltage inverter sine triangle PWM motor through. Two configurations were simulated. For the first, it is about the alimentation of the motor pump group from electrical power supply. For the second, the pump unit is connected directly to the photovoltaic panels by integration of a MPPT control. A code of simulation of the solar pumping system was initiated under the Matlab-Simulink environment. Very convivial and flexible graphic interfaces allow an easy use of the code and knowledge of the effects of change of the sunning and temperature on the pumping system.

Keywords: photovoltaic generator, chopper, electrical motor, centrifugal pump

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8 Highly Linear and Low Noise AMR Sensor Using Closed Loop and Signal-Chopped Architecture

Authors: N. Hadjigeorgiou, A. C. Tsalikidou, E. Hristoforou, P. P. Sotiriadis


During the last few decades, the continuously increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as different measurement techniques. Sensor sensitivity and linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement range, cross-talk between sensors in multi-sensor applications are only some of the aspects that have been examined in the past. In this paper, a fully analog closed loop system in order to optimize the performance of AMR sensors has been developed. The operation of the proposed system has been tested using a Helmholtz coil calibration setup in order to control both the amplitude and direction of magnetic field in the vicinity of the AMR sensor. Experimental testing indicated that improved linearity of sensor response, as well as low noise levels can be achieved, when the system is employed.

Keywords: AMR sensor, closed loop, memory effects, chopper, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement, magnetic noise, electronic noise

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7 Providing Additional Advantages for STATCOM in Power Systems by Integration of Energy Storage Device

Authors: Reza Sedaghati


The use of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices in a power system can potentially overcome limitations of the present mechanically controlled transmission system. Also, the advance of technology makes possible to include new energy storage devices in the electrical power system. The integration of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) into Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) can lead to increase their flexibility in improvement of power system dynamic behaviour by exchanging both active and reactive powers with power grids. This paper describes structure and behaviour of SMES, specifications and performance principles of the STATCOM/SMES compensator. Moreover, the benefits and effectiveness of integrated SMES with STATCOM in power systems is presented. Also, the performance of the STATCOM/SMES compensator is evaluated using an IEEE 3-bus system through the dynamic simulation by PSCAD/EMTDC software.

Keywords: STATCOM/SMES compensator, chopper, converter, energy storage system, power systems

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6 A New Converter Topology for Wind Energy Conversion System

Authors: Mahmoud Khamaira, Ahmed Abu-Siada, Yasser Alharbi


Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs) are currently extensively used in variable speed wind power plants due to their superior advantages that include reduced converter rating, low cost, reduced losses, easy implementation of power factor correction schemes, variable speed operation and four quadrants active and reactive power control capabilities. On the other hand, DFIG sensitivity to grid disturbances, especially for voltage sags represents the main disadvantage of the equipment. In this paper, a coil is proposed to be integrated within the DFIG converters to improve the overall performance of a DFIG-based wind energy conversion system (WECS). The charging and discharging of the coil are controlled by controlling the duty cycle of the switches of the dc-dc chopper. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed topology in improving the overall performance of the WECS system under study.

Keywords: doubly fed induction generator, coil, wind energy conversion system, converter topology

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5 Power Reduction of Hall-Effect Sensor by Pulse Width Modulation of Spinning-Current

Authors: Hyungil Chae


This work presents a method to reduce spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor for low-power magnetic sensor applications. Spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor changes the direction of bias current periodically and can separate signals from DC-offset. The bias current is proportional to the sensor sensitivity but also increases the power consumption. To achieve both high sensitivity and low power consumption, the bias current can be pulse-width modulated. When the bias current duration Tb is reduced by a factor of N compared to the spinning current period of Tₛ/2, the total power consumption can be saved by N times. N can be large as long as the Hall-effect sensor settles down within Tb. The proposed scheme is implemented and simulated in a 0.18um CMOS process, and the power saving factor is 9.6 when N is 10. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (20160001360022003, Development of Hall Semi-conductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: chopper stabilization, Hall-effect sensor, pulse width modulation, spinning current

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4 Open Circuit MPPT Control Implemented for PV Water Pumping System

Authors: Rabiaa Gammoudi, Najet Rebei, Othman Hasnaoui


Photovoltaic systems use different techniques for tracking the Maximum Power Point (MPPT) to provide the highest possible power to the load regardless of the climatic conditions variation. In this paper, the proposed method is the Open Circuit (OC) method with sudden and random variations of insolation. The simulation results of the water pumping system controlled by OC method are validated by an experimental experience in real-time using a test bench composed by a centrifugal pump powered by a PVG via a boost chopper for the adaptation between the source and the load. The output of the DC/DC converter supplies the motor pump LOWARA type, assembly by means of a DC/AC inverter. The control part is provided by a computer incorporating a card DS1104 running environment Matlab/Simulink for visualization and data acquisition. These results show clearly the effectiveness of our control with a very good performance. The results obtained show the usefulness of the developed algorithm in solving the problem of degradation of PVG performance depending on the variation of climatic factors with a very good yield.

Keywords: PVWPS (PV Water Pumping System), maximum power point tracking (MPPT), open circuit method (OC), boost converter, DC/AC inverter

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3 Engineering Study on the Handling of Date Palm Fronds to Reduce Waste and Used as Energy Environmentally Friendly Fuel

Authors: Ayman H. Amer Eissa, Abdul Rahman O. Alghannam


The agricultural crop residuals are considered one of the most important problems faced by the environmental life and farmers in the world. A study was carried out to evaluate the physical characteristics of chopped date palm stalks (fronds and leaflets). These properties are necessary to apply normal design procedures such as pneumatic conveying, fluidization, drying, and combustion. The mechanical treatment by cutting, crushing or chopping and briquetting processes are the primary step and the suitable solution for solving this problem and recycling these residuals to be transformed into useful products. So the aim of the present work to get a high quality for agriculture residues such as date palm stalks (fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes. The results obtained from measuring the mechanical properties (average shear and compressive strength) for date palm stalks at different moisture content (12.63, 33.21 and 60.54%) was (6.4, 4.7 and 3.21MPa) and (3.8, 3.18 and 2.86MPa) respectively. The modulus of elasticity and toughness were evaluated as a function of moisture content. As the moisture content of the stalk regions increased the modulus of elasticity and toughness decreased indicating a reduction in the brittleness of the stalk regions. Chopped date palm stalks (palm fronds), date palm leaflets having moisture content of 8, 10 and 12% and 8, 10 and 12.8% w.b. were dandified into briquettes without binder and with binder (urea-formaldehyde) using a screw press machine. Quality properties for briquettes were durability, compression ratio hardness, bulk density, compression ratio, resiliency, water resistance and gases emission. The optimum quality properties found for briquettes at 8 % moisture content and without binder. Where the highest compression stress and durability were 8.95, 10.39 MPa and 97.06 %, 93.64 % for date palm stalks (palm fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes, respectively. The CO and CO2 emissions for date palm stalks (fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes were less than these for loose residuals.

Keywords: residues, date palm stalks, chopper, briquetting, quality properties

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2 Flux-Gate vs. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance Magnetic Sensors Characteristics in Closed-Loop Operation

Authors: Neoclis Hadjigeorgiou, Spyridon Angelopoulos, Evangelos V. Hristoforou, Paul P. Sotiriadis


The increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements over the past decades has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as of more advanced measurement techniques. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance (AMR) sensors have emerged as a promising solution for applications requiring high resolution, providing an ideal balance between performance and cost. However, certain issues of AMR sensors such as non-linear response and measurement noise are rarely discussed in the relevant literature. In this work, an analog closed loop compensation system is proposed, developed and tested as a means to eliminate the non-linearity of AMR response, reduce the 1/f noise and enhance the sensitivity of magnetic sensor. Additional performance aspects, such as cross-axis and hysteresis effects are also examined. This system was analyzed using an analytical model and a P-Spice model, considering both the sensor itself as well as the accompanying electronic circuitry. In addition, a commercial closed loop architecture Flux-Gate sensor (calibrated and certified), has been used for comparison purposes. Three different experimental setups have been constructed for the purposes of this work, each one utilized for DC magnetic field measurements, AC magnetic field measurements and Noise density measurements respectively. The DC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to calibrate and characterize the system under consideration. A high-accuracy DC power supply has been used for providing the operating current to the Helmholtz coils. The results were recorded by a multichannel voltmeter The AC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to examine the effective bandwidth not only of the proposed system but also for the Flux-Gate sensor. A voltage controlled current source driven by a function generator has been utilized for the Helmholtz coil excitation. The result was observed by the oscilloscope. The third experimental apparatus incorporated an AC magnetic shielding construction composed of several layers of electric steel that had been demagnetized prior to the experimental process. Each sensor was placed alone and the response was captured by the oscilloscope. The preliminary experimental results indicate that closed loop AMR response presented a maximum deviation of 0.36% with respect to the ideal linear response, while the corresponding values for the open loop AMR system and the Fluxgate sensor reached 2% and 0.01% respectively. Moreover, the noise density of the proposed close loop AMR sensor system remained almost as low as the noise density of the AMR sensor itself, yet considerably higher than that of the Flux-Gate sensor. All relevant numerical data are presented in the paper.

Keywords: AMR sensor, chopper, closed loop, electronic noise, magnetic noise, memory effects, flux-gate sensor, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement

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1 Technology Assessment of the Collection of Cast Seaweed and Use as Feedstock for Biogas Production- The Case of SolrøD, Denmark

Authors: Rikke Lybæk, Tyge Kjær


The Baltic Sea is suffering from nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, which causes eutrophication of the maritime environment and hence threatens the biodiversity of the Baltic Sea area. The intensified quantity of nutrients in the water has created challenges with the growth of seaweed being discarded on beaches around the sea. The cast seaweed has led to odor problems hampering the use of beach areas around the Bay of Køge in Denmark. This is the case in, e.g., Solrød Municipality, where recreational activities have been disrupted when cast seaweed pile up on the beach. Initiatives have, however, been introduced within the municipality to remove the cast seaweed from the beach and utilize it for renewable energy production at the nearby Solrød Biogas Plant, thus being co-digested with animal manure for power and heat production. This paper investigates which type of technology application’s have been applied in the effort to optimize the collection of cast seaweed, and will further reveal, how the seaweed has been pre-treated at the biogas plant to be utilized for energy production the most efficient, hereunder the challenges connected with the content of sand. Heavy metal contents in the seaweed and how it is managed will also be addressed, which is vital as the digestate is utilized as soil fertilizer on nearby farms. Finally, the paper will outline the energy production scheme connected to the use of seaweed as feedstock for biogas production, as well as the amount of nitrogen-rich fertilizer produced. The theoretical approach adopted in the paper relies on the thinking of Circular Bio-Economy, where biological materials are cascaded and re-circulated etc., to increase and extend their value and usability. The data for this research is collected as part of the EU Interreg project “Cluster On Anaerobic digestion, environmental Services, and nuTrients removAL” (COASTAL Biogas), 2014-2020. Data gathering consists of, e.g., interviews with relevant stakeholders connected to seaweed collection and operation of the biogas plant in Solrød Municipality. It further entails studies of progress and evaluation reports from the municipality, analysis of seaweed digestion results from scholars connected to the research, as well as studies of scientific literature to supplement the above. Besides this, observations and photo documentation have been applied in the field. This paper concludes, among others, that the seaweed harvester technology currently adopted is functional in the maritime environment close to the beachfront but inadequate in collecting seaweed directly on the beach. New technology hence needs to be developed to increase the efficiency of seaweed collection. It is further concluded that the amount of sand transported to Solrød Biogas Plant with the seaweed continues to pose challenges. The seaweed is pre-treated for sand in a receiving tank with a strong stirrer, washing off the sand, which ends at the bottom of the tank where collected. The seaweed is then chopped by a macerator and mixed with the other feedstock. The wear down of the receiving tank stirrer and the chopper are, however, significant, and new methods should be adopted.

Keywords: biogas, circular bio-economy, Denmark, maritime technology, cast seaweed, solrød municipality

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