Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 361

Search results for: supplemental damping

361 Seismic Reliability of Two-DegreE-of-Freedom Systems with Supplemental Damping

Authors: A.D. García-Soto, Miguel Jaimes, J.G. Valdés-Vázquez, A. Hernández-Martínez

Abstract:

The seismic reliability of two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) systems with and without supplemental damping are computed. The used records are scaled from realistic records using standard incremental dynamic Analysis (IDA). The total normalized shear base is computed for both cases using different scaling factors, and it is considered as the demand. The seismic reliability is computed using codified design to stipulate the capacity and, after some assumptions, applying the first-order reliability method (FORM). The 2DOF considered can be thought as structures with non-linear behavior, with and without seismic protection, subjected to earthquake activity in Mexico City. It is found that the reliability of 2DOF structures retrofitted with supplemental damper at its first story is generally higher than the reliability of 2DOF structures without supplemental damping.

Keywords: 2DOF structures, IDA, FORM, seismic reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
360 Supplemental VisCo-friction Damping for Dynamical Structural Systems

Authors: Sharad Singh, Ajay Kumar Sinha

Abstract:

Coupled dampers like viscoelastic-frictional dampers for supplemental damping are a newer technique. In this paper, innovative Visco-frictional damping models have been presented and investigated. This paper attempts to couple frictional and fluid viscous dampers into a single unit of supplemental dampers. Visco-frictional damping model is developed by series and parallel coupling of frictional and fluid viscous dampers using Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigat models. The time analysis has been performed using numerical simulation on an SDOF system with varying fundamental periods, subject to a set of 12 ground motions. The simulation was performed using the direct time integration method. MATLAB programming tool was used to carry out the numerical simulation. The response behavior has been analyzed for the varying time period and added damping. This paper compares the response reduction behavior of the two modes of coupling. This paper highlights the performance efficiency of the suggested damping models. It also presents a mathematical modeling approach to visco-frictional dampers and simultaneously suggests the suitable mode of coupling between the two sub-units.

Keywords: hysteretic damping, Kelvin model, Maxwell model, parallel coupling, series coupling, viscous damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
359 Effect of Damper Combinations in Series or Parallel on Structural Response

Authors: Ajay Kumar Sinha, Sharad Singh, Anukriti Sinha

Abstract:

Passive energy dissipation method for earthquake protection of structures is undergoing developments for improved performance. Combined use of different types of damping mechanisms has shown positive results in the near past. Different supplemental damping methods like viscous damping, frictional damping and metallic damping are being combined together for optimum performance. The conventional method of connecting passive dampers to structures is a parallel connection between the damper unit and structural member. Researchers are investigating coupling effect of different types of dampers. The most popular choice among the research community is coupling of viscous dampers and frictional dampers. The series and parallel coupling of these damping units are being studied for relative performance of the coupled system on response control of structures against earthquake. In this paper an attempt has been made to couple Fluid Viscous Dampers and Frictional Dampers in series and parallel to form a single unit of damping system. The relative performance of the coupled units has been studied on three dimensional reinforced concrete framed structure. The current theories of structural dynamics in practice for viscous damping and frictional damping have been incorporated in this study. The time history analysis of the structural system with coupled damper units, uncoupled damper units as well as of structural system without any supplemental damping has been performed in this study. The investigations reported in this study show significant improved performance of coupled system. A higher natural frequency of the system outside the forcing frequency has been obtained for structural systems with coupled damper units as against the other cases. The structural response of the structure in terms of storey displacement and storey drift show significant improvement for the case with coupled damper units as against the cases with uncoupled units or without any supplemental damping. The results are promising in terms of improved response of the structure with coupled damper units. Further investigations in this regard for a comparative performance of the series and parallel coupled systems will be carried out to study the optimum behavior of these coupled systems for enhanced response control of structural systems.

Keywords: frictional damping, parallel coupling, response control, series coupling, supplemental damping, viscous damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
358 A Case Study on Performance of Isolated Bridges under Near-Fault Ground Motion

Authors: Daniele Losanno, H. A. Hadad, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a benchmark bridge with different optimal isolation systems under near fault ground motion. Usually, very large displacements make seismic isolation an unfeasible solution due to boundary conditions, especially in case of existing bridges or high risk seismic regions. Hence, near-fault ground motions are most likely to affect either structures with long natural period range like isolated structures or structures sensitive to velocity content such as viscously damped structures. The work is aimed at analyzing the seismic performance of a three-span continuous bridge designed with different isolation systems having different levels of damping. The case study was analyzed in different configurations including: (a) simply supported, (b) isolated with lead rubber bearings (LRBs), (c) isolated with rubber isolators and 10% classical damping (HDLRBs), and (d) isolated with rubber isolators and 70% supplemental damping ratio. Case (d) represents an alternative control strategy that combines the effect of seismic isolation with additional supplemental damping trying to take advantages from both solutions. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 and solved by time history direct-integration analyses under a set of six recorded near-fault ground motions. In addition to this, a set of analysis under Italian code provided seismic action is also conducted, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the suggested optimal control strategies under far field seismic action. Results of the analysis demonstrated that an isolated bridge equipped with HDLRBs and a total equivalent damping ratio of 70% represents a very effective design solution for both mitigation of displacement demand at the isolation level and base shear reduction in the piers also in case of near fault ground motion.

Keywords: isolated bridges, near-fault motion, seismic response, supplemental damping, optimal design

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
357 Parametric Non-Linear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Supplemental Damping Systems

Authors: Daniele Losanno, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

This paper focuses on parametric analysis of reinforced concrete structures equipped with supplemental damping braces. Practitioners still luck sufficient data for current design of damper added structures and often reduce the real model to a pure damper braced structure even if this assumption is neither realistic nor conservative. In the present study, the damping brace is modelled as made by a linear supporting brace connected in series with the viscous/hysteretic damper. Deformation capacity of existing structures is usually not adequate to undergo the design earthquake. In spite of this, additional dampers could be introduced strongly limiting structural damage to acceptable values, or in some cases, reducing frame response to elastic behavior. This work is aimed at providing useful considerations for retrofit of existing buildings by means of supplemental damping braces. The study explicitly takes into consideration variability of (a) relative frame to supporting brace stiffness, (b) dampers’ coefficient (viscous coefficient or yielding force) and (c) non-linear frame behavior. Non-linear time history analysis has been run to account for both dampers’ behavior and non-linear plastic hinges modelled by Pivot hysteretic type. Parametric analysis based on previous studies on SDOF or MDOF linear frames provide reference values for nearly optimal damping systems design. With respect to bare frame configuration, seismic response of the damper-added frame is strongly improved, limiting deformations to acceptable values far below ultimate capacity. Results of the analysis also demonstrated the beneficial effect of stiffer supporting braces, thus highlighting inadequacy of simplified pure damper models. At the same time, the effect of variable damping coefficient and yielding force has to be treated as an optimization problem.

Keywords: brace stiffness, dissipative braces, non-linear analysis, plastic hinges, reinforced concrete frames

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
356 Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers

Authors: Huai-Feng Wang, Meng-Lin Lou, Ru-Lin Zhang

Abstract:

One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.

Keywords: Rayleigh damping, modal damping, damping coefficients, seismic response analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
355 Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Framed Structure with Steel Bracing and Supplemental Energy Dissipation

Authors: Swanand Patil, Pankaj Agarwal

Abstract:

In past few decades, seismic performance objectives have shifted from earthquake resistance to earthquake resilience of the structures, especially for the lifeline buildings. Features such as negligible post-earthquake damage and replaceable damaged components, makes energy dissipating systems a valid choice for a seismically resilient building. In this study, various energy dissipation devices are applied on an eight-storey moment resisting RC building model. The energy dissipating devices include both hysteresis-based and viscous type of devices. The seismic response of the building is obtained for different positioning and mechanical properties of the devices. The investigation is carried forward to the deficiently ductile RC frame also. The performance assessment is done on the basis of drift ratio, mode shapes and displacement response of the model structures. Nonlinear dynamic analysis shows largely improved displacement response. The damping devices improve displacement response more efficiently in the deficient ductile frames than that in the perfectly moment resisting frames. This finding is important considering the number of deficient buildings in India and the world. The placement and mechanical properties of the dampers prove to be a crucial part in modelling, analyzing and designing of the structures with supplemental energy dissipation.

Keywords: earthquake resilient structures, lifeline buildings, retrofitting of structures, supplemental energy dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
354 Work-Home Interference and Emotional Exhaustion: The Role of Psychological Detachment, Relaxation and Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work

Authors: Nidhi S. Bisht

Abstract:

The study examines the role of work-home interference, on enhancing emotional exhaustion in the branch officers of private MFIs in India. Additionally, the moderating role of recovery experiences and technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) were studied. With the increasing expectations to perform job related tasks at home, technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) was hypothesized to positively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Further, it was expected that recovery experiences-psychological detachment, relaxation will help to recover and unwind from work and negatively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Results of SEM-analyses largely offered support for the hypotheses. These findings increase our insight in the processes leading to increased emotional exhaustion and suggest that employees can protect themselves from emotional exhaustion by keeping a tab on technology-assisted supplemental work and facilitating recovery experiences.

Keywords: emotional exhaustion, India, microfinance institutions (MFIs), work-home interference

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
353 Experimental Damping Performance of Composite Materials with Different Fibre Orientations

Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu

Abstract:

A clamped-free vibrating beam technique was used to evaluate dynamic properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite. In the experiment, an electromagnetic shaker and a non-contact laser head were used to vibrate and to take the response of the specimens, respectively. Test results showed that damping and elastic modulus of the material, as dynamic properties, could be obtained successfully using this technique. It was found that the balanced and symmetric specimens with 45 degrees are the best for damping performance. It is believed that such results could be used for the modal design of aerospace structures.

Keywords: composite materials, damping values, dynamic properties, non-contact measurements

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
352 Second Order Statistics of Dynamic Response of Structures Using Gamma Distributed Damping Parameters

Authors: Badreddine Chemali, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

This article presents the main results of a numerical investigation on the uncertainty of dynamic response of structures with statistically correlated random damping Gamma distributed. A computational method based on a Linear Statistical Model (LSM) is implemented to predict second order statistics for the response of a typical industrial building structure. The significance of random damping with correlated parameters and its implications on the sensitivity of structural peak response in the neighborhood of a resonant frequency are discussed in light of considerable ranges of damping uncertainties and correlation coefficients. The results are compared to those generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The numerical results obtained show the importance of damping uncertainty and statistical correlation of damping coefficients when obtaining accurate probabilistic estimates of dynamic response of structures. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the LSM model to efficiently predict uncertainty propagation for structural dynamic problems with correlated damping parameters is demonstrated.

Keywords: correlated random damping, linear statistical model, Monte Carlo simulation, uncertainty of dynamic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
351 Chaotic Motion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Subject to Damping Effect

Authors: Tai-Ping Chang

Abstract:

In the present study, the effects on chaotic motion of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) due to the linear and nonlinear damping are investigated. By using the Hamilton’s principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a matrix is derived. The Galerkin’s method is adopted to simplify the integro-partial differential equation into a nonlinear dimensionless governing equation for the SWCNT, which turns out to be a forced Duffing equation. The variations of the Lyapunov exponents of the SWCNT with damping and harmonic forcing amplitudes are investigated. Based on the computations of the top Lyapunov exponent, it is concluded that the chaotic motion of the SWCNT occurs when the amplitude of the periodic excitation exceeds certain value, besides, the chaotic motion of the SWCNT occurs with small linear damping and tiny nonlinear damping.

Keywords: chaotic motion, damping, Lyapunov exponents, single-walled carbon nanotube

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
350 Simplified Analysis on Steel Frame Infill with FRP Composite Panel

Authors: HyunSu Seo, HoYoung Son, Sungjin Kim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

In order to understand the seismic behavior of steel frame structure with infill FRP composite panel, simple models for simulation on the steel frame with the panel systems were developed in this study. To achieve the simple design method of the steel framed structure with the damping panel system, 2-D finite element analysis with the springs and dashpots models was conducted in ABAQUS. Under various applied spring stiffness and dashpot coefficient, the expected hysteretic energy responses of the steel frame with damping panel systems we re investigated. Using the proposed simple design method which decides the stiffness and the damping, it is possible to decide the FRP and damping materials on a steel frame system.

Keywords: numerical analysis, FEM, infill, GFRP, damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
349 Characteristics Influencing Response of a Base Isolated Building

Authors: Ounis Hadj Mohamed, Ounis Abdelhafid

Abstract:

In order to illustrate the effect of damping on the response of a base-isolated building, a parametric study is led, taking into account the progressive variation of the damping ratio (10% to 30%) under different types of seismic excitations (near and far field). A time history analysis is used to determine the response of the structure in terms of relative displacement and understory drift at various levels of the building. Thus, the results show that the efficiency of the isolator increases with the assumed damping ratio, provided that this latter is less or equal to 20%. Beyond this value, the isolator becomes less convenient. Furthermore, a strong deviation of energy capacity by the LRB (Lead Rubber Bearing) system is recorded.

Keywords: damping, base isolation, LRB, seismic excitation, hysteresis

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
348 Vibration Control of Two Adjacent Structures Using a Non-Linear Damping System

Authors: Soltani Amir, Wang Xuan

Abstract:

The advantage of using non-linear passive damping system in vibration control of two adjacent structures is investigated under their base excitation. The base excitation is El Centro earthquake record acceleration. The damping system is considered as an optimum and effective non-linear viscous damper that is connected between two adjacent structures. A Matlab program is developed to produce the stiffness and damping matrices and to determine a time history analysis of the dynamic motion of the system. One structure is assumed to be flexible while the other has a rule as laterally supporting structure with rigid frames. The response of the structure has been calculated and the non-linear damping coefficient is determined using optimum LQR algorithm in an optimum vibration control system. The non-linear parameter of damping system is estimated and it has shown a significant advantage of application of this system device for vibration control of two adjacent tall building.

Keywords: active control, passive control, viscous dampers, structural control, vibration control, tall building

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
347 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin

Abstract:

In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: oscillating systems, angular frequency and damping ratio, pendulum at fluid, locus of maximum

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
346 Optimization of Passive Vibration Damping of Space Structures

Authors: Emad Askar, Eldesoky Elsoaly, Mohamed Kamel, Hisham Kamel

Abstract:

The objective of this article is to improve the passive vibration damping of solar array (SA) used in space structures, by the effective application of numerical optimization. A case study of a SA is used for demonstration. A finite element (FE) model was created and verified by experimental testing. Optimization was then conducted by implementing the FE model with the genetic algorithm, to find the optimal placement of aluminum circular patches, to suppress the first two bending mode shapes. The results were verified using experimental testing. Finally, a parametric study was conducted using the FE model where patch locations, material type, and shape were varied one at a time, and the results were compared with the optimal ones. The results clearly show that through the proper application of FE modeling and numerical optimization, passive vibration damping of space structures has been successfully achieved.

Keywords: damping optimization, genetic algorithm optimization, passive vibration damping, solar array vibration damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
345 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, M. Sasajima, C. Yuan, S. Maruyama, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita

Abstract:

This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: dynamic response, nonlinear impact response, finite element analysis, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
344 Simulation of Particle Damping in Boring Tool Using Combined Particles

Authors: S. Chockalingam, U. Natarajan, D. M. Santhoshsarang

Abstract:

Particle damping is a promising vibration attenuating technique in boring tool than other type of damping with minimal effect on the strength, rigidity and stiffness ratio of the machine tool structure. Due to the cantilever nature of boring tool holder in operations, it suffers chatter when the slenderness ratio of the tool gets increased. In this study, Copper-Stainless steel (SS) particles were packed inside the boring tool which acts as a damper. Damper suppresses chatter generated during machining and also improves the machining efficiency of the tool with better slenderness ratio. In the first approach of particle damping, combined Cu-SS particles were packed inside the vibrating tool, whereas Copper and Stainless steel particles were selected separately and packed inside another tool and their effectiveness was analysed in this simulation. This study reveals that the efficiency of finite element simulation of the boring tools when equipped with particles such as copper, stainless steel and a combination of both. In this study, the newly modified boring tool holder with particle damping was simulated using ANSYS12.0 with and without particles. The aim of this study is to enhance the structural rigidity through particle damping thus avoiding the occurrence of resonance in the boring tool during machining.

Keywords: boring bar, copper-stainless steel, chatter, particle damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
343 Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.

Keywords: high-speed railway vehicle, hunting motion, wheel axle, damping, creep, vibration model, analysis.

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
342 Drastic Increase of Wave Dissipation within Metastructures Having Negative Stiffness Inclusions

Authors: D. Chronopoulos, I. Antoniadis, V. Spitas, D. Koulocheris, V. Polenta

Abstract:

A concept of a simple linear oscillator, incorporating a negative stiffness element is demonstrated to exhibit extraordinary damping properties. This oscillator shares the same overall (static) stiffness, the same mass and the same damping element with a reference classical linear SDOF oscillator. However, it differs from the original SDOF oscillator by appropriately redistributing the component spring stiffness elements and by re-allocating the damping element. Despite the fact that the proposed oscillator incorporates a negative stiffness element, it is designed to be both statically and dynamically stable. Once such an oscillator is optimally designed, it is shown to exhibit an extraordinary apparent damping ratio, which is even several orders of magnitude higher than that of the original SDOF system, especially in cases where the original damping of the SDOF system is low. This damping behavior is not a result of a novel additional extraordinary energy dissipation mechanism, but a result of the phase difference between the positive and the negative stiffness elastic forces, which is in turn a consequence of the proper re-distribution of the stiffness and the damper elements. This fact ensures that an adequate level of elastic forces exists throughout the entire frequency range, able to counteract the inertial and the excitation forces. Next, Acoustic or Phononic Meta-materials are considered, in which one atom is replaced by the concept of the above simple linear oscillator. The results indicate that not only the damping of the meta-material verifies and exceeds the one expected from the so-called "meta-damping" behavior, but also that the band gap of the meta-material can be significantly increased.

Keywords: wave propagation, periodic structures, wave damping, mechanical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
341 The Effect of Damping Treatment for Noise Control on Offshore Platforms Using Statistical Energy Analysis

Authors: Ji Xi, Cheng Song Chin, Ehsan Mesbahi

Abstract:

Structure-borne noise is an important aspect of offshore platform sound field. It can be generated either directly by vibrating machineries induced mechanical force, indirectly by the excitation of structure or excitation by incident airborne noise. Therefore, limiting of the transmission of vibration energy throughout the offshore platform is the key to control the structure-borne noise. This is usually done by introducing damping treatment to the steel structures. Two types of damping treatment using on-board are presented. By conducting a statistical energy analysis (SEA) simulation on a jack-up rig, the noise level in the source room, the neighboring rooms, and remote living quarter cabins are compared before and after the damping treatments been applied. The results demonstrated that, in the source neighboring room and living quarter area, there is a significant noise reduction with the damping treatment applied, whereas in the source room where air-borne sound predominates that of structure-borne sound, the impact is not obvious. The subsequent optimization design of damping treatment in the offshore platform can be made which enable acoustic professionals to implement noise control during the design stage for offshore crews’ hearing protection and habitant comfortability.

Keywords: statistical energy analysis, damping treatment, noise control, offshore platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
340 Response of Vibration and Damping System of UV Irradiated Renewable Biopolymer

Authors: Anika Zafiah M. Rus, Nik Normunira Mat Hassan

Abstract:

Biopolymer made from renewable material are one of the most important group of polymer because of their versatility and they can be manufactured in a wide range of densities and stiffness. In this project, biopolymer based on waste vegetable oil were synthesized and crosslink with commercial polymethane polyphenyl isocyanate (known as BF).The BF was compressed by using hot compression moulding technique at 90 oC based on the evaporation of volatile matter and known as compress biopolymer (CB). The density, vibration and damping characteristic of CB were determined after UV irradiation. Treatment with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was found to affect the physical property of compress biopolymer composite (CBC). The density of CBC samples was steadily increased with an increase of UV irradiation time and TiO2 loading. The highest density of CBC samples is at 10 % of TiO2 loading of 1.1088 g/cm3 due to the amount of filler loading. The vibration and damping characteristic of CBC samples was generated at displacements of 1 mm and 1.5 mm and acceleration of 0.1 G and 0.15 G base excitation according to ASTM D3580-9. It was revealed that, the vibration and damping characteristic of CBC samples is significantly increased with the increasing of UV irradiation time, lowest thickness and percentages of TiO2 loading at the frequency range of 15 - 25 Hz. Therefore, this study indicated that the damping property of CBC could be improved upon prolonged exposure to UV irradiation.

Keywords: biopolymer flexible foam, TGA, UV irradiation, vibration and damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
339 Optimum Parameter of a Viscous Damper for Seismic and Wind Vibration

Authors: Soltani Amir, Hu Jiaxin

Abstract:

Determination of optimal parameters of a passive control system device is the primary objective of this study. Expanding upon the use of control devices in wind and earthquake hazard reduction has led to development of various control systems. The advantage of non-linearity characteristics in a passive control device and the optimal control method using LQR algorithm are explained in this study. Finally, this paper introduces a simple approach to determine optimum parameters of a nonlinear viscous damper for vibration control of structures. A MATLAB program is used to produce the dynamic motion of the structure considering the stiffness matrix of the SDOF frame and the non-linear damping effect. This study concluded that the proposed system (variable damping system) has better performance in system response control than a linear damping system. Also, according to the energy dissipation graph, the total energy loss is greater in non-linear damping system than other systems.

Keywords: passive control system, damping devices, viscous dampers, control algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
338 A Multiobjective Damping Function for Coordinated Control of Power System Stabilizer and Power Oscillation Damping

Authors: Jose D. Herrera, Mario A. Rios

Abstract:

This paper deals with the coordinated tuning of the Power System Stabilizer (PSS) controller and Power Oscillation Damping (POD) Controller of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) in a multi-machine power systems. The coordinated tuning is based on the critical eigenvalues of the power system and a model reduction technique where the Hankel Singular Value method is applied. Through the linearized system model and the parameter-constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm, it can compute the parameters of both controllers. Moreover, the parameters are optimized simultaneously obtaining the gains of both controllers. Then, the nonlinear simulation to observe the time response of the controller is performed.

Keywords: electromechanical oscillations, power system stabilizers, power oscillation damping, hankel singular values

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
337 The Effect of Mathematical Modeling of Damping on the Seismic Energy Demands

Authors: Selamawit Dires, Solomon Tesfamariam, Thomas Tannert

Abstract:

Modern earthquake engineering and design encompass performance-based design philosophy. The main objective in performance-based design is to achieve a system performing precisely to meet the design objectives so to reduce unintended seismic risks and associated losses. Energy-based earthquake-resistant design is one of the design methodologies that can be implemented in performance-based earthquake engineering. In energy-based design, the seismic demand is usually described as the ratio of the hysteretic to input energy. Once the hysteretic energy is known as a percentage of the input energy, it is distributed among energy-dissipating components of a structure. The hysteretic to input energy ratio is highly dependent on the inherent damping of a structural system. In numerical analysis, damping can be modeled as stiffness-proportional, mass-proportional, or a linear combination of stiffness and mass. In this study, the effect of mathematical modeling of damping on the estimation of seismic energy demands is investigated by considering elastic-perfectly-plastic single-degree-of-freedom systems representing short to long period structures. Furthermore, the seismicity of Vancouver, Canada, is used in the nonlinear time history analysis. According to the preliminary results, the input energy demand is not sensitive to the type of damping models deployed. Hence, consistent results are achieved regardless of the damping models utilized in the numerical analyses. On the other hand, the hysteretic to input energy ratios vary significantly for the different damping models.

Keywords: damping, energy-based seismic design, hysteretic energy, input energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
336 Estimation of Hysteretic Damping in Steel Dual Systems with Buckling Restrained Brace and Moment Resisting Frame

Authors: Seyed Saeid Tabaee, Omid Bahar

Abstract:

Nowadays, using energy dissipation devices has been commonly used in structures. A high rate of energy absorption during earthquakes is the benefit of using such devices, which results in damage reduction of structural elements specifically columns. The hysteretic damping capacity of energy dissipation devices is the key point that it may adversely complicate analysis and design of such structures. This effect may be generally represented by equivalent viscous damping. The equivalent viscous damping may be obtained from the expected hysteretic behavior under the design or maximum considered displacement of a structure. In this paper, the hysteretic damping coefficient of a steel moment resisting frame (MRF), which its performance is enhanced by a buckling restrained brace (BRB) system has been evaluated. Having the foresight of damping fraction between BRB and MRF is inevitable for seismic design procedures like Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) method. This paper presents an approach to calculate the damping fraction for such systems by carrying out the dynamic nonlinear time history analysis (NTHA) under harmonic loading, which is tuned to the natural frequency of the system. Two steel moment frame structures, one equipped with BRB, and the other without BRB are simultaneously studied. The extensive analysis shows that proportion of each system damping fraction may be calculated by its shear story portion. In this way, the contribution of each BRB in the floors and their general contribution in the structural performance may be clearly recognized, in advance.

Keywords: buckling restrained brace, direct displacement based design, dual systems, hysteretic damping, moment resisting frames

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
335 Assessment Power and Oscillation Damping Using the POD Controller and Proposed FOD Controller

Authors: Tohid Rahimi, Yahya Naderi, Babak Yousefi, Seyed Hossein Hoseini

Abstract:

Today’s modern interconnected power system is highly complex in nature. In this, one of the most important requirements during the operation of the electric power system is the reliability and security. Power and frequency oscillation damping mechanism improve the reliability. Because of power system stabilizer (PSS) low speed response against of major fault such as three phase short circuit, FACTs devise that can control the network condition in very fast time, are becoming popular. However, FACTs capability can be seen in a major fault present when nonlinear models of FACTs devise and power system equipment are applied. To realize this aim, the model of multi-machine power system with FACTs controller is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using Sim Power System (SPS) blockiest. Among the FACTs device, Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) due to high speed changes its reactance characteristic inductive to capacitive, is effective power flow controller. Tuning process of controller parameter can be performed using different method. However, Genetic Algorithm (GA) ability tends to use it in controller parameter tuning process. In this paper, firstly POD controller is used to power oscillation damping. But in this station, frequency oscillation dos not has proper damping situation. Therefore, FOD controller that is tuned using GA is using that cause to damp out frequency oscillation properly and power oscillation damping has suitable situation.

Keywords: power oscillation damping (POD), frequency oscillation damping (FOD), Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), Genetic Algorithm (GA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
334 Reclaimed Tire and Carbon Black Mixture Effect on Mechanical Properties of Rubber Blends SBR/NR/BRcis Uses as Damping Materials

Authors: Samir Hassan AL-Nesrawy, Mohammed Al-Maamori, A. S. Hassani

Abstract:

Rebound resilience for various elastomeric composites has been measured by Tripsometer devise, in order to investigate the effect of mix of C.B & Reclaim loading on elastomeric materials to absorb or damping vibration or shocks by fenders uses in the Iraqi berths. After having been certain about attaining the physical and mechanical properties of the new samples which are similar to the levels of their standard ones, damping properties for the new samples have been measured and compared with those of the standard fenders. The new samples included four rubber blends from (SBR/NR/BR-cis) and four loading levels of mix carbon black (type N-375) and reclaim to become sixteen compound contain SBR(100,60,60,60), NR(0,10,20,30), BRcis(30,20,10,0) and loading level for C.B, Reclaim (10,20,30,40). Damping measurements have been carried out by the method Free Vibration Resilience Pendulum method (by using Wallace R2-Dunlop Tripsometer) and from this Resilience Pendulum method, both the resilience percentage value (R%) and time decay (t0) have been measured at 50oC. We found that the results of this method proved that the increment of C.B, Reclaim level in these robber composite lead to decreasing the resiliency (R%) and damping time.

Keywords: damping materials, carbon black mixture effect, mechanical properties, rubber blends SBR/NR/BRcis

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
333 Estimation of Dynamic Characteristics of a Middle Rise Steel Reinforced Concrete Building Using Long-Term

Authors: Fumiya Sugino, Naohiro Nakamura, Yuji Miyazu

Abstract:

In earthquake resistant design of buildings, evaluation of vibration characteristics is important. In recent years, due to the increment of super high-rise buildings, the evaluation of response is important for not only the first mode but also higher modes. The knowledge of vibration characteristics in buildings is mostly limited to the first mode and the knowledge of higher modes is still insufficient. In this paper, using earthquake observation records of a SRC building by applying frequency filter to ARX model, characteristics of first and second modes were studied. First, we studied the change of the eigen frequency and the damping ratio during the 3.11 earthquake. The eigen frequency gradually decreases from the time of earthquake occurrence, and it is almost stable after about 150 seconds have passed. At this time, the decreasing rates of the 1st and 2nd eigen frequencies are both about 0.7. Although the damping ratio has more large error than the eigen frequency, both the 1st and 2nd damping ratio are 3 to 5%. Also, there is a strong correlation between the 1st and 2nd eigen frequency, and the regression line is y=3.17x. In the damping ratio, the regression line is y=0.90x. Therefore 1st and 2nd damping ratios are approximately the same degree. Next, we study the eigen frequency and damping ratio from 1998 after 3.11 earthquakes, the final year is 2014. In all the considered earthquakes, they are connected in order of occurrence respectively. The eigen frequency slowly declined from immediately after completion, and tend to stabilize after several years. Although it has declined greatly after the 3.11 earthquake. Both the decresing rate of the 1st and 2nd eigen frequencies until about 7 years later are about 0.8. For the damping ratio, both the 1st and 2nd are about 1 to 6%. After the 3.11 earthquake, the 1st increases by about 1% and the 2nd increases by less than 1%. For the eigen frequency, there is a strong correlation between the 1st and 2nd, and the regression line is y=3.17x. For the damping ratio, the regression line is y=1.01x. Therefore, it can be said that the 1st and 2nd damping ratio is approximately the same degree. Based on the above results, changes in eigen frequency and damping ratio are summarized as follows. In the long-term study of the eigen frequency, both the 1st and 2nd gradually declined from immediately after completion, and tended to stabilize after a few years. Further it declined after the 3.11 earthquake. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the 1st and 2nd, and the declining time and the decreasing rate are the same degree. In the long-term study of the damping ratio, both the 1st and 2nd are about 1 to 6%. After the 3.11 earthquake, the 1st increases by about 1%, the 2nd increases by less than 1%. Also, the 1st and 2nd are approximately the same degree.

Keywords: eigenfrequency, damping ratio, ARX model, earthquake observation records

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
332 Analysis of Thermal Damping in Si Based Torsional Micromirrors

Authors: R. Resmi, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

The thermal damping of a dynamic vibrating micromirror is an important factor affecting the design of MEMS based actuator systems. In the development process of new micromirror systems, assessing the extent of energy loss due to thermal damping accurately and predicting the performance of the system is very essential. In this paper, the depth of the thermal penetration layer at different eigenfrequencies and the temperature variation distributions surrounding a vibrating micromirror is analyzed. The thermal penetration depth corresponds to the thermal boundary layer in which energy is lost which is a measure of the thermal damping is found out. The energy is mainly dissipated in the thermal boundary layer and thickness of the layer is an important parameter. The detailed thermoacoustics is used to model the air domain surrounding the micromirror. The thickness of the boundary layer, temperature variations and thermal power dissipation are analyzed for a Si based torsional mode micromirror. It is found that thermal penetration depth decreases with eigenfrequency and hence operating the micromirror at higher frequencies is essential for reducing thermal damping. The temperature variations and thermal power dissipations at different eigenfrequencies are also analyzed. Both frequency-response and eigenfrequency analyses are done using COMSOL Multiphysics software.

Keywords: Eigen frequency analysis, micromirrors, thermal damping, thermoacoustic interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 277